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BRITISH MU9EUM ADD. MSS.. IB, 861 1500 A.O. 

JXD E/OXEL ri/lE/.'T, A.O.D.r. 




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being the TRANSACTIONS of the 



QtROA. looo A.D. 


Proceedings, 7th January, 1927 

Audit Committee 

Exhibits ... 

Masonic Song and Verse of the 

Eighteenth Century ... 

Masonic Personalia, 1723-39... 



PART 1. 




Proceedings, 4th March, 1927 
Exhibits ... ... ...» 




Cagliostro in Eastern Europe 
Review ... 




Notes and Queries 
Obituary ... 

... " 86 


was warranted on the 28th November, 1884, in order 

1. — To provide a centre and bond of union for Ma sonic Students. 
' 2.— To attract intelligent Masons to its meetings, in order to imbue them with a love for Masonic research. 

3. — To submit the discoveries or conclusions of students to the judgment and criticism of their fellows by 
'means of papers read in Lodge. 

4. — To submit these communications and the discussions arising therefrom to the general body of the Craft by 
publishing, at proper intervals, the Transactions of thq Lodge in their entirety. 

5. — To tabulate concisely, in the printed Transactions of the Lodge, the progress of the Craft throughout the 

6.— To make the English-speaking Craft acquainted with the progress of Masonic study abroad, by translations 
(in whole or part) of foreign works. 

7. — To reprint scarce and valuable works on Freemasonry, and to publish Manuscripts, &c. 

8. — To. form a Masonic Library and Museum. 

9. — To acquire permanent London premises, and open a reading-room for the members. 

The membership is limited to forty, in order to prevent the Lodge from beconiing unwieldy. 

No members are admitted without a high literary, artistic, or scientific qualification. 

The annual subscription is one guinea, and the fees for initiation and joining are twenty guineas and five 
guineas respectively. 

The funds are wholly devoted to Lodge and literary purposes, and no portion is spent in refreshment. The 
members usually dine together after the meetings, but at their own individual cost. Visitors, who are cordially 
■welcome, enjoy' the option of partaking— on the same terms — of a meal at the common table. 

The stated meetings are the first Friday in January, March, May, and October, St. John's Day (in Harvest), 
and the 8th November (Feast of the Quatuor Coronati). 

At every meeting an original paper is read, which is followed by .a discussion. 

The Transactions of the Lodge, Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, are published towards the end of April, July, 
and December in each year. They contain a summary of the business of the Lodge, the full test of the papers read 
in Lodge together with the discussions, many essays communicated by the brethren but for which no time can he 
found at the meetings, biographies, historical notes, reviews of Masonic publications, notes and queries, obituary, 
and other matter. They are profusely illustrated and handsomely printed. 

The Antiquarian Reprints of the Lodge, Quatuor Goronatprum Antigrapha, appear at undefined intervals, 
and consist of facsimiles of documents of Masonic interest with commentaries or introductions by brothers well informed 
on the subjects treated of. ' - 

The Library has now been arranged at No. 27, Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, where Members 
of both Circles may consult the books on application to the Secretary. . ■ 

To the Lodge is attached an outer or 


This was inaugurated in January, 1887, and now numbers about 3500 members, comprising many of the most 
distinguished brethren of the Craft, such as Masonic Students and Writers, Grand Masters, Grand Secretaries, and 
nearly 300 Grand Lodges, Supreme Councils, Private Lodges, Libraries and other corporate bodies. 

' The members of our Correspondence Circle are placed on the following footing : — • 

1. — The summonses convoking the meeting are posted to them regularly. They are entitled to attend all the 
meetings of the Lodge whenever convenient to themselves, but, Unlike the members of the Inner Circle, their attendance 
is not even morally obligatory. When present they are entitled to take part in the discussions on the papers read before 
the Lodge, and to introduce their personal friends. They are not visitors at our Lodge meetings, but rather associates 
of the Lodge. 

a. — The printed Transactions of the Lodge are posted to them as issued. 

3. — They are, equally with the full members, entitled to subscribe for the other publications of the Lodge, such 
as those mentioned under No. 7 above. ' 

4.— Papers from Correspondence Members are gratefully accepted, and as far as possible, recorded in the 

5. — They are accorded free admittance to our Library and Reading Rooms. 

A Candidate for Membership in the Correspondence Circle is subject to no literary, artistic, or scientific 
qualification. His election takes place at the Lodge-meeting following the receipt of his application. 

Brethren elected to the Correspondence Circle- pay a joining fee of twenty-one shillings, which includes the 
subscription to the following 30th November. 

The annual subscription is only half-a-guinea (10s. Gd.), and is renewable each December for the following year. 
Brethren joining us late in the year suffer no disadvantage, as they receive all the Transactions previously issued in 
the same year. 

It will thus be seen that for only half the annual subscription* the members of the Correspondence Circle 
enjoy all the advantages of the full members, except the right of voting in Lodge matters and holding office. 

Members of both Circles are requested to favour the Secretary with communications to be read in Lodge and 
subsequently printed. Members of foreign jurisdictions will, we trust, keep us posted from time to time in the current 
Masonic history of their districts. Foreign members can render still further assistance by furnishing us at intervals 
with the names of new Masonic Works published abroad, together with any printed reviews of such publications. 

Members should also bear in mind that every additional member increases our power of * doing good by 
publishing matter of interest to them. Those, therefore, who have already experienced the advantage of association 
with us, are urged to advocate our cause to their personal friends, and to induce them to join us. Were each 
member annually to send us one new member, we should soon be in a position to offer them many more advantages 
than we already provide. Those who can help us in no other way, can do so in this. 

Every. Master Mason in g«?od standing throughout the Universe, and all Lodges, Chapers, and Masonic 
Libraries or other corporate bodies are eligible as Members of the Correspondence Circle. 

LIFE MEMBERSHIP. — By the payment- in one sum of Twelve years' Subscription in advance, i.e,, six guineas, 
individual Brethren may qualify as Life Members of the Correspondence Circle. Corporate Bodies may qualify as 
Life "Members by a similar payment of Twenty-five years' Subscription. Expulsion, from the Craft naturally entails 
a forfeiture of Membership in the Correspondence Circle, and the Lodge also reserves to itself the full power of 
excluding any Correspondence Member whom it may deem to be Masonically (or otherwise) unworthy of continued 

<f d>t>1/- f£<rt44**U^ 




Friday, 7t li January, L927 

Friday, 4th .Mareh, 1927 

Friday, Oth. .May, 1927 

Friday, 24th June, 1927. St. John's Day in Harvest 

Thursday, 21st July, to Sunday . 24th July. 1927. Summer On'.ii: 

Friday. 7th Oetoher. 1927 ... 
fuesdav, Stli November. .1927. Festival of the V.nw Crowned .Mail;. 


2. VI 


Masonic News in Dublin Newspapers. \t 2S 
I'lie Seven .Fiberal Aids and Seienees ... 
Thomas Dunekerley 

Henry Redman. .Master Mai en, deeratiw ! ree;:i;.;-nn 
Or. Desaguliers 
Thomas A Heirs House 
liro. James Faurie and his Sen;j; 
A Craftsman of lolO 
Heurv Yevele, Stephen Tote. Waker \ v 


20 s 


Adair, Frne-d. William 
Anthony, AH>ert Fee 
Armstrong, Thomas .John 
Ashman, Cerald Collins 
Hanker, Stewart .Melville 
Siatty, James 
Fennett, Ceorye J. 
^lizard, John H. 
Jiooeoek, John Headon 
Brindley. Charles Frederiek 
.Frown, Thomas 
Ca Mender. Cleorpe Dayrell 
Chant, Thomas Wliitemore 
('leghorn, Oeni'^i! Ramsay 
Cossens. Gilbert Thomas 
Harrington. Thomas 
Day, Edward Harry 
Doughty, Frederiek Holmes 
.Donidas de Fenzi. C. W. 1\ 
Draper, Alfred 
.Drysdale. Alfred T. 
Fdehells, Ernest Fiander 
Ewhank, Tier. Thomas ('.'ran 
Frewer, Her. 0. Herbert 
Gates. Alfred 

Cedgc. J)r. Donald .YFcCnIk 
Gillott. Arthur G. .M . 


















Tahic of' L' on' cut a. 

OBITUARY .-Continued. 

Greenland. Herbert William 

Hall, Francis George 

Halsey. The 1'it/ltt Hun. Sir Thomas Frederic 

Hoffman, Gen Joel 

Holloway, Ernest C. II. 

Holloway, George 

Holt, Walter 

Houlden, John William 

Howard, Emmett 

Isler, Cauiille 

Jackson, George 

Johnson, Harold Xieols 

Keith, John Aleiggs 

Xing, Herbert 

Knight. Hugh Frederic Parker 

Laveriek. Martin 

le Neve Poster, Tamest 

Lovegrove, Henry 

.Mack-ay, Adam ]\luir 

Marion, James Thomas 

-Mayell, Herhert. Young 

;\Ieek, James M. 

Middleton. Harry 3Jartin 

-Murphy, John Joseph Lloyd 

Newark. Charles Curt 

Oliver, William Davison 

Packer, George H. 

Pollard. Joseph 

Richardson, William 

Rogers. William 

Ro!, Walter Herbert, O.U.E. 

Rowlands. ]'rr. William Henry 

Salwey, Theophilus John 

Scott. Walter 

Suiitli. Charles 

Spencer. Arnold MoTurk. J.R 

Swan.ston, Douglas 

Taylor. Pol ton Dan 

Thomas.. Alfred James 

Thomas. William Kingdon 

Vernon lnkpen. Charles George. F.S.I. 

Walton, John George 

Warren, Lieut .-(.en. Sir Onirics, C.C.M (,'., A'.C 

\\ ieselgren. Ragnar 

Williams, Albert Foster 

Vonle. J)a.vid Xorrie 














Masonic Song and Verss of ths Eighteenth Century. Jjy /,v r . |f. 

Early indications of rliymes and music, 7: The Anagram in (he 
York MSS.. S ; Anderson and Chetwood, S; Promner's reference to 
the King. <) ; The Tims. Carmiok Verse of 1727, 9; The Fellow- 
Craft's Song, 10; References to women and politics being excluded, 
11; Convivial references, 12; Hints as to Lodge nractice, Li: 

Tabic of Coitfc/ifx. v. 



" Advance, each true Brother," 14; Anti-Masonic allusions, 15; 

Prologues. 16; Hale's Social Ifarmoiiu, 17; A Masonic Catch, 17. 

Appendix. 18. Comments by W. \Y. Covey-Crump, -4; Cilbert 

W. Daynes. 2.1; B. Telepneff, 28. Heply by H. Poole, 28. 

Masonic Personalia; a comparison of all the names occurring in the first 
two .Minute Pooks of the Grand Ledge between 1724 and 17.48. as 
reprinted in (LCI., x., with references to them in the D.N. 13. 
and other sources. 

Pan I. ... ... ... ... ... .41 

Part II. ... ... ... ... ... 120 

Part III. ... ... ... ... ... 2-4(1 

Cagliostro in Eastern Europe (Courland, Russia & Poland). Py Pro. 

.13. ivanoff ... ... ... ... ... 4o 

'The personality of Cagliostro and his connection with Freemasonry. 
45; Opinions concerning bis Nationality and social standing. 46: 
His alleged identity villi Paisanio, 47; His initiation into 
Masonry, 48; The actual facts obscure. 48; His Egypt-ion Rite. 
48; His personal appearance, 50; Cagliostro m Com land, ol ; 
Memories of Madame von dcr Recke, 51 ; Demonstrations of 
clairvoyance, 52; A Podge of Adoption founded at Mittau. 52; 
Chemical experiments and magic, 5-4; The bidden treasure at 
Wilzen, 56; Disillusionment and exposure, 58; He goes to St. 
Petersburg. GO; Paron Heyking's account of him. (50 ; Pretended 
healing powers, 63; Departure from St. Petersburg, 65; In 
Warsaw, 65 ; Further exposures, 67 ; Effects of his visit on 
Freemasonry in Eastern Europe, 68 ; The Empress Catherine and 
her hostility to the Craft, 69; She decrees its suppression. 70. 
Appendix A. : Extracts from documents, 71. Appendix 13. : 
Pibliography, 7,4. Comments by 14. C. dc La Continue, 75; 
13. Telepneff, 78. Reply by 15. Ivanoff, 79. 

Some Mid-Eighteenth Century French Manuscripts. 13y X. S. H. 

Sitwell ... ... ... ... ... ... Ul 

I'lirfditc 1'iiimi. of St. Pierre de Martinique, 91; Petition for 
Constitution in 1774, 5)2; St. Eereol. Marseilles, warrants issued 
to Lodges at Toulon and Martinique, 9,4; 1'in'aiii- Jlantwiiie , New 
Orleans. warrant, confirmatory charter, Py-Laws, 95 ; The 
By-Laws discussed. 99; Appendix, full text and translations of 
documents.. 101. Comments by \Y. AY. Covey-Crumn, 121; P. 
Telepneff, 122; (I. W. Pullamore, 124. Reply by N. S. 11. 
Sitwell. 124. 

The Travelling Masons and Cathedral Builders. Py J. Walter Hohbs 14(i 

Travelling Masons, 140; Aubrey's statement. 141; The Cathedral 
Builders legend, 141 ; The Anglo-Saxon period, 142; The Conquest 
period and later, 14.4; The iiupcrtation of foreign masons. 144; 
The adoption of local material as the great dividing line, 145: 
Effect of the I31ack Death, 145; Earlv Statutes of Labourers. 146; 
Classes of masons and employers, 146; Retention of workers, nro- 
vision <rf continuous employment . 147; Master Ma-sons. 147; Task 
or piece-work, 1 17: Travel in search of work, 1,48; Ownership ol' 
Properties, MS; And preferments. 149; Employment under same 

VJ - T ablv of Content*. 


employer at different places, ].',{)■ Castles and military works, ].)1 : 
Provision and transport o!' materials. lo2; Areas of intliience. lo-'J; 
Other emits involved. lo4; Quantity ol' work carried out cs u- 
temporaneously, loo;. Conclusions, lo". Comments by \\ . V,'. 
Covey-Crump, lo7; J. Heron Lepper. 1 o9 ; ('. F. Sykos. ICC: 
!!. Poole. i(i2; W. J. Williams, 163; Geo. W. Bullamoro, 105; 
Gilbert \Y. Dayncs. loo. 

Oddfellowship. Hy Cut. F. M. Richard 

The Society of Oddfellows. I To ; lis traditional origin. 1 To : 
JJenetit Societies in existence from Time Immemorial, 1 7(j : The 
work of the guilds, ITT; The Clubs of tlie Eighteenth Century. 
ITT; Friendly Societies. ITS; Reference to Oddfellows Lodges in 
174o. ITS; The Development of Societies tram Clubs. 179 ; The Order 
in existence before 1748. 179; Political associations in 1779, 179; 
Rules ol the L.vyal Aristarciius Lod.ite. 1^0; Influence of Free- 
masonry. 1S1 : Decree System. 1N2 ; Its possible Sources. 1ST); 
Effect of enactments against Secret Societies, ISO; Cnions and 
Secessions. 1 S7 ; Decrees at present day. 1 SS : Colours and 
Emblems. 191 ; The Society in America, I 9o\ Comments, by 
W. AY. Covey-Crump. [<;<); W. J. AYilliaris. 197: W. 4. Hyner, 
197; C. Waiter Rippon, 19S ; R. Telopneff. 201 ; C, . W. Bullamoi e, 
201. Reply hy Col. F. Al . Rickard, 2(12. 

Summer Outing. Oxford. 

'''be GniUiiall; .Meeting at .Masonic Mall, 209; Address by W.IJm. 
A. E. Cowley. 29!); The [Ulleian, Ashmolean .Museum, and the 
Aliiert .Medal. 2()T: St. Peter in the East, the Colleges, the 
Cathedral, 29S : Dorchester, Kwelnie and Ifflc.v, 2(H: Address bv 
L. Yibert, 2I(!; Appendix. Oxford Wills, 21-1. 

The Incorporation of ths Company of Freemasons, Carpenters, Joiners, 
and Slaters, of the City of Oxford 

.Full text of Charter, 21 T; Abstract and notes. 222. 
Dutch Rose Croix Patent 

Description by Ernest E. Murray. 224; Transcript. 227; Transla- 
tion and Notes by J. E. Sliiim Tuekelt, 227. 

Inaugural Address. By Dr. George Norman 

The Toast of the W.M. By /,Vr. W. W. Covey-Crumu 


History of St. Paul's Lod^e. No. 194. By 

C. Fd.^nr Tliomas ... ... ... W. ,J . Soii^hurst. 

Art. and the Reformation. Hy G. G. Coulfon Gilbert W. Daynes 

Irish Freemasons' Calendar and Directory for 

the year 1929 ... ... ... J. Heron Leooer 


Fifty Years in the .Malta Order. By the late 

R. E. A. Land ... ... ... .Lionel Vibert 2G2 



Adoptive yyados. Catdioslro's ... ■">() 

at Mittau ... o2 

Anti-masonic inoveniem ... lo 

Audit Committee ... ... 2 

Avignon Society oi' Cod's People SO 

Baldwyn Kncanmment ... 2G7 

Baldwyn Rite ... 229 

Ballots at Bristol in 1 7:!o ... 247 

Ratavia, Renublie of ... . . 224 

Reei'steak Club ... ... 1 78 

Benefit Performances . . 2o') 

Rhmk .Death ... ... ... ^.\r ) 

Blue and Oran»e Society ... 267 
Building Materials. Provision 

and Transport ... ... fo2 

By-Laws of Ledey of I'lirinUr 

II ui :nonic ... .,. 9(j 

Cathedral Builders ... ... 1!! 

Censure el' W.M. by Lod^e ... 9S, 12-1 

Chapter, M.A.. Caledonian ... 90 

Cooiaome Masons ... . , "] , is. 

Coniniittee of Charity... ... 97 

Convocation, Masonic, in ] 7S."> ... ,|s 

Coui'hnd. Cafilir.sti'o in ... 5] 

Degrees : — 



Chevalier do I'Onenl 


Flu de Neul' 


Flu des (bonze ... 


kiln or Secret Master 



Fmrlish Master 




Crand elected Knights 



(it and Maitre d'Keosse ... 


1 Must ro .Maitre ... 


Irish Decrees 

21 ')■'■> 



Kadosh ; .';0° 



Knight of the Fast and 



Knights of Malra 



Knight of the Sword or of 




Knights l;,C. of Moredom 





Maitre Kin 



.Maitre Symboiique 


Parfait d'Keosse 


Pass'd Master ... 




Ret it Klu 


R.A. ... 



Red Cross Knight 


Red Masonrv 


Rose Creix :' IS° 


Sctitcli Knights of St. 



Seoteh Masons ... 

24 S 

Scots Decrees t . : 


Derjr^s (v.nti ii'u-tl) : - 

j Scots Master Masons Rrince R.C. ... 
Tc mplar 

[ Desaguliers' Vili 

j Devoa. Provincial C. Loduy 

Diamond Necklace. Affair of 

Dublin Newspapers 
i Dumfries No. 4 M^. ... ... 

Fowptian Rite 
| Fn.eraved List, Pine's 
i Ui>ilomie at Drury Lane, ]7'2< 

Exhibits : — 

Apioii, Hth Centurv 
Mull. Il, Eu\i, trull'; MS. 

Certificate. K.T.. Nowrv 
Hose Croix. 

Sunev F.xcwllont 
R.A.. Newrv 
Ci rtificatcs. English, 


Ft ouch, 

vai iou.s 

Collar Jewel. R.A. Fti-t 

Principal R o y a I 

Cumberland Chanter 

Collarette and dowel. 

K.T. P. 
( 'owdrav Stewards Account . 

.1 <>■) 7 
Cow I wet o iii | ra li ;1 n 

Fxp'ioati mi de la Croix 

History _ of the Oenilo- 
men's Society- ai 

devi -el ; Oval. on bine 
cdass, Fbor Dux 

Oidlellows; Rattle Axe. 
Jewels, Moey MS. 
Lectures. Paper " How 
Old ate 11)0 Odd- 
fellows:" ", Play Hills. 
Programme. Stars 
Patent of Appointment. 

Ritual. Ordre de la 

Felioite. A1S. 
Rituals. post - pnion, 

various. MS. 

Faith and Fidelity Kneainpnient 


Foresters. Ancient Order of 

Free Cbirdeueis 

Friendly Societies 



. 229 






). is 

21.4. 217 






2l id 



Gavel ... 

Gorhainhury House 

Hull of Freemasons 

Holland, Grand Scots Ledge of 

Humbug Club 

King's Master Mason ... 

Leland-Locke MS. 
Ledge of Election 

Lodges referred to : — 

Alfred. Xo. MO. Oxford ... 
( A. j). 17(59). Oxford 
All Souls, Tiverton 
Alloa ... 

Ancient French, London... 
A nglaise, Bordeaux 90, 

Antiquity, London 
Apollo University. Oxford 
Hank of England, London 
.Hear, Exeter 
Hear Inn, Bath... 
Beaufort, Bristol 
Castle Lodge of Harmony, 

Charles Warren. Kimberlev 
Ciiv of Oxford ... 
Constitution, Oxford 
Cross in the Coi nmarket, 

Crown in the Cornmarket, 

Crown Tavern, Loudon ... 
des Amis renins. Pari* ... 
des Arts. Gascona- 
des Cue urs ] »ou n is. Toulouse 
Dublin, No. 2 ... 
No. 6 ... 
No. 20 ... 

Karly Eighteenth Century 
English at Bordeaux 90. 
Fphraim, London 
Fsperancc, London 
Ft roil Observance. Roolie- 

Franeaise Flue Fenssaise. 

Francois, P>ordeaux 
French Prisoners. Si. 

Globe, London ... 
Globe Tavern Fxeter 
Great Lodge, Swaffluun ... 
J,' Ftoile Flamboyante. 

L'Unioii Parfaite, La 


Nag's Head. Bristol 
New Inn. Kxetor 
One Tun in Noble Street. 

Orange Lodge, Cork 
Oxford Arms, Ludgate 

St., London 
Peace and Harmony. 

Perseverance, San Aligned 
Pilgrim, Loudon 
Parfaite Harmonic, New 

Parfaite Union, Martinique 
Queen's Head, Bath 

20 l 














2 o:5 












. 70 




















Lodges referred to :- - 

Queen's Bangers, Toronto 
Reunion Desiree 
Royal Alpha, London 
Royal Cumberland. Bath 
Royal Jubilee. London ... 
.Royal Lodge of Friend- 
ship, Gibraltar 
Boyal Naval. Wapping ... 
.Royal Sussex of Hospit- 
ality, Bristol 
Bummer Tavern, Bristol 
Scots Lodges at Amster- 
St. Esprit, Hordeaux 
St. Eereol, Marseille 
St. John, Eustatius 
St. John's, Exeter 
St. Paul's, London 
Solomon's Temple, London 
Somerset Masters 
Stirling Ancient 
Swan. Exeter 
Thistle. Edinburgh 
Union, Exeter ... 
University, Oxford 
Vine Tavern. Tiverton 
Waloriord. No. 5 

Malta Order, a Canadian Benefit 

Manchester Unity 
Martinique. Masonry in 
Masons' Marks 
Mediieval Travelling ... 
Monastic Artist 

Mount Calvarv Fucanipment ... 
Much Wcnloek Abbey ... 

New Orleans. Masonry in 
Norman Architecture ... 

Oddfellows : 

Ceremonies ... IS7. 




Grand Bodies 

in America 

in Germany 




Similarities to Freemasonry 

Operative Freemasons 
Orange Society 
Oration. .Ramsay's 
Orator. Duties of 
Ordre du Temple 
Organization of the Mason Craft 

Palestine Exploration Fund 

Persons referred to : -- 

Abercorn, Karl "f 
Ackland, -— - 
Adair, E, \V. ... 
Adams, John 
Adamsou, Thomas 
Aihvyn. Ahlermnn 
Albemarle, Karl <>l 
Alcock. Thomas 
Alexander. Alastrr 
Alice. Durhrxs of Suffolk 



210. 201 



















1 5-1 , 

1 OS 

1 00 







1S9, 199 

ISO. 1S S 

1S2. 1SS 


]S(j, 199 

1 95 


ISO. 194 











1 00 








1 5.1 


Tahlc. of Contents, 

Persons referred to :— 

A lie in and, 


Allen, Alfred 


Allen, Vatriok ... 


Allen, Tims 


Allier, ... 


Anderson. Her. Janus IS, 





Anderson. James I). 


Andrew.. - 


Andrew. Yen. John 


Anthony, A. L. 


A(|iiai't, Tli. 


Arbutlmott, Dr. John 


Armstrong, T. J. 


Arnaud, — ■ 


Arthur, A'mw5//( 


Asburv. R. J. 


AskSII.' John 


Ashman , Gerald Collins , .. 


Ashnmle. Kiias ... 


Athol. Ilukr of ... 


. M9 

Atkinson, - - 


Auhrev. John 



Aukl, 'Robert ... 




Bacon, l.nnl 


Baernreither, J. 31. 


Baker, Thomas ... 


Balfour. Henry 


Balsamo . Joseph 


Bauekes, John ... 


Bankes, J. Ilerhert 


Banker. S. 31. ... 


Bamlvldo, ('has. \V. 


Bamphyklo. Richard \\\... 


Baraste, Antoiito 


1 5a i' nes. ■ — - ... 


Barton, (umr^e ... 


Barton, Jospin' ... 


Barton, Tims. ... 214, 



Barton. — ■ ... 


Barry. - . _ .. .... 


Baskett, John ... 


Basket;:, Thomas 


Bat a rd. - ... 


Baiard, Louis 


Bates. Thomas ... 


Bath. Tims. 


Ratlmrst, iter. Henry ... 


Battv, James 


Beeket, Arrhh/,-. 


Reekimjdiani, Charles 


Bedford, Duke of 



Belisie. ... 


Bendorp. J. C. ... 

22 S. 


Benet. Jolm 


Bennett, F. W. H. 


Bennett, George J. 


Bennett. /.Vr. R. \\ . 


Bennett. William 



Benfrer de la Rnurio 


Bentley, John 



Bentley, Michael 



Bernard, David 

1 95 

Berkeley. 3laurioo 


Berkley, 3ldes ... 


Bertie, Peregrine 


Beverley, Robert of 


Biokhnni. Ceorim 


Billion, ----- ... 


Birinus, liisl\<>)> 


Birkhead. 31. ... 


Blaekhourne. Jolm 


Blaekerbv. X. ... 


Bhickloek. Jim. 


Blaekstone. Sir Wm. 


Bladen, 31artin ... 


Persons referred to :— 

Bladon, H. 
Blake, William ... 

J^Ja neard. 

Blaney. L»nl ... 
Blesiiuitou, luirj of 
Blizard, John H. 
Baddely, Tlins. ... 
Bodley, Sir Thomas 
Bo nam. Abbe 


BooeoeW J. H. ... 
Boswell, Her. John 
Box, Riehard 
Bowen, Thomas 
Bowen, Fananuel 
Bowles, Oldtickl 


Brahrook, Sir K. 
Brabrook, K. \Y. 
Brahrook. K. W. 
Bradbury. Thomas 

UviVAz. Tims. 

Bredon, John 
Bremner, Robert 
Brice, Andrew ... 
Bri^htc. John 
Briudley. Charles V. 
Bristol. John of 
Bromley, Rotor ... 
Brooke. — ... 

Brooke.-^. - ----- 

Brouwer. Rioter 
Brown. Henry ... 
Brown, .John 
Brown. Thomas ... 
Brunetra. R. (h 

Buek. ... 

Ruekworth, Sir John 
Bullamore, G. W. 

Bunel, -- - 

Burden. H. 3V. ... 
BuiL^e, John 
Bnr^hersli, Matilda 
Burleigh. Hereuies 
Burleigh. .Richard 
Burn, J. 


Butler. Thos. ... 
By ram, John 
Bvwater. Witlnim 31. 
Cnbasse, -— - 
Ca^liostro, ('mint 
Cahon, J'. V. 
Cnllender. C. I). 
Campbell. Cuv 31. 
Campbell, John 
Cantillon. Riebard 
Carcsse. Rierre ... 
Carresse. Retor 
Carpenter, ~J,onl 
Cartel-. !h: T. 31. 
Cartier, A. R. ... 
Cartwri^ht. J. ... 
Caslon, H. A. ... 
Catherine of Russia 
Chamau. Brice ... 
Chamberlin. 3Y. 
Chambers, Boht, 
Cham ley, J. 
Chaudlew Rir!m>d 
Chant. Thomas YVhitem 
Charles Kdwar'b Princt 
Clin seld.en. William 
( 4ia tea \\\s, iron . Mur<i // ix 
Chaucer. Thomas 
Chawtmr. R. hi... 
Chersaltoun. Henry of 




124. 1('-" 





25 1 










1 17 



1 55 
. 95 
1 35 






1 ( '5 

















24 5 







2( )9 



1 lid ex. 

Persons referred to : •- 

Ciiehvood, \V, 1\. 
( hiehelo, Henry 

CJiilcott. ----- 

('liillin^wortli. Thomas ... 
Chneke, Alexander 
Chohvieh, ■ — — 

CIlOOSOIl, — ■ 

C 'homiii t zk\-. M . 

Chubb. - 
(. ibber. Colley ... 
Cibber. Theophihis 
Chile. Martin ... 
Chirk, John 
Clavel, J. Ik ... 
(leave, John 
('leghorn. 01. \\. 

Cleland, William 

( 'hmionts. Tristram . . 

(uhliani, L<,nl ... :V 

Cox. .John 


Ooleraino. Li/nl 

Collins, Riehard 

Collins. Win. 

Com fix. J. ii. ... 

( 'under, Fd wai d 

Cooper, Riehard 

Cooke, Ceorm.* ... 

Copplestotle, Riehard 

Coram. Curtain 


Cornish, Mrs. 

Corvohill. Sir Win. 

Cossens. (;. |). ... 


Conltoii. (i. C ... 
Counevilie. Raphael 
Covev-Crump, /'it. \Y. W. 













1 29 



2 k 






2. 19 


1 49 





2 of 5 


24. 121, 

190. 20(5, 

Cowley, A. E. ... 
Cox. //it. Thomas 
Coxeier. Thomas 
Coxhill. YY. T. ... 
Coxan. Thonuis ... 
Cramer. 15. 
( 'railage. Dr. 
Cranlord. Dnrl t>f 
Craven, Huron ... 
Crawford, .lames 
Crawley, YY. .7. C 

w ode 
Crossle, Philip ... 
Crowe. F. J. YY. 
Crnndalo. Riehard ol 
Cumberland. Dtrl.e <>f 
Cvnemils of W essox 
Daives, Hn«;h ... 
Dalkeith. Karl <>f 
Da I tern, Joseph 
Dalion. John ' ... 
Danoe. Ceorgo ... 
Daniel, F. C. ... 
Daniel, (ieor^e ... 


Darnley. Knrl <A 

l)arrin<j;ton, Thomas 

Dartford. Ralph ol' 

DariimU, H. 

Danherliit, J. A. 



Da vies, W. J. ... 

Davis. - - --- ... 

Dav. E. H. 

Davnes. CilUert \Y, 

21:5. 242. 










24 n 

1 8.1 


2< W 


Persons referred to : — 

de Chefdebien, Ma run is ... 4 

de Corheron, ( 7ic r. ... 02 

.Defoe, J)aniel ... ... 17(5, 197 

de Haas, P. A. ... ... 228 

Delataye, Charles ... 10 

de knlnnlaine, ]]. C. ... 7.1 

De la kande ... ... 91 

De koraino, Knrl uf ... .4, 

tie .\lntay. ,1 . 


de Tonssaiiut, 




Delait. ■ ... 


1 ( I.-. 

Delbreil, Franeois 


Delnias, J. P.' ... 


Demainhray. S. C. 





Dennis, John 


Derniott. kanrenoo 




Dosi-uliers, J. T. 







Dcsanhry. J. T. 


Devaloir, - - - 


Dow, (leoru;o 


J)i,rr|itoii, I'd/,!. 


Dix, Win. Spin ... 

2o 1 

Dixon. Alexander 


Dixson , R o'oert . . . 


Dohree. ... 


Dodd. Dr. 




Doughty, Frederick 

1 lolmes 


Douglas. (.'has. ... 


DoiiLtlas de Fenzi, C 

W. P.' 


Drake, - 


.Drake, Franeis ... 


Draper, Alfred ... 


Drew, Rn-hard H. 


.Drought. Ma/or J. 

J. '. 


Drysdale, A, T.... 


.Ducheman. John 

1 .1.1 

Dn^lale, Sir Willi 





Dtinekorlev, 4'homa 


Dun^arvan. \'i,srmi 

if ..'. 


Dnpevrat. L. 


Durbar. J. 


DnrJiam. Walter ol' 

1 .15 

Earle, Erasmus 




Iv-ton, John 


l^den. Sir I'rederic 



Kr'Uvardes. 1{ . ... 



Kdwanles, Thos. 



Kdwardes, l^erev (1 


Edwards, It. 


Edwards. Thomas 


Klkyns. Thos. ... 


Ellaeombe. - ■ 



Kllis, John 



KUiston. H. AY. 


l']lsworth\', -■ 


Kmcrv, Bait 


22; : s 

Kste.' William ... 


Ktehells. K. F. ... 


I'aistacO. Athniral J 

. 1C '.'.'. 


Evans. V.. J. 


Evans, John 


Ewbank. //r'i-. T. C 


Kaher, Jolin 


I'amyr. • — ... 


Parmer. Peier ... 


I'V-nner. Edward 


Forriero, l?erna rd 





2( !9 

Fi^i;. James 


iMlidt-l. J. (1. ,., 


Tnhlc. of Content* 


ersons referred to : — 



A Up ii. Allied 


Alien. Hatrick 


Allen, Thos. 


Allicr, -■ —- 


Anderson. Hit. Janus IS. 





Anderson. James 1). 


Andrew., - — 


Andrew, f'ni. John 


Anthony. A. L. 


A(|Mart, Tli. 


ArbiithnotL, Dr. Jolm 


Armstrong, T, J 

3 71 

Arnand, — 


Arthur. Ktisii/n 


Ashiirv. E. ,1. 


Asgill, John 


Ashman, Gerald Collins ... 


Ashniole, Elias ... 


At hoi. l)nl;v of ... 


. 49 

Atkins.m, --■ . . . 


Anhrev. Joim 



Anld, Robert ... 


A union 1. 


Bacon, Lunl 


Baornreither, J. _M . 

1 76 

Baker. Thomas ... 


Ball'our. Henry 


Balsamo, Joseph 


Banekes, John ... 


Bankes, J. Herbert 


Hanker. S. M. ... 


Bamlvldc. ('has. AY. 


Bampliyldc. Richard W.... 


Bnraste. Antoine 


Haines. — - ... 


Barton, George ... 


Barton, Jespor ... 


Barton, Thus. ... I'M. 



Barton, -- ... 


Barry. - ... ■ 


Baskett. John ... 


B;vd\ott. Tliomas 


Batard, - — - ... 


Batard, Louis 


Bates. Thomas ... 


Bath. Tlios. 

21 5 

Hathnrst. tier. Henry 


Battv, James 


Beeket, Arrhh,,. 


Beekin^ham, Charles 


Bedford. Duke of 



Beliste. -._..'. 


Bendorp, J. C. ... 



Benet. John 


Bennett, E. W. 11. 


Bennett, CJeorae J. 


Bennett, Her. R. AY. 


Bennett. "William 



Benfrer do la Lourie 


Bentley, John 



Be nt ley, .Michael 



Bernard, David 

1 95 

Berkelev. Alaiiriro 


Berkley. Miles ... 


Bertie. Peregrine 


Beverley. Robert of 


Biokham. George 


Billion, ' ... 

1 05 

Birinus. Bishop 


Birkhead, M. ... 


Blackbourne, John 


Blackorbv. X. ... 


Black lock, iim. 


Blackstene, Sir AYni. 


.Bladen, Martin ... 


Persons referred to :-— 

Klackm. H. 

Blake, William ... 


Blaney. h<>r<i 
.Blesiii^toji. luirl of 
Blizard, John H. 
Badclely. Thos. ... 
Bodley. Sir Thomas 
Bonani, Abhr 

Bon i fa i z\ . 

Booeock,' J. H. ... 
Boswell, Iter. John 

Chamau. Brice ... 
Chamberlin. AY. 
Chambers, Bob:. 
Chamlev. J. 
('handles Ri(lia>d 
Chant. Thomas AYliitemn 
Charles Edway-l, Prince 
Cha.selden. William 
ChateauLnrou. Mon/iiix 
Chaucer. Tlrmias 
Chawii^r, l<\ H.... 
Chersaltoun. llenrv oi' 


25 1 

21 1 

Box. .Richard 


Bowen, Thomas 


Bowcn, Emanuel 


Bowles, Oldfield 




Brabrook, Sir E. 


Brabrook, E. "W. 


Brabrook, V. W. 


Bradbury. Thomas 


Brage;. Thos. 


Bredon. John 


.Bremner, Hobert 


Brice, Andrew ... 



Bri<d)te, John 



Brindley, Charles V. 


Bristol. John of 


Bromley, Peter ... 

1 55 

Brooke. — ... 

25 1 

Brooke,-. - — -- 


Brouwer, Pioter 


Brown, Henry ... 


Brown. John 


Brown, Thomas ... 


Brunetra. R. C. 


. 95 

Buck. — ... 


Buckworth, Sir John 


BuMamoro. C. AY. 1: 

M, 165, 




Burden. H. W. ... 


Bnriie, John 


Bnnj;liersh, A 1 a t i 1 d a 


Burleigh. Hercules 


Bnrlei'uh. Kielmnl 


Burn, J. 




Butler, Thos. ... 


By ram, John 


Rvwater. Witham M. 


Ca basse. 

'.. 101. 


Caa;linstro, I'uuitt 


caiion. j: e. 


Callender. G. 1). 


Campbell, Guv Al. 


Campbell. John 


Cantillon. Hichard 


Carcsse. Pierre ... 


Carresse, Voter 


Carpenter. Lonl 


Carter, lh\ T. M. 


('artier, A. V. ... 


Cartwriuht, J. ... 


Caslon. 11. A. ... 


Catherine of Bussia 








Persons referred to : - 

Chetwood, W. If. 
Chieiiele, Henrv 


CliilJin<fwortli. Thomas; .. 
Chocke, Alexander 

Choi wich, — 

Choose!!. — ■ 
C 1 1 o 1 1 m i t z k v . N . 
ChiiU,, - ' ... 

Clhher, Colle\ ... 
CihOer, dhcophilns 
('hue. .Martin ... 
Chirk. John 
Clavel, .J. H. ... 
Cleave. .John 
(lowborn, C. !?. 
Clelaml, William 
Clements. Tristram 
Co'iham. I,u/-il ... 
Cox. .John 

Cedrin<j;i on, - 

Coloraine. Lnn! 
Collins. Richard 
Collins, Win. 
Couttix. .7. H. ... 
Condor. Fdwaid 
Cooper. I'iehard 
Cooke, Cooi^e ... 
( 'opplestone, Richard 
Coram, Cop/out 
Cornish, .Mrs. 
Corvehill. Sir Win. 
Cossons, (;. I). ... 

Conit.on. (;. c. ... 

Com 'toville. Raphael 
Covev-Cnnnp. Iter. W. AY 


,41, 40, 


2 01 





I 25) 




















24, 121. 

100. 20(5, 

■2\:i. 24-2. 

Cowloy. A. E. ... 
Cox, //n'. Tluiniii 
Coxeier, r riionias 
Coxhill. W. T. .. 
Cox.oi. Thomas ... 
Cramer. 1>. 
Cranage, Dr. 
('ran lord. Knrl ni 
Craven. Huron ... 
Craw lord. James 
Crawley, W. ,1 

Crossle, Philip ... 
Crowe. E. J. AY. 
Cinndnle, Richard of 
Cumhorland. Duhr of 
Cvneyils of AY ess ex 
Daives, Huo;li 
Dalkeith. Earl »f 
Daltera, Joseph 
Dalton. John 
I) a.i ice. Coo ego ... 
Daniel. F. C. ... 
Daniel, Ceoriie ... 

Darn ley, Knri of 
Harrington. Thomas 
Daittoid. Ralph ol 
Dartnell, II. 
Dauhertin. ,1 . A. 
David-on. -■ - 
Da vies. W. J. ... 

Davis. ■- 

Dav, E. FT. 
Davnes. Cilher! W, 







2 1 2 






14 S 









1 S,l 













Persons referred to: — 

de Cliefdebien. 4/o/v^/o- 

de Corheron. ('lire. 

Dol'oe, Daniel 

de Haas, 1>. A. ... 

Dtlalaye, Charles 

(ie DaioiOaiue. H. C. 

De la Eamle ... 

De Loraine. L<nl ni 

de Alolay, J. 

de 4'onssailH t , - - ■- ■ 


De'lait. -■ ... 

Delhreil, Francois 

Dolmas, J. 1'.' ... 

Demainhray. S. C. T. 

Demorand. - 

Dennis, .lohn 
Dennott, Laurence 
Design! iors, J. T. 

Desauhry. J. T. 


Dow, (ieoi'^o 
Di^liton, Cn/>t. 
Dix, Win. Spin ... 
Dixon. Alexander 
Dixson. IJoSort ... 
Dodd. Dr. 


Doughty. Frederick I lohn 
Douglas. Clias. ... 
Douglas de hVnzi. C. \Y. V. 

Drake, - ... 

Drake, Francis ... 
.Draper, Alfred ... 
Drew, Richard H. 

Dl'OUe'llt, Mnjnr ,) . J. .. 

Drysdale, .YT.... 
Dnoheman. John 
Dominie. Sir William 


Dnnekorley. Thomas 

Dun^arvan, I'i.srmnit 

Dupevrat. 14. 

Oinhai-. J. 

Dnrhajii. Walter ol 

Karle. Krasmus 

'Kastcotl. - - 

Keton, John 

Eden. Sir Frederick 

Fdwardes. H. 

Fjdwanles. Thos. 

l']th\ aides, Pere\- {;. 

Edwards. !!. '... 

Edwards. Thomas 

Elkyns. Thos. 

Ellaeumlie. -■ 

Ellis, John 

Fllisttni. H. AY. 


Fmerv. Bart 

Fsto, 'William ... 

Ktcliolls. F. F. ... 

1'aistace. Athmnil J. ]i. .. 

Fvans. E. .1. 

Evans, John 

Fwhank. Her. T. C. 

Faher. John 

1 ■" a in yr. ■■■-... 

I^ai'iner, Peter ... 

Feiiner. Edward 

Ferriere. "liernard 


Field. - ... 

Fiim. James 

Findel. J. C, ,,, 




r(5. 107 






1 ( 1.1 


1 ( 1.1 



1 *>~ 





1 _ / 



















1 ,1.1 
















2( 10 




Persons relerre 

1 to : — 

Kisk, W 

Kit/ am 

erf, Richard 

i' lanagau 

. J. 

Flat her. 

David ... 






Oderu-us oi 

Folkes. . 


Fooks. 1' 



Foote, S 

Ford, /<V 

r. Kiohaid 




o, L. S. 

Foulks. 1 

'etor .Davie 

Foy, J. 

} - r -. ■;■ 


. Christian 

Ftoke. J 


Fro we!'. 

lln\ G. Hi 


fcr. J.... 


. - 


John ... 



John ;;; 


h'rr. A. F. 

(i:i rdinor 





David ... 

Gates. AUVecl 

Cat lift. James ... 
Caui.lrie. L. 
Gayet. ■ -- - ... 
Cedenov, John ... 
Gedge.' Dr. D. M. 
Corvis. Henrv 
GiMmns. AY.' J. 
Gibhs, James 
Gifford. Richard 
Gifford. William 
(.ill jort , Thomas 
Gillard, F. 

Gillnmr, ('utiti)i F. J. C. 
Gillott. Arthur CI. M. 
Gloucester, Jolm of 
Goldshorough. John 
Gordon. John 
Graham, William 
Grnnum. L, ('. A. 
Grant. Sir W. ... 
Grantham. Ivor 
Green. J., senr. 

(il'LHMl. John 

(Greenland, Herbert Wil 
(ai'i^orv. Svnion 

Grovdle. ' 


Hall. \< 
Hall. John 
Hall, Tho-. 
Halsey. Sir l H ' iftk-i ic- 
Hamilton, Lonl Ann 
Hammond, J. L. 
Hawks, Fdmund 
Hanoks, W., senr. 
Hannington. AYm. 
Harhert, John ... 
Hai-court, f.uril 
Hardine. A Ion. ... 
Hare. Henry 
Harris. Joseph ... 
Harris, Aloses 
Harrison. John 
Hart, -.-■ 
Harvcv, John 









I oo 

22 o 


I Oo 


l or, 
















1 os 












21 o 



21 1 









21 o 



21 1 



• io 







Peter oJ' 
William S. 


g. J. 


Persons referred to : — 

Harvey. Lor,! ... 
Harwood. Sir Rupert 
Haviland, Thos. 

Hawkins. F. I 

Hawksinoor. >s. 
Hayes, Charles 
Hayes, John 
Haywood, A. C. 
Head. Sir Francis 
Beaton, Wallace 
Heidegger, J, J. 
Hon ley, John 
Henslo <tlius Runeker 
lieseltiue. — 
Hesketh, Roger 
Hotter. - - -■ ... 
HextnJl. W. H. ... 
Hevking, Huron 
Hickoy, AYilliam 
Hiffei-nan. John 
Highmore, Joseph 
Hill, Francis 
Hill, Thomas 
Hills. Gordon V. 
Hinckos. T., seni 
Hines, Ernest Fj. 
Hippisly, John . 
Hit ehius, 
Flobbs, J 

Holleji. - ... 

Holloway. F. C. R. 
Hollowav, George 
Holt, F. 

Holt,, AYaUer ... 
Hoo, William of 
Hooke, John 
Hope, Andrew 
Hoi- wood, — ■— 
Hugh an 
Hughes. Spencer 
Hunt. Thomas ... 
Hunter. William 
Huss. J. 

Hutchinson, AY m. 
Hvner, \Y. J. ... 

Iliffe, ... 

inkpen, C. J. A'. 
Tsler, Camille 
Tvanoff, Boris 
Ives, John 
Jackson. George 
Jackson, H. 
Jackson, J. 
Jackson, 1'cr. Jolm 
James. F. T. ... 
James, George ... 
James, Jolm 
James, M. R. ... 
Jefferson, — 

Jeffreys. George 
Jenkins, Riehd. 
.Tonkin son. AY. ... 
John of Gaunt 
Johnson. H. N — 
Johnson, Roger 
Jones. Fdward ... 

J. AY. 

Airs. ... 

AY. J. 




94 . 






1 .42 
21 ! 
2") 7 
21 12 








2 4^ 







Io, 79 

219. 224 


2i l 
21 I 

129. 2,4:1 
.4, 208 

1 .").") 

I ml ex. 

Persons referral to : - 

Jonvil/e, - - 

Jordan, Join i 
Jowett, A. 
Iv;i]':s(|(j]-p, John 
Kaveue, A. 
Kay, William 
Koill, John 
Keith. <,'e itc nil James; 
Keith, John Meiggs 
Kelly. John 
Kennedy', A. 
Kennedy, Hugh 


Keppel, \V. A. ... 
Key, Thus. 

K i i ] g . . 

King. Charles 
King, Herbert 
Kingston, hard 


KiLcliener, (L H. 
Knight. H. F. P. 
Kramers, Joannes 
La Manpie, Francois 

La Youte. 

Labelye, Charles 
Ladmaii. J., senr. 
Ladman, J., junr. 
Laflin, H. N." ... 
Laguerre, John ... 
Lakenhethe, William 
Lampe. J. I' 1 . 

LailipSOIl, J. 

Land. R. F. A. 
Langdon, Riohd. 
Langford. Tom 
Laiighani, Simon 
Langley, J. 
Laroon, Mareollus 


Laurie, James 
Laurie, lira. 
Laveriek. Martin 
Lawrence, James F. (>. 
le Xeve Foster. F. 
Leake, James 
Lehlon, J. C. ... 


Leighton, Thomas of 
Lennox, Clias., sec . 
Duke of Rich inuml 
Lepper, J. Heron 
Lever ulge, Kichard 
Lewes, Henry of 
Lewis, A. 
Lewis, Jno. 
Lewis, Rev. Themrc 
Lewvne, John 
Lichfield. Enrl of 
Liddiard, T. 
Liege, Hawkin of 
Lingstrom, (Jeorge L. 
Lillo, George 
Littleton, Joseph 
Lack. Charles ... 
Lookheart. Samuel 
Lole, Stephen 
Lote. Stephen 
Loudoun, Earl of 
Louis ISonaparte 
Louis, John 
Lovegrove. Henry 

Lucas. — 

Ludlow, J. M. ... 
Luscombe, Samuel 


Lyno, 1L X. 

Persons referred u. : 


Lysines, Rcr. Daniel 



Maokav, Adam M.uir 



Maekev. A. G. ... 




MeQuuldv. M. S. 



Macclesfield. Etui of 




Ma el) in, John 



Maeiav, AY. 



Mada a, A. 



Maddockes, Ch. ... 







Mammigbam, Sic -Richard 



Mamiion, William 



Madesinne, F. 


. 95 


Mab isin. — 


... 219, 


Manuel, John 



Mansell, Sic Ed. 



-Hapelton, Tims. 



Marks, J Jr. 



Mnts.len, John ... 



.darM.n. J. T. 



Martin, Jean 



Marryii, Francis 


22 -s 

Masters, l^enedirt 



Matthew, Leonard 




Mathews. Win. ... 




Maude, Uichard... . . 


... 219. 


Mav, Tlios. 

2 Li), 


... 219. 


Mayell. H. Y. ... 



Mayhew. John ... 



Mears. William 






Meek, James M. 



Meggy, Lf.-f'ol. A. 11. ... 



Melissiuo, Ccncral 



Mendes, Moses ... 




Merer. Lewis 


1 50 

Middleton, H. M. 



Miller. Jo. 

1 32 


Alilier, Tims. 



Milner. Sir W. ... 



Mills, J. 


2 i > 

Misaubin, Dr. John 

1 :Y2 


Moffery. R. W. ... 




-Montague. Duhc <>f 




Montague. Lord 

24 1 


Montgomery, James 


1 30 

Mo nt joy, Jj/ril ... 

1 3,3 


Mont re sure. James 

1 33 


Moore. ... 



Mordaunt. Sir John 

1 33 




159, 2(52. 


Morris, John 


1 0. 


.Morrow, Rcr. W. F. R . ... 


1 55 

Morton, Fori of 





25 1 

Moulinneul. E. 

1 ( )5 

1 30 

Murdoch. Sir R. 


1 02 

Murphy. J. J. L. ^ 



Murray, Ernest E„ 



Murray, James ... 


l r,o 

Murray. Lord George 


V.'. 174, 


Xaislf, Tlios, 



Xapier-Clavering. Cul. C. AW 







Xash, Uiehard ... 40. 




Xeuville, Si r J obn 



Xeville, John 1). 



Xewark, C. C. .... 




Xev/inan, Cardinal 



X'owman, John ... 

1 34 


Xicolas, B. C 1 . ... 



Xisbet. William 






Xorman. Dr. Geoivo 




2 J 2. 




Xorris. He)iry ... 



Xortli. Lord 




Part. '. 

go, Kdw; 

Persons referred to : - 

Xnijv., Lunl 
Oakley, Kdward 
Oborne. lira. 
Oldham, Xath. ... 
Oliver, William Di 
Orme. Jiru. 

Owens, ... 

Oziil, John 

Pack. George 

Parker, (ico. H. 

Paisley, Lor<l 









Patv. Thomas 

Paty, William 

Payne, Geoi 


Peije. - 

IV is lev, 


Pellet! . 

Pembridge, Kdward 

Penman. A. r P. ... 

Penny. Ambrose 


Perkins. .John 
Perkins. W. H. 
Perrault. C'lenuwit 
Perry. Dr. S. H. 
Pieke, William ... 
p iddington, 11. ... 
Pierson, Win. 
'deterscn. J. V. G. 
Pine, John 
Pitt. AVilliam 
Pollard, Joseph 


Poole, Itvv. H. 

Pope. Alexander 
Popple, Williaiii 
Potemkin. I'rinrr 

Poneet. - ■ ... 

Powell, Oeeil 
Powys, Tlios. 


Price, John 
Price, William ... 
Prideanx, Sir Wihnot 
Piicliard, S. 
Preston. "Robert 
Pratt, J. Ticlcl ... 
Pyle, 1),-. Peter 
Quin, James 
Radoliffe. Dr. ... 
Painsford, Charles 
Hainsford, John 
Painsford. Wm. 
Ramsay, Andrew 
Ramsey. William e 
Ramsey, W. 
Pawlinson, Dr. R 
Raymond. George 
Reading. Piehard ( 
Peloid', K. 
Pedman. Henry 
Peid, Alexander 
lie id, John 
rtemy, ... 






1 35 

1 35 
1 3-3 
















1 27 . 

1 37 








1 37 , 

1 38 

dl, Villi' »f. 


14, 1-S1 






Persons referred i.o : 

Pheims, Henry 
Rich. Sir Rolit. 

Pice, Jol 


■ds. William 

Richards. Willian 
Richardson, John 


J 98, 




Richardson, P 
Richardson. W. 
Richmond. Duke <>i 
Rickard, Col. Y. .A I. 

Pigaud. - ... 

Piie.v, ... 

Pippun, ('. Walter 
Rochester, John of 
Rohhnis, Sir Alfred 
Robinson, Johnson 


Robertson. Pobt. 

Pobinot, - 

Pobinson, Thus. 
Podolf, G. 
Roger, Thos. 

Rogers. ... 

Rogers, (.'has. 
Rogers. William 
Rollason. \V. 11. 
Rook, Richard ... 
Roubiliae, P. F. 


Rous.sillon, I'Yancoi 

Rowlands. I've. W 

Roxburgh, J. R. 

Rudolph, G. 

Rnsse, John 

.Russell, ■ - - ... 

Russell, W riot lies lev 

Ruttv, Dr. 

Pvlands, W. 11. 

Si. Albans, Dtikr uf ... 232. 

St. Albans. John of 

Si. Outer, John of 

Si, Stephen Harding 

Saluey, T. J. ... 

Sampson. Ralph 

Sandilands, Sir James 

Sandys. Samuel 

Sarney, Tliomas 

Saunders. James W. 

Saunders, I'cr. lint. 

Savalete de Range 

Savory, — ... 

Savile. Sir George 

Saver, Anthony 

Sehneler. Dr. Tli. 

Schojiiberg, Dr. 

Schombeig, Dr. Isaac 

Sehombing, Di. Clever ... 

Scott, Henry 

Scott. Walter 

Seguin. ... 

Sons, William of 
Senex. John 
Sergue. G. G. ... 

Sessions, Robert 

Severian. Jean l\ 

Shackles, G. L. ... ... 2, 

Shapley. W G. ... ... 174, 

Sharp, Sir James 
Sharp, Samuel 
Shaw. Joseph 
shelvoek, George 

Slieppard, - - 

Shoreman. W. 
Sliipton. John 
Sliort. Tliomas ... 
Sluittleworth, 01 adiah ... 

2 1 5 


261 ) 
1 ( )5 

1 05 







1 32 





Simcoo, Lii'iit J'.c nl. 

'2X2. 255, 


Situ ell. N. S. H. 

90. 91. 


Skinner. Jacob ... 


Slaiter. Sir A. ... 


Sloan, James 


Sloano, Sir Hans 


Smart. ('. 


Smith, Charles ... 


Smith. Elizabeth 


Smith, George 


Smith. H. Evan... 


Smith, H. Squire 


Smith, .Mace Barton 


Smith, Robert ... 

'.'.'. 21.1. 


Smith. Cujil. Thomas 


Smythe. J a mo-; ... 

... 130, 

2: Jo 

Snow, John 


Soi^noles. John nl' 

1 o:') 

Sun.^hui'sL. W. J. 


139. 24 3, 


Soroli. Ernucis ... 


Spencer. Arnold Ale' 



Speth. G. W. 


Spry, James 


Stamp. Joseph ... 

2. 52 

Stanclen. - ■- 




Stanhope, lion. ('has. 


Staniland. H. 


Stephens, Riehd. 


Stevens, Albert ('. 


Stoekor. John 


Stnekfleth, Daniel 


Stokwell, Richard oi 

1 r^ 

Stone, John 


Stone, Nicholas 


Street, — ... 


Stringer, Ed. 


Stro<2;aiiov. Count 


Stukelev. Dr. 


Suffolk. Kurl of 


Surrey, Kurt of ... 


Swauston. Douglas 


Swift. J. 


SvUes, C. I'\ 


Svinos. Col. G. P. 


Ta«-<i. - 


Taylor. B. 1). ... 


Taylor, Brooke ... 


Taylor, Dr. 


Toasler, Edward 

'.'.'. 219. 


Telepneff, 15. 


, 78~ 

122, 196, 


Temple. - ... 


Tester. John 


Theobald, Dr. ... 


Theobald, Lewis 




Thomas. — ■ --- ... 

'.'.'. 247 


Thomas. A. J. ... 


Thomas, ('. Ed^ar 


Thomas. E. Landers 


Thomas, .T. 


Thomas, \V, K. ... 


Thompson, ■■- 


Thompson, John 


ThoruhiJI, Sir James 

40. 127 


Thornley, James 

... 175 




Thorp. Joins T. 


Thriepland, David 


Thurmond, John 


Thurmond, Mrs. 


Thuret, Isaac 


Ti»;he, Bamaby ... 


Timbs. J. 


Tinuey. John 


Persons referred to : — 

Tiphaine. L. E. ... 
4'onilii.ison. R. 


Torel, William ... 
Toidniin Smith. J 
Toule, Tlios. 
Town^hend. ('has. 
Toy, Dr. 

Tresevilly, — 

Tri^s, John 

'iTieon, --- 

Triplett. Ed. 
Trueman. .Robert 

TlMISCOtt. ■ - ■ - - 

Tuckett. J. E. S 
L'mireville, L. ... 
Unwin, G. 
Vsher. John 
Van Boetselaer ... 
Vane. Yixroimt 
Varatsl. Win. 
Yaufduin. James 
Yerelst, Wm. ... 
A'erdrei. Rierre ... 
Yibert. Lionel ... 


4 f. 


Vinoe. - - ■- - 
Yillere. Joseph ... 
Vincent, F, E. ... 
Vinef, Chas. 

von der Howen. Count ... 
von dor Beoko. Mine. 
A'on Hund, Boron 
von ALedem, Count 
Wade, J. 
Waine. William 
AYaite, A. E. 
AYaldegrave, Jx/rrf 
Walker. IT 
Waller, Sir Uobt. 
Walton. J. ("J. ... 
Walton. 'Walter 

AYatts. ... 

Ward, LVsav 

Ward, Lord, \'iscouiit 

Ward, Edward ... 
Ward, Edwin or Edward 
Ward, John 
Warren, Sir (diaries 
Wa.rren, E, 
Warrenne, William of 

Waters, ... 

Waters, A. \V. ... 
Watkinson, Francis (\ 
AVatson, H. 
Wayne, J ohn ( sen v.) 
Wavtie, W., senr. 
Webb, Phil. Carterott ... 
Webb, R. Achoson 
AYebh, Sidney 
AYebster, lic'r. Win. 
AVemyss. Earl of 
AVestminster. ^^' i J liii ur oi'... 
Wetherall. Thos. 
AVharton. Dr. Geo. 
Wharton, Dukr of 

White. ... 

White, Henry ... 
AVhittall, E. G. ... 
AVhitehead, Paid 
AVhiteiuore. C. J. 
AVh it taker, G. E. 

AViokham. - 

AViesel<zren, K. ... 
AYilkinson. — - 

I r,r^ 



2 1 5 

2< )8 








LW. 246 

43, S« 


2 1 5 



l r^ 




1 32 





84. 233. 



Persons referred to : — 

Wilkes, John 
1 Williams, A. V. 
Williams, C. H. 
Williams, Joshua 
Williams. W. J. 2. .40. 

104. .170, 107, 
217, 2.44. 2:50. 
Williamson, J. ... 
Wills. Peter 
Wihner. John 

Wolsev, i'tinl'tita! 
Wonnaoott. E. M. W. ... 















24 s 


Wood, Thomas ... 
Woodward, John 

Wooleombe, ■■■■ 

Worcester. Alexander c 
Worleid^e, Tims. 
Worrall, - -- 
Wray. Sir P. ... 
Wray, Si i Cecil 
Wren, Sir Christopher 
Wykcham, William of 
Wvnford, William of 
Yarker. J. 

YelaKiiin, - 

Yevele. Hotirv of 
Youle. I). N. 

17(3, 104. 270 
21 1 

1... 147 
1 29 
21 1 
16.4, 270 




Poland, Ca<i;Iiust :ro in ... 
Poland, (J land Orient of 
Polish Ledges 

Prologue aL Drury Lane. 172S ... 
Prologues and Epilogues, Masonic 

Rawlinson MS. 
Richard II... Tomb 
Rile of 180-4, Holland ... 



Rites. Eighteenth enUirv in 

I'm nee ... " ... 100 

Ritual, Allusions in Eighteenth 

Century verse ... ... 14 

Rose Croix Chapter Crcdentes 

Yiveut ab lllo ... 220 

Pose Croix Chapter l)es \'rais 

Amis, .Belgium ... ... 00 

Russia. Catz;liostro in ... ... (,0 

Kussiau Masonic verse ... 2S 

St. . Milan's Monastery ... s.| 

(Saint Klienno, Caen ... ... MO 

St. Eeroo] ... ... ... 0-4 

Sottas, Masonic ... ,.. in 

Statutes of Labourers ... ... 14(5 

Strict Observance. Order of ... 47, 

CO, 100, 2(5(5 
Synod, Acts of tlie Associate. 

1757 ... ... ... 27, 200 

Torpielien Priory ... ... 2(5 > 

Travelling Masons ... ... 1-10 

Ukraine, Grand Lodc^e of ... 01 

CUraniaii Lodges ... ... !<>() 

Verse, Masonic ... ... S 

Verse. Masonic Chronological 

Index ... ... ... IS 

Wa^er in a Minute Pooh ... 2oO 

W'fsl miiisr* 1 *] - Abbey ... ... lis 

Westminster Abbey. Em-eijin 

Labour at ... ... loo 

York Fabric Rolls ... ... 052 

York. Meelinu ol (4 rand Led^o 

ot ... ... ... S.4 

York MS'S. ... ... ... 8. is 


Pullanmro. C. W. 

Covey-Crump, Itrr. W. W. 

Cro-sle Philip 

Daynes, (Albert W. ... 
de Raton I a inc. H, C. ... 

Hobbs, J. Walter 
Hyncr, W. J. 

Ivanoff, P. 

Jenkinsou. W. 

Lepper, J. Heron 

Murray. Ernest E- 


121. ICY 201 

... 24, 121. 
1~>7, 10(j. 260 


2-Y l(j."). 1(57 


4-Y 70 


loD, 262 


\orman. Dr. denize 

Poole, Itrr. H. 

Rickard. <'<>!. K. M. 
Rippon. C. Walter 

Saunders. James W. 
Sit well, X. S. H. 
Sony;! m rst, W. ,T. 
S'y kes, C. E. ... 

Telepueff, 45. ... 
Tnckeft. J. E. Sliuni 

Yibert. Lionel 

Williams. W. J. 



2i ;2 








210. 22:1. 2152 

.40. So. 
126, 1(54. 170. 10(5. 
214, 2-40. 2(50. 270 




Anderson's Inscription in 

a copy 

of the Constitutions, 

1723 .".. 


Dutch Pose Croix Patent 


TCwelme : The Hospital Ch 

a pel ... 


The Cliurch. 




Tlio Quadrangle 


The Chaucer T< 

.)inh ... 


Medal. Alfred Lodge, Oxford 



Portrait : Dr. George Norman Froiitisj-it'rr 

Andrew Price of Exeter 12 

Pichard Leveridge ... !2 

Print: The Fellow Craft's Son- 12 

Song: Masons and Masonry ... 12 
Seal affixed to Dutch Hose Croix 

Patent ... ... ... 22!) 


'"twit J 

being the TRANSACTIONS of the 

Quatuor Coronati Lodge of A.F. & A.M., London, 

No. 2076. 


FRIDAY, 7th JANUARY, 1927. 

HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall at 5 p.m. Present :— Bros. 
Rev. W. W. Covey-Crump, W.M. ; George Norman, P.A.G.D.C, 
S.W. ; Rev. H. Poole, J.W. ; W. J. Songhurst. P.G.D., Secretary; 
Gordon P. G. Hills, P. A.G.Sup.W., P.M., D.C ; H. C. de 
Lafontaine, P.G.D., S.D. ; Gilbert W. Daynes, J.D. ; J. Walter 
Hobbs, L.R., I.G. ; J. Heron Lepper, P.Pr.G.Ins., Antrim, P.M.; 
and E. H. Dring, P.G.D., P.M. 

Also the following members of the Correspondence Circle:- — Bros. J. H. Parker, 
W. F. Stracey, Sir Alexander Brooke Pechell, F. Lace. P.A.G.D.C, F. J. Asburr, 
A.G.D.C, Robt. Oolsell, P.A.G.D.C, W. T. J. Gun, Rev. Joseph Johnson, A. L. 
Gladstone, J. Gaskill, George Elkington, P. A.G.Sup.W., Col. F. M. Rickard, P.G.S.B., 
B. Telepneff, J. E. Whitty, W. Young, W. J. Williams, W. Francis. W. Emmerson. 
W. F. Swan, J. F. Vesey-FitzGerald, C. F. Tyson, Thos. M. Carter, Wallace Heaton, 
Major Cecil Adams, Dep.G.S.B., E. W. R. Peterson, J. F. Halls Dally, H. Johnson, 
L. G. Wearing, Arthur Heiron, J. F. Greenfield, G. W. South, A. E. Wynter, H. E. 
McMeel, B. Ivanoff, A. C. MeOallum, Dep.G.M., West Australia, Allan Ramsey, H. J. 
Goodwin, F. K. Jewson, F. M. Shaw, R. J. Sadlier, F. Howkins, E. P. Gambs, Wm. 
Lewis, A. D. Bowl, H. Summers, G. Pear, Geo. W. Bullamore, A. E. Gurney, H. A. 
Matheson, W. Brinkworth, F. Houghton, F. J. Wybrew, S. W. Rodgers, S. C. Keville, 
A. V. Davis, F. J. Mote, and T. J. Oldland. 

Also the following Visitors : —Bros. J. M. Eagles and F. H. Chawner, of Winder 
Lodge No. 3984; H. Wm. Burden, E. Warren, and W. H. Staniland, of Grove Lodge 
No. 410; W. E. J. Peake, P.Pr.G.O., Bristol; T. Maskell Hardy, J.W., Joseph 
Lancaster Lodge No. 3439; J. B. Dampney, Mount Moriah Lodge No. 34; and J. G. 
Palmer, Woolwich Polytechnic Lodge No. 3578. 

Letters of apology for non-attendance were reported from Bros. Sir Alfred 
Robbins, P.G.W., Pres.B.G.P., P.M.; John Stokes, P.G.D., I. P.M. ; Edward Armitage, 
P.G.D., P.M., Treasurer; Lionel Vibert, P.Dis.G.W., Madras, P.M. ; . R. H, Baxter, 

2 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

P.A.G.D.C., P.M.; J. E. S. Tuckett, P.A.G.S.B., P.M.; J. T. Thorp, P.G.D., P.M.; 
Cecil Powell, P.G.D., P.M.; S. T. Klein, L.R., P.M.; and Edward Conder, L.R., P.M. 

Upon Ballot taken : — 

Bro. William James Williams. Residing at Cromer Lodge, 25, 
Church Road, Brixton, London, S.W.2, Solicitor. Member of 
Arcadian Lodge No. 2696. Author of papers on Freemasonry, its 
Facts, Forces, and Future, in Masonic Record; The Nomenclature of 
Lodges; Alexander Pope and Freemasonry; The Goose and Gridiron; 
A Masonic Pilgrimage through London, in A.Q.C; Masonic Tombs 
and Burial Places, in Manchester Association for Masonic Research 
Transactions; Robert Southey and Freemasonry ; and Masonic 
Personalia ; and 

Bro. Thomas Moravian Carter. Residing at 19, Westfield Park, 
Redland, Bristol, Doctor of Medicine and Regional Medical Officer. 
P.M. of St. Vincent Lodge No. 1404, P.Pr.G.St.B. Author of 
St. John's Lodge No. 50,3 (J/92 in 1792) Henley in Arden; The 
'Richmond Lodge' at the Baptist Head, Old Bailey, in A.Q.C. ; 

were regularly elected joining members of the Lodge. 

One District Grand Lodge, one Lodge of Instruction, one Library and fifty-four 
Brethren were admitted to membership of the Correspondence Circle. 

The Report of the Audit Committee, as follows, was received, adopted, and 
ordered to be entered upon the Minutes : — 


The Committee met at the Offices, No. 27, Great Queen Street, London, on 
Friday, 7th January, 1927. 

Present: — Bro. W. W. Covey-'Crump in the Chair, with Bros. Edward Armitage, 
H. Poole, Gordon P. G. Hills, J. Heron Lepper, Gilbert W. Daynes, H. C. de Lafontaine, 
George Norman, J. Walter Hobbs, W. J. Songhurst, Secretary, and R. H. McLeod, 

The Secretary produced his Books, and the Treasurer's Accounts and Vouchers, 
which had been examined by the Auditor and certified as being correct. 

The Committee agreed upon the following 



We have recorded with deep regret the death of Bro. George Lawrence Shackles, 
P.A.G.D.C., on 4th February, and Bro. Ernest William Malpas Wonnacott, 
P.A.G.Sup.W., on 8th July. Obituary Notices of these Past Masters appear in our 
Transactions. Bro. Joseph Walter Hobbs has been elected to full membership, 
making our total number 24, 

Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 3 

The membership of the Correspondence Circle shows a net increase of 131. 
On the 30th November, 1925, we had a total of 3,035, and 303 names were added 
during the year ; on the other hand, 172 were removed from the list, 86 by resignation, 
65 by death and 21 for non-payment of dues. Thus the total number carried forward 
is 3,166. We hope that Brethren will continue to assist us by introducing new 
members. As we have frequently explained, it is only by such co-operation that we 
can hope to make up the arrears of Transactions. 

The accounts now presented show a further loss in working. A balance of £304, 
however, is reserved for the final portion of volume xxxvii., and it is believed that 
this will cover the cost of production ; while in addition to the amount reserved last 
year for volume xxxviii., a similar amount, viz., £1,000, has been placed in reserve 
for the publication of volume xxxix. Subscriptions amounting to £501 17s. are still 

We desire to convey the thanks of the Lodge to our Local Secretaries, who 
continue to do much good work. The death of Bro. Geo. L. Shackles has created a 
vacancy in N. & E. Yorks., and that of Bro. H. Squire Smith a vacancy in the E. Div. 
of South Africa. We have also lost the services of Bro. Wm. Mannion, who resigns 
from the position in Bloemfontein. Bro. John Reid, of the same town, has, however, 
kindly undertaken to act for the whole of the Eastern Division ; and the following 
new appointments have been made: — Bro. F. Holt, for Texas; Bro. M. S. McQuiddy, 
for Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska and Wyoming; Bro. H. N. LafLin, for Wisconsin; 
Bro. W. Jenkinson, for N. Ireland ; and Bro. C. J. Whitemore, for Hampshire. 

For the Committee, 


in the Chair. 



To Life Members' Fund (412 

,, Subscriptions, etc., received 
in advance 

,, Correspondence Circle, 1924 
Balance in hand 

}) do. 1925 

„ do. 1926 

,, Sundry Creditors ... 

,, Profit and Loss Suspense 
Account, being outstand- 
ing Subscriptions as per 
contra, subject to realiza- 

,, Lodge Account — £ e. d. 
Balance 30th 

Nov., 1925 28 17 7 
Receipts ... 31 5 9 

2680 10 
189 11 3 

304 13 

988 16 


125 12 10 

501 17 

60 3 4 
Less Payments 39 19 3 

20 4 1 

£5811 5 


By Cash at Bank 

,, Investment, £1,300 Console 
at 54| per cent. ... 

,, Sundry Debtors for Publi- 

,, Sundry Publications 

,, Sundry Debtors 
for _ Subscrip- 
tions in arrear : 
1926 Correspon- 

dence Circle 
1925 ditto 
1924 ditto 
1923 ditto 
1922 ditto 

325 17 
124 3 3 

47 14 10 
3 11 

Repairs Suspense 





Account — ■ 





N o v e irx h 

er , 

















£ e. d. 
278 11 11 

708 10 

106 3 
466 11 

501 17 
69 2 

3680 9 3 
£5811 5 

Tru/tsact/o/is of the Quatuor Corotiati Lodge. 

PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT for the year ending 
30th November, 1926. 


£ e. d. 
To Salaries , Rent, Rates and 

Taxes 747 13 8 

Lighting and Firing ... 18 2 10 

Stationery ... ... 82 1 2 

Postages" 215 13 11 

Office Cleaning 42 18 10 

Insurance ... ... ... 14 1 

Telephone, etc 12 13 2 

Carriage and Sundries ... 11 18 7 

Local Secretaries' Expenses 3 13 6 

Library Account ... ... 12 7 7 

Depreciation of Investments 45 10 

£1206 13 4 


£ e. d. 
By Correspondence 
Circle Joining 
Fees, 1926 ... 144 6 11 
,, 1926 Subscript'ns 123 19 7 
,, 1925 ditto ... 178 4 4 
., 1923 ditto ... 158 9 9 
'., 1922 ditto ... 110 

Back Transactions 
Lodge Publications 
Other Publications 
Interest on 

Cons Oils 



Life Memberships Lapsed... 

Balance carried to Balance 



606 1 
89 19 
35 17 
46 17 

53 2 

37 16 

337 1 
£1206 13 4 

This Balance Sheet does not include the value of the Library, Museum, Furniture, 
or the Stock of Publications, and is subject to the realization of Assets. 

I have examined the above Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss Account with the 
Books and Vouchers of the Lodge, and certify the same to be correct and in accordance 
therewith. I have ascertained that the holding of £1,300 2\% Consols is correctly 
inscribed in the books of the Bank of England in the names of the Trustees, and 
further have verified the balance at the Westminster Bank. 


Chartered Accountant. 

14, Bedford Row, W.C.I. 
1st January, 1927. 

The Skcretahy drew attention to the following 


By Bro. John T. Thorp. 

Patent of Appointment of the Marquis de Chefdebien to represent the Lodge 
des Amis reunis at the Wilhelmsbad Convention in 1782. (See 
A.Q.C. xxx., 131.) 

Exhibits. 5 

The document is on a sheet of Parchment about 22in. by 16in., 
on which is a design printed from an engraved plate. The following 
wording forms part of the design. At top: ".4. la Gloire du Grand, 
Architecte de I'Univers," "Notre union fait noire force"; and at 
bottom: " Liberie," "Silence," u Egalite," " B. L. des Amis reunis 
d V Orient de Paris." There are also shown a bound bundle of sticks 
and other emblems which indicate that the form was specially designed 
for the Lodge des Amis reunis. 

The text of the document, as follows, is entirely in manuscript :■ — 

Nous Commissaires aux Archives, Philalethes, Membres du 
Conseil des Echapes [sic] blanches, j legitimes Administrateurs 
du Regime maconnique particulier a la 11.'. L.'. des Amis- 
reunis a l'O.'. de Paris | A.'. S.'. A.'. S.'. le F.'. Due Ferdinand 
de Brunswich et a tous les TT.\ RR.'. FF.'. r assembles Sous I 
Son Maillet, au Convent convoque par lui a Willemsbad, pres 
Francfort sur le Mein j Salut .'. Force .'. Union .'. Lumiere .'. I 
Ayant egard a 1' invitation tres positive, quoiqu' indirecte, 
contenue aux Paragraphes cinq et Sixieme de la Circulaire de 
S.'. A.'. S.'. en datte du dis huit juin I mil sept cent quatre 
vingt un, et en consequence de la d. Circulaire, ne pouvant 
douter de l'accueil gracieux que notre Depute recevra de 
S.\ A.'. S.'. ainsi que de ses Co-operateurs ; I persuades en 
mane terns, qu'il ne peut resulter que le plus grand bien pour 

la Q .'. en general et pour chaque Q .'. en particulier, 
d'une Assemblee de FF.*. distingues par I Ieur rang, leur Zele 
et leurs Lumieres ; en vertu de la confiance a nous accordee 

pour tout ce qui concerne le regime ^] .". par toutes a 

chacune des Classes qui composent J l'ensemble de la Q 
de Saint Jean sous le titre distinctif des Amis-reunis a l'O.*. 
de Paris, Avons constitue et constituons par ces presentes, le 
T.\ C. F.'. j M IS . de Chefdebien, notre Depute representant 
ou Convent general convoque a "Willemsbad pour le seize de ce 
Mois, pour former, dans cette E.". Assemble, telles I requisitions 
ou demandes; faire telles offres et telles propositions qu'il 
jugera convenables, analogues et utiles au but, regimes et 
connoissances partictdieres aux I Philalethes dont il est membre, 
nous en raportant a sa prudence et a son Zele, et lui donnant 
pour agit et parler en notre nom, plein pouvoir, et nieme, 
S'il le j jugo necessaire et qu'il ne puisse remplir lui meme 
la Mission de notre Depute, 1'Autorisons a se faire remplacer 
et supleer par tel F.'. qu'il voudra choisir, en enjoignant I 
a ce F.*. de se conformer en tous aux Instructions qu'il lui 
donnera suivant sa prudence, et sans qu'il soit besoin de 
nouveau pouvoir de notre part.', j Les presentes sont signees 
seulement de huit FF.'. delegues par le Conseil des Echarpes 
blanches I dont quatre de l'Ordre des fondateurs, deux de celui 
des Associes libres et deux de celui des Amateurs.'. I 

Delivre a TO.', de Paris 1 le huit Juillet mil 
sept cent j quatre vingt deux.', j 

du Bignon Court de Gobelin 

Lelong de Meray Savalete de Langes 

Dutrousser D'Hericourt Guichard 

Tassin Deletang Clavier du Plessis 

Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Timbre et Scelle par nous 1 
Garde des Sceaux et Timbres 
de la R.L. 

Taillepied de Bondy 
Par Mandement de la R.L. ( 
f.\ Lelong 


The Seal of the Lodge, in stamped Metal, is attached to the 
document by a piece of white watered ribbon edged with gold wire. 
In the right hand margin is written: — 

Vise an Convent General de Wilhelmsbad le 28 Aout 5782. 

f.\ de Turkheim 1'a.ine Visiteur General du D. E. de 
Bourgoyne. Chancelier du Convent general. 

An Endorsement reads: — 

Diplome I De Representant de /f[^]R I Au Convent General 
des ^J- 3 onB j Convoque par S.\ A.". S.\ le T.*. R.\ F.\ | 
Prince Ferdinand Due de I Brunswich a Willemsbad. I Le 16 
juillet 1782. Envoie par a\~^~\R | Au T -' C -'- F; - Marquis 
de Chefdebien | Membre de A\j±\R &t. AR AL de AU3R. 

By Bro. G H. Williams. 

AntON : Silk, about 18 inches square, with emblems embroidered. Probably 
English make, of second half of 18th Century. 

Rituals, MS., of Craft and R.A., with Veils, Red Cross Knight, and Past 
Master. The Craft Rituals are based upon Preston, but are probably 
post-Union, and the R.A. ritual appears to be not earlier than about 
1825. • These Exhibits are believed to have belonged to a member of the 
Osbaldeston family. 

A cordial vote of thanks was accorded to the Brethren who had kindly lent 
these objects for exhibition. 

Bro. Rev. H. Poole read the following paper 

Tnaixactioiis of the Quatuor Coronafl Lodge 


BY BRO. H. POOLE, P.Pr.G.Ch. (Gumb. and Westm.). 

HERE are many indications in early rituals and Minute Books — ■ 
the latter including even those of Grand Lodge itself — that music 
and singing played a definite part in Masonic meetings in the 
early days of organised Masonry. But if we remember that 
the ceremonies were worked in the same room as that in which 
the table was spread; and that calling ' from labour to refresh- 
ment ' simply meant, as it were, a change of occupation; and, 
further, that the ' lectures ' or ' reasons ' formed a part of the 
' table Lodge ' — then it will be seen that it is not altogether fair to separate the 
Masonic drinking or dinner song from what might be called ' Lodge music ' as is 
done at the present day. 

My subject this evening, however, is- quite definitely the one and not the 
other; and, therefore, I do' not propose to touch, for example, on some of the 
jingling rhyme which appears among the early rituals. The rhyming toasts, 
such as: — 

To the Heart that conceals, 

And the Tongue that, never reveals 

or the rather neat and comprehensive 

To the King's good health; 
The Nation's Wealth; 
The Prince God bless; 
The Fleet success; 
The Lodge no less; 

doubtless lie on the borderline; but for the most part this class of rhyme 
belonged rather to what we should now call ritual, and these, too, I propose to 
pass over. I might add that I do not intend to deal with our earliest Masonic 
document — the Regius MS., — a rhymed metrical version of the Old Charges. 

On the other hand, in Grand Lodge Minutes as late as 26th November, 
1728, we read : — ■ 

All Business, being dispatched the Deputy Grand Master clos'd the 
Lodge in fform, concluding with the Masons Song; 

and, whether? sung in open Lodge or at the festive board, it is to the Masonic 
songs of the eighteenth century that I desire to draw attention. At the same 
time I must refer also to some verse' to which, perhaps, no tune has ever been 
composed; and also to a large class of Prologues and Epilogues given at 
' Masonic nights ' at the Theatre, of which, many have been preserved. It is 
to one of these — -spoken before Lord Kingston, Grand Master, at Drury Lane, 
in 1728 — that we owe one of the finest expressions of the true Masonic spirit 
that I have ever seen ; — 

8 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronatl Lodge. 

If all the social Virtues of the Mind; 

If an extensive Love to all Mankind; 

If hospitable Welcome to a Guest, 

And speedy Charity to the Distrest, 

If due Regard to Liberty and Laws, 

Zeal for our King, and [for] our Country's Cause; 

If these are Principles deserving Fame, 

Let Masons then enjoy the Praise they claim. 

Several years ago I wrote a short article, putting forward a plea for the 
collection and publication of the Masonic verse of the eighteenth century, on the 
ground that it was likely that some light might be thrown by it on the ' point 
of view ' of early organised Masonry, if not on its ritual. I am glad to say 
that, to the best of my knowledge, no one has so far taken up the task, at any 
rate, so far as publication Is concerned; for, coming at last to it myself, I have 
found much of interest; and though I can claim for myself no qualifications as 
either a literary or musical critic, I hope to show that the collection possesses 
some artistic merit, as well as having something to tell about the whole 
' atmosphere ' of Masonry. 

The earliest Masonic verse which we possess is found in the heading of the 
York No. 1 MS., of about 1600, in the form of: — 

An Anagraime upon the name of Masonrie 
Willm Kay to his friend Robt Preston 
upon his Artt of Masonrie as ffolloweth 

Much might be saide of the noble Artt 

A Craft thats worth estieming in each part 

Sundry Nations Noobles & their Kings also 

Oh how they sought its worth to know 

Nimrod & Solomon wisest of all men 

Reason saw to love this Science then 

lie say noe more lest by my Shallow verses I 

Endeavouring to praise should blemish Masonrie. 

So far I have been unable to trace William Kay, unless he was a ' sporryer ' of 
York, who obtained his freedom by patrimony in 1569; but the matter is not of 
great interest to us in this connection, for the verse was copied by the ' friend 
Robt Preston ' in the York MS. No. 2, and we have yet a third version in the 
Newcastle College Roll; and so It may very well have been current generally at 
the end of the sixteenth century. 

Antiquity's Pride 
We have on our Side, 
as the Entered Apprentice's Song puts it; and the 'laudatory' strain so 
prominent m this piece is, perhaps, the dominant note (so far as there is one) 
in most of the earlier verse. Thus, Anderson's poetical contributions to the 
B ot C. of 1723 consist of the Master's Song and the Warden's Song— two very 
tedious eulogies of the builders of the past, from Adam to Montagu in the one 
case and to Wharton in the other. They consisted originally of twenty-eight 
eight-lme verses and thirteen ten-line verses respectively; but were cut down by 
Anderson himself to much smaller proportions in the second edition. Much 
lighter is the one Masonic item from the very indifferent opera of the " Generous 
Freemason," by William Rufus Chetwood, which appeared in 1730: — 
By Masons' Art the aspiring dome 
In various columns shall arise; 
All climates are their native home, 

Their godlike actions reach the skies. 
Heroes and Kings revere their name, 
While poets sing their lasting fame, 

Masonic Song and Verse of the Eighteenth Century. 

Great, noble, generous, good and brave 

Are titles they most justly claim; 
Their deeds shall live beyond the grave, 

Which some unborn shall loud proclaim. 
Time shall their glorious acts enrol, 
While Love and Friendship charm the soul. 
A variant of the ' laudatory ' type appears in 

Great Kings, Dukes, and Lords 
Have laid by their Swords 
Our Myst'ry to put a good Grace on. 
The eighteenth century Mason took very literally the principle of " Brother 
to a King, and Fellow to a Prince"; and we find the same claim made 
repeatedly, long before any living member of the Royal Family had joined the 
Craft. And much is made of the long series of noble Grand Masters, commencing 
with the Duke of Montagu in 1721. But a curious point is raised in a song 
which appeared in " The Free Masons Songs," published in Edinburgh, by 
Bro. Robert Bremner, about 1760. It opens with: — 

Come, come, my dear Brethren, great news I proclaim, 
Our King's a free Mason, a Mason of Fame. 
And tho' he's a King, he's a Brother to me, 
No mortals but Masons so great there can be. 
It is a little difficult to understand the reference, at just that date; for neither 
George II. nor George III., who succeeded him in the very year to which the 
British Museum assigns the publication, were Masons. The fact that the song 
was published in Edinburgh suggests that the reference might be to James Stuart, 
who had been living in retirement since the final collapse of his cause at Culloden 
in 1746. But there is no evidence that he was a Mason; nor, probably, was his 
son Charles Edward Stuart^ who might be referred to if the publication was as 
late as 1766. This possibility, however, seems definitely ruled out by the fact 
that Bro. Bremner, the publisher, removed to London in 1763. Otherwise the 
piece might, perhaps, be regarded as a bit of evidence that Charles Edward was 
popularly supposed to be a Mason; though it could not, I think, be twisted into 
the support of a Jacobite ' theory of Masonry.' 

My own view is that the publisher has immortalised an odd mistake. 
Frederick, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of George II., was a Mason, but died 
in 1751; his brother, William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, is said to have 
been one, though the evidence is scanty. George II., son of the Prince of Wales, 
was not a Mason, though his three brothers were initiated during the decade 
following his accession. It looks as if the writer of the song was assuming that, 
the Prince of Wales having died, George II. 's second son would succeed to the 
throne, and rushed into print with the ' great news ' without waiting to discover 
his mistake. If this is the correct explanation, the incident is of interest as 
affording a small piece of evidence that the Duke of Cumberland was really a 
Mason. The song is otherwise of little interest. 

Alternating with this ' laudatory ' note was a ' moral ' one, which was an 
early fashion, and which comes out strongly in two poems appended to copies ol 
the Old Charges—the Thos. Carmick, of 1727, and the Dumfries No. 4 MS., 
of probably slightly earlier date. The latter is of considerable interest, as 
illustrating the ' moralising ' of the working tools and other adjuncts of the 
Lodge: — 

A caput mortum ^f here you see, 
To mind you of mortality. 

Behold great Q Q strength by Herod fell, 
But establishment in Heaven doth dwell. 
Let all your actions [J 3 be just and true, 

Which after death gives life to you 
Keep round within f\ of your appointed sphere; 
Be ready, for your latter end draws near, 

10 Transactions of the Quaiuor Coronati Lodge. 

The ' moral ' note changed before long to what might be called a ' social ' 
one, where the key-note is perhaps best described as ' fellowship and freedom ' : — 

Then joyn Hand in Hand 
To each other firm stand 
Let's be merry and put a bright Face on, 

rather indicates the style. A distinctly artistic example of this type is the 
Fellow-Craft's Song, by Bro. Charles I)elafaye, which appeared in the first 
edition of the B. of C. Bro. Delafaye was a member of the Lodge at the 
Horn Tavern at Westminster, and appears in the Lists for 1723 and 1725 in 
the Grand Lodge Minute Book; and on the 23rd December, in the latter year, 
lie appears with Francis Sorell, S.G.W., and Alex. Hardine, W.M. of the Lodge, 
as a visitor to the Philo Musicse et Arcliitectune Societas. It is by no means 
improbable that this Lodge, now Royal Somerset House and Inverness No. 4, 
was already on its way to being, as it afterwards was, practically, a Masonic 
musical club; and it may well have been a pioneer among the musical Lodges 
of the day. George Payne, J.G.W. (and past Grand Master), was also a 
member of the Lodge, and he, too, visited the Musical Society during the same 
year; though it is likely that his business was in connection with the irregular 
making of Masters, and that he went to the Society in an official capacity, and 
not as a musical visitor. 

The original music of the Fellow-Craft's Song is probably lost for ever. 
A note on p. 91 of the B. of C, 1723, says: — 

The Musick of the Fellow-Crafts Song, containing several Sheets, 
being too much to be herewith printed, the Lodge, to whom the 
Authors of the Song and Musick belong, will afford it in Manuscript, 
to any other Lodge, when desired. 

We have two almost contemporary settings for the song, but this reference, I 
think, disposes of the possibility that either is the original. Of these two settings, 

one is by " L M Y ," and is to be found in MS. at the end of a copy of 

the B. of C. presented by James Anderson to Ludovicus Mercy (presumably the 
composer). Lewis Mercy was a member of the Rainbow Coffee-House in York 
Buildings (now Britannic No. 33), and also of Prince Eugen's Head Coffee- 
House in St. Alban's Street, of which he was W.M. in 1730. The other tune 
was composed by J. F. Lampe, and is decidedly attractive. Later publications 
give the tunes of " Rule Britannia " and " Sweet are the Charms of her I love " 
(by Bro. Richard Leveridge), while yet another original tune (anonymous) exists 
in an engraving apparently of the second half of the century. 

The Fellow-Craft's Song. 

Hail, Masonry ! thou Craft divine \ 

Glory of earth, from Heaven revealed; 

Which dost with jewels precious shine, 
From all but Masons' eyes concealed. 

Thy praises due who can rehearse 

In nervous prose, or flowing verse ? 

Ensigns of State, that feed our pride, 

Distinctions troublesome and vain ! 
By Masons true are laid aside: 

Art's free-born sons such toys disdain. 
Ennobled by the Name they bear, 
Distinguished by the Badge they wear. 

Sweet Fellowship, from envy free, 

Friendly converse of Brotherhood, 
The Lodge's lasting cement be ! 

Which has for ages firmly stood. 
A Lodge, thus built, for ages past 
Has lasted, and will ever last. 

Masonic Song and Verse of the Eighteenth Century. 11 

Another ' motif ' found among these songs from the earliest times is that 

No Mortal can more 
The Ladies adore 
Than a free and an accepted Mason, 

though the verse from which I quote did not form a part of the Freemason's 
Health at its first appearancce in lieid's Weekly Journal in 1722. A casual 
study of some of the earlier verse may easily lead to the impression that the 
Mason had not too clean a reputation among the Ladies; and, indeed, some of 
the innuendoes made by the speakers of Prologues are almost unprintable. But 
in the course of my search for material I have seen a good deal of the convivial 
verse of the eighteenth century ; and I sav without hesitation that the Masonic 
songs, as a whole, are remarkably '' clean ' for the period. Even Bro. John 
Banckes, author of two volumes of verse, some of which is decidedly filthy, 
rose to a far higher plane in his " Genius of Masonry, descend," which appeared 
in the B. of C. in 1738. It is interesting to note that in the case of a 
particularly ribald piece which appeared in the " Select Collection " published at 
Exeter in 1767, a good many copies of exposures, &c, , in which the poem 
subsequently appeared, are found to have the page in question torn out. 

What we really find immortalised in the verse, I think, is a good joke 
seen in the fact that women were by no means behindhand in their attempts to 
wheedle the ' Mason word ' from their male friends of the Order : — 

'twas very hard 
Women should from their Secrets be debarr'd; 
When Kings and Statesmen to our Sex reveal 
Important Business which they should conceal : 
That beauteous Ladies, by their Sparks ador'd, 
Ne'er yet could wheedle out the Mason's Word; 
And oft their Favours have bestow'd in vain, 
Nor cou'd one Secret, for another, gain. 

The avoidance of political topics is emphasized in some of the earliest 
songs. Thus, in 1730: — 

We hatch no plots against the State, 
Nor against Men in Power prate; 
But all that's noble, good, and great- 
Is by us daily taught; 
or in 1734 : — 

We have no idle prating 

Of either Whig or Tory, 

But each agrees 

To live at ease, 

And sing or tell a story. 

Neither of these songs had its own music ; the former was evidently written to fit 
the tune of "What though they call me Country Lass," which appeared in 
London between 1725 and 1730 ; and the latter is modelled on a non-Masonic 
song whose opening words are almost identical, which was engraved by Bro. 
George Bickham in his "Musical Entertainer" in 1738, 

It is a short step from what I have called the : social ' type to the real 
drinking song; and we find a number of songs which must certainly be put in 
that category. Such a sentiment as 

Let ev'ry Man take Glass in Hand, 
Drink Bumpers to our Master Grand, 
As long as he can sit or stand, 
With Decency, 

though on the strong side, is decidedly nearer to the normal than 

Discreetly take the generous Wine. 

82 Tr(tn-<actiotix of flic Qi/atuor ('oroiutfi Lndi/c, 

It is not made at all clear what other Minutes of the, Lodge are missing. 
The Author gives a full list of the Brethren present at the Constitution of the 
Lodge in 1790, and yet he says "If the original members of St. Paul's Lodge 
kept any records of their earliest proceedings these have not survived to us. 
Minutes of a number of Meetings in 1796 and 1797 are either referred to or 
quoted in full, but in the List of Masters which forms an Appendix, no names 
are givau between 1790 and 1813, and there is a gap also between 1890 and 
1897. With Minutes certainly missing from 1814 to 1821, how has it been 
ascertained that Tho s . Liddiard was Master in 1817? From other sources of 
information 1 can add that Thomas Farrell was Master in 1802, and Barry in 

The Union of the two Grand Lodges is foreshadowed by the receipt on 
25 November 1813, of an Official Communication announcing that the Duke of 
Kent had been elected Grand Master in place of the Duke of Atholl, but 
apparently nothing more is mentioned. We know, however, that between 1814 
and 1816 some Members of the Lodge attended at the Lodge of Reconciliation 
(A.Q.C,. xxiii., 299), and the following names may help to bridge the gap 
before the ' revival ' in 1821 : — 

Tho s . Hunt W.3VI. 

J. Flanagan S.W. 

T. Liddiard J.W. 

J. Huss P.M. 

J , L am pson J . W . 

It appears to have been the recognized custom in the early days of the 
Lodge, to confer the first two degrees on one night and the third a month later, 
but frequent departures from the rule were made for the benefit of sea-faring 
Members. The Royal Arch is not mentioned until 1801, but the Brethren 
continued to work the degrees of Excellent and High Excellent down to 
September 1813, sometimes taking their Candidates from other ' Antient ' Lodges 
in their vicinity. 

Tt is to be presumed that the Members brought nothing with them from 
Poplar except their Warrant and Minute Books, leaving all else with their 
Landlord-Treasurer in settlement of his claims. As, however, the Lodge now 
possesses one silver Collar Jewel with the Hall-mark of 1790, it is possible that 
the absence of other old properties may be attributed to periodical pilferings 
by dishonest Tylers. Several of such thefts are recorded. At all events, some 
time after the Lodge was moved to the City, the Members found it necessary 
to buy new Collars and Jewels, though they seem to have used the furniture 
provided by the Landlords at their new Meeting-places until eventually they 
acquired by purchase and gift the complete furnishing which is in use to-day. 
By the way, why should a pair of Compasses be described as "nautical 
instruments ' ' 'I 

In 1802 the Members were warned against the Royal Naval Lodge of 
Independence at Wapping, which was being run by Francis Columbine Daniel, 
who duped the King; while in 1846 reference is made to the expulsion from the 
Craft of the self-styled ' Major General ' George Cooke, who had duped the 
Grand Master. 

In 1826 there was trouble over applications from some of the old Members 
who wished to obtain relief from the Grand Lodge Fund of Benevolence. 
Naturally these Brethren were quite unknown to those who took over the Lodge 
in 1821. The trouble eventually caused the suspension of the Master for three 
months ; and the indignant Secretary managed to record the details of the 
matter in a single sentence of over 500 words. Squabbles of earlier date were 
set out at considerably less length, but in more forcible language. 

Altogether the Book makes very pleasant reading. It was worthy of an 
Index, and the Masonic student would have been grateful for some heavier 
matter such as lists of Members and Visitors. 

July, 1928. W. J. SoxfiHUKST. 

Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 

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Masonic Song and Verse of the Eighteenth Century. 13 

The tune for which this song was written was an old one composed by Lord 
Buckhurst, in 1664. The special feature of this song is the last verse, referring 
to the publication of an exposure in the Flying Post in 1723, though I have 
found no trace of the song before it appeared in Cole's compilation of 1734. 
The last verse runs: — 

Then let us laugh, since we've impos'd 

On those who make a Pother, 
And cry, the Secret is disclos'd 

By some false-hearted Brother. 
The mighty Secret gain'd, they boast, 
From Post-bov, or from Flying-Post. 

Later on, when the topical allusion was out of date, a new verse — a very poor 
one — was substituted for the last one; and this appeared for the first time, I 
believe, in Ahiman Rezon, 1756. 

No doubt some Brethren have already noticed reflections of our ritual and 
lectures in some of the items which I have quoted. Many such exist, though 
they consist for the most part of just a word or two. There are phrases which 
suggest that the Old Charges were not forgotten even by the middle of the century. 
Thus, we hear that "Old Father Seth " 

built up two Pillars, they were tall and thick, 
One was made of Stone and the other of Brick. 

Or again, an odd phrase occurs, which exactly reproduces one of the Charges 
of a Mason, to " reverence his elder, and put him to worship," in 

Respect to our Master and Wardens we pay, 
And put them to worship as Masons are taught. 

The Songs give little away in the matter of the ' secrets ' of a Mason : but 
a good deal of information might be picked up by a careful enquirer as to Lodge 
practice; and I believe that they might be useful to any student who is 
attempting to reconstruct the exact ritual, and who finds insufficient detail in 
the printed exposures of the time. I quote one long passage from a song which 
appeared in the Pocket Companion of 1754. The tune used was "Ye Lads of 
true Spirit, pay Courtship to Claret," but I have not succeeded in unearthing 
a copy of this : — 

The Master stands due, and his Officers too, 

While the Craftsmen are plying their Station ; 

The Apprentices stand, right for the Command 
Of a Free and an Accepted Mason. 

Now traverse your Ground, as in Duty you're bound, 

And revere the authentick Oration, 
That leads to the Way, and proves the first Ray 

Of the Light of an Accepted Mason. 

Here's Words, and here's Signs, and here's Problems and Lines, 

And here's Room too for deep Speculation; 
Here Virtue and Truth are taught to the Youth, 

When first he's called up to a Mason. 

Hieroglyphicks shine bright, and here Light reverts Light, 

On the Rules and the Tools of Vocation; 
We work and we sing the Craft and the King, 

'Tis both 3^)uty and Choice in a Mason. 

What is said, or is done, is here truly laid down, 

In this Form of our high Installation; 
Yet I challenge all Men to know what I mean, 

Unless he's an Accepted Mason. 

14 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

A Prologue, composed by Richard Gardiner, Esq. — better known at the 
time as Dick Merryfellow, at various times traveller, preacher, soldier, and maker 
of political squibs — and spoken by an actress at Swaffham, Norfolk, in 1765, 
has an amusing and instructive passage, put into the mouths of the ' Scald 
Miserable Society ' : — 

Next for the secret of their own wise making, 
Hiram and Boaz, and Grand Master Jachin; 
Poker and tongs ! the sign ! the word ! the stroke ! 
'Tis all a nothing, and 'tis all a joke. 
Nonsense on nonsense ! let them storm and rail, 
Here's the whole history of the mop and pail. 
For 'tis the sense of more than half the town, 
Their secret is — a bottle at the Crown. 

A song containing several miscellaneous slight allusions is " Advance, each 
true Brother," which appeared first, so far as I can find out, in an engraving 
of about 1760. The words are by Bro. J. Williamson, and the music by Bro. 
L. C. A. Granom, though I suspect that the words were originally written to 
fit some existing popular tune, and Bro. Granom's music was later than the song. 
I have not been able to find out anything about either of these two Brethren: — 

Advance, each true Brother, my song now attend, 
And assist in full chorus a Brother and friend; 
With good humour he calls you, then socially join, 
That the ceiling may ring with a theme that's divine. 

Cho: — Then join, Brother Masons, aloft raise the song, 
All the virtues in life to true Masons belong. 

With Square and with Compass, with Level and Line, 
We constantly work to complete our design ; 
By Prudence we steer, and the passions subdue, 
What we learn in our youth in our age we renew. 

On Freedom and Friendship our Order began, 
To deal squarely with all is the chief of our plan; 
The sneer, then, of fools we esteem as a feather, 
Since Virtue's the cement that joins us together. 

Till the ocean be dry, and hard rocks melt away, 
Till the globe shall dissolve, and no sun cheer the day, 
So long shall the Masons their Order maintain, 
And the arrows of slander be shot forth in vain. 

The lines 

When we assemble on a Hill, 
Or in due Form upon the Plain, 

distinctly suggest an acquaintance with the catechisms of considerably earlier 
times, though Prichard's Masonry Dissected, which preserved the "Highest Hill, 
or lowest Vale, or in the Vale of Jehoshaphat, or any other secret Place," is 
perhaps mainly responsible. That Prichard was not forgotten at that date, 
twenty-six years after the first edition of his exposure, appears from the same 
poem, which made its first appearance in A hi man Rezon. The verse: — 

Let Moderns and Critics with impious Rage, 
Amuse the vain Town and against us engage; 
Let Prichard and 's Followers Apostates profane 
With false Tenets puzzle each lethargic Brain; 

suggests that there were an appreciable number of men at large who had 
learnt their Masonry from the exposures, and were very likely a source of some 

Masonic Song and Verse of the. Eighteenth Century. 15 

inconvenience to the Craft. Another, rather far-fetched, allusion to Prichard 
occurs in a Prologue printed in the same volume: — - 

Glorious the Temple of the sylvan Queen, 
Pride of the World at Ephesus was seen 
A witless Wretch the Prichard of those Days, 
Stranger to Virtue and unknown to Praise, 
Crooked of Soul and fond of any Name, 
Consign 'd the noble Monument to Flame 
Vain Madman ! if so thinking to destroy 
The Art which cannot but with Nature die. 

A much more contemporary allusion to Prichard — the only other one I have 
found — is in Peter Farmer's New Model For the Rebuilding Masonry, of 1730, 
which was, in fact, inspired by the exposure. It is dedicated to Mr. Orator 
Henley, and professes to put forward a scheme for establishing Masonry on a 
sounder basis ; and his short account of the qualifications of a Mason is worth 
quoting in full: — 

As Masonry is new modeliz'd, every free and accepted Mason must 
think justly, speak intelligibly, and act honestly, and to approve 
himself a worthy Brother, he must converse only to gain Knowledge 
in our publick Communities, and disperse that Knowledge for the 
Good of Mankind in general; he must propose nothing as a Secret, 
lest it becomes a Custom, and thereby an Introduction to such 
Methods as made the old Order scandalous; he must lay aside the 
Prejudices of Education, and apply to the Study of Things first in 
their natural Light, and improve his Understanding by solid and 
undeniable Principles. The Man that does this shall be a free and 
accepted Mason of the new Order 

This work contained several poems which seem to have become popular later ; 
and one very melancholy item, evidently by Peter Farmer himself, which contains 

the following passage: — ■ 

That Bautefeu, the crooked Richard, 
Was not so bad by half as Prichard; 
He did but take a Crown, and slew 
Of Men and Children but a few; 
But this vile Wretch this Renogardo, 
In publick makes his vile Bravado. 
Of overturning a Community; 
The greatest that e'er held in Unity. 

There are a number of allusions to an anti-Masonic movement at about 
1758 or 1760. Thus: — 

What tho' some of late, by their spleen, plainly show 
They fain would deride what they gladly would know (1758) ; 
or : — 

Though Bigots storm, and Fools declaim, 
And Masons some through ignorance blame (1759); 
or : — 

In spite of the prejudic'd hate 

The vulgar against us retain, 
Let us new attachments create, 

And strengthen each link of our chain : 
Without ceasing they slander us still, 

And fling at us many a joke; 
But those who of Masons speak ill, 

Are not worthy their wrath to provoke (1760); 

or yet again 

Must then our Society still be abus'd, 

And traduc'd by the vile and unjust (1760). 

16 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Of the two last-quoted, one is an adaptation from the French by Bro. Alexander 
Reid, and appeared in the British Magazine, and the other is from the Master 
Key, both of 1760; but the two former quotations hail from Alloa and Dumfries, 
and perhaps give the clue to the reference, which, 1 think, must be to the strongly 
anti-Masonic movement in Scotland, which led to the exposure in the Scot's 
Magazine in 1755. In this connection, it is worth quoting a passage from a 
Prologue of 1730, by Nathaniel Blackerby, Deputy Grand Master in 1729, 
though I do not know for what occasion it was written -, — 

Not so the Assembly of the Scottish Kirk, 

Their Wisdoms went a wiser Way to work : 

When they were told that Masons practls'd Charms, 

Invok'd the Dee'l and rais'd tempestous Storms, 

Two of their Body prudently they sent 

To learn what cou'd by Masonry be meant. 

Admitted to the Lodge and treated well, 

At their Return the Assembly hop'd they'd tell. 

We say nea mere than this (they both reply'd) 

Do what we've done and ye' 11 he satisfy' el. 

When quoting verses containing allusions to our ritual, I have not so far 
touched upon the Initiate's Charge; but this subject lends itself well to verse 
treatment, and such allusions abound. I will content myself with one, a 
passage from a Prologue which I quote from the " Book M," showing that the 
' domestic as well as public ' virtues were set apart for special notice as early 
as 1736: — 

Freedom and mirth attend the cheerful bowl, 

Refresh the spirits and enlarge the soul ; 

The cordial we with moderation use, 

For Temperance admits of no abuse; 

Prudence w 7 e praise, and Fortitude commend, 

To Justice always, and her friends, a friend. 

I conclude my quotations with a passage from another Prologue, of thirty 
years later, by Bro. Andrew Brice, who w-as the author of a number of Masonic 
pieces. Bro. Brice was a printer at Exeter, and died in 1773, then said to 
be the oldest Free-Mason in England. His body was laid in state at an Inn 
in Exeter, and visitors paid a shilling each towards the cost of the funeral, 
which was attended by over 300 Masons. His definition of " What to be a 
Mason" runs as follows: — ■ 

To aim, the best our common Frailty can, — ■ 

At growing (as th' Eternal fram'd the Man) 

Upright and pure in Life; of Heart sincere, 

From Guile, Hypocrisy, and Envy, clear; 

To rule our Passions, and fell Pride subdue, 

Be sociable, meek, obsequious, True; 

To aid, relieve, support, protect, redress, 

As Heav'n enables, Brothers in Distress. 

To comfort, cherish, and redeem from Slight, 

Virtue forlorn, and Worth in humble Plight; 

To court the Graces; learn a decent Mien, 

A serious Air unmixt with gloomy Spleen ; 

Indulge a Temper cheerful, — yet discreet, — 

Admitting no wild Frolick when in Lodge we meet. 

Such Masons shou'd be: — such they're taught to be. 
If Actions with Profession disagree, — 
The Fault's in them: — Blameless stands Masonry. 

So far I have said, nothing about the music to which these songs were 
sung; and I do not propose to offer any sort of critical remarks about it. But, 
at a period when duets and trios were* popular, it is curious to find that none 

Masonic Song and Verse of the Eighteenth Century. 17 

of the original Masonic music took any form but that of the solo — except for a 
few four-part choruses — until the middle of the century. In 1763 appeared 
Hale's Social Harmony, containing several much more elaborate compositions, 
one of which — " Comus, away, with all thy revel train"- — received very high 
praise in a paper on ' Masonic Musicians ' read before this Lodge in 1891. I 
have selected what seemed to me the most pleasing of the items, an original 
setting as a trio, by Bro. Orme, of a song which was first printed by Cole in 
1734: — 

Guardian Genius of our Art divine 
Unto thy faithful sons appear; 

Cease now o'er ruins of the East to pine, 
And smile in blooming beauties here. 

The Sciences from Eastern regions brought, 
Which after shone in Greece and Rome, 

Are here in hundred stately Lodges taught, 
To which remotest Brethren come. 

Nor are we only to these Arts confined, 

For we the paths of Virtue trace; 
By us Man's rugged nature is refined, 

And polished into Love and Peace. 

Yet one more type of music is entirely wanting from the collection — the 
Catch. To judge from the eighteenth century music which I have looked 
through, the Catch must have been even more popular than the duet or trio; 
and Catch-Clubs were a regular institution in London throughout the latter part 
cf the century. In spite of this, I have only found the words of one Catch 
before the closing years of the century; it appears in the Master Key of 1760, 
but, unfortunately, I have been unable to find any music for it. I do not 
think that my programme would be complete without one ; so 1 have borrowed 
one from the last decade of the century, written for the tune of "Hark, the 
bonny Christ Church Bells": — 

Hark, the Hiram sounds to close, 

And we from work are free ; 
We'll drink and sing, and toast the King, 

And the Craft with a hearty three times three. 

Hark, the clock repeats high twelve, 

It can't strike more, we all well know; 
Then ring, ring, ring, ring, ring the bell 

For another bowl before we go. 

Coming, coming, coming, Sir, the waiter cries, 

With a bowl to drown our care; 
We're a hearty set, on the Level met, 

And we'll part upon the Square. 

Such is my very inadequate treatment of a large subject. Many more 
allusions might have been quoted; many more authors and composers might 
have been resurrected; and I have had to select my programme with an eye 
to verse, tune, and brevity, and cannot feel sure that I have given the best 
or the most representative items available Moreover, with the exception of 
the last item, all my material — both music and verse — is from the first fifty 
years of Grand Lodge. After that, there was a growing output, too large to 
deal with adequately; while its character changed, perhaps the most noticeable 
feature being the appearance of a type which may best be described as the 
Masonic ' hymn.' I can only hope that I may have led some of my ' audience ' 
to take an interest in the subject, for I have certainly dealt with no more than 
a small fraction of the items which have some story to tell about the Masonry 
of the period, 

IB- Transactions of the Quatuor Coranati Lodge. 

I will conclude by expressing my personal thanks — for I feel sure that 
the Lodge will express its own — to Bro. F. H. Chawner, my colleague at 
Sedbergh, who has worked with me — I should say for me — in setting the music; 
and to Bro. F. J. Asbury and his party for the excellent rendering they have 
given of the musical items. 


Chronological Index of Masonic Verse up to 1767. 

[The following Table shows also the sources, the title of book, &c, being 
placed at the head of each entry, or series of entries. 

Following the ( first line ' of each Song will be found references to the 
Music, or old Tune, to which the Song was sung. 

The dates on the left represent (so far as I can discover) the earliest 
appearance of each Song.] 

York MS. No. 1 

c. 1600 Much might be said of the noble Art 

Newcastle College MS. 

c. 1700 Come all you Masons, hear what I do say 

Dumfries MS., No. 4 

A caput mortum here you see 

Reid's Weekly Journal, 1722 

1722 Come, let us prepare ... by Bro. Matthew Birkhead 

Music by the Author, B. of C, 1723 

Book of Constitutions, 1723 

Adam, the first of human kind ... by James Anderson 
Music, B. of C, 1723 

1723 Hail, Masonry! thou Craft divine ... by Bro. Chas. Delafaye 

Original Music by J. F. Lampe, 1739 

by L M Y (MS. in G.L. Lib.) 

,, ,, (anon) (In possession of Bro. W. Heaton) 

Rule Brttanma 

Sweet are the Charms (by Bro. R. T^everidge) 
Whene'er we are alone ... by James Anderson 
Music, B. of C, 1723 

Peter Farmer's ' New Model,' 1730 
We have no idle prating 

The Steward's Song (Leveridge) 

H olden, 1797 (a variation of the former) 

The Grand Mystery Discovered 

1724 Here's a health to our Society 

Tho. Carmick MS. 

1727 Of all the world a part, it is inferred 

Cole's Collection, 1729 

1728 You've seen me oft, in gold and ermine dressed (Prologue) 
With what malicious joy, ere I knew better (Epilogue) 

Masonic Song and Verse of the Eighteenth Century. 


MS. Rawl. C.136 (Bodleian) 

1730 As a wild rake, that courts a virgin fair (Prol.) . . - ■ . By Bro. 
N. Blackerby 
Ladies and Gentlemen, I beg you'd stay (Epil.) 

Peter Farmer's ' New Model,' 1730 

As I at Wheeler's Lodge one night ... by Bro. Moses Harris 

I'm companion for Lords, and Dukes are my friends . . . by a 

Country Attorney 
Let malicious people censure 

Melpomene, who guides the tongues ... by Peter Farmer 
Now the hungry lions roar (Chorus in Cole, 1729) 

Music by Bro, It. Leveridge 
What though they call us Masons fools 

What though they call me country lass 

Cole's Collection, 1731 

1730 By Masons' Art the aspiring domes ... by Wm. Rufus 

Mus. engraved by Bro. Geo. Bickham 

1731 Come, all ye elves that be . . . Lodge at Caermarthen 
O Blandusia, noble fountain 

my little rolling sailor 
On, on, my dear Brethren, pursue your great lecture 
Bremner's Freemasons' Songs, Edinb., c.1760 
H olden, 1797 

Pocket Companion, Dublin, 1761 

Well, here I'm come to let you know my thoughts (Epil.) 

Gentleman's Mag., 1732 

1732 Well, ladies, of the Art of Masonry (Epil.) 

MS. Rawl. C.136 

1733 Let Masonry be now my theme 

c. 1734 If Masons have in every Art excelled (Prol.) 

Cole's Collection, 1735 

1735 A health to our sisters let's drink 

A Mason's daughter, fair and young 

Music by Bro. Commins 

II olden :.,' 1707 
Glorious Craft, which fires the mind 

Let ambition fire thy mind 

Care, thou canker 

Duet in Eastman, 1825 
Grant me, kind Heaven, what I request 

Near some cool shade 

Duet in H olden, 1797 

Eastman, 1825 
Guardian Genius of our Art divine 

Trio in Hale, 17G3 
Sing to the honour of those 

The merry-ton'* d horn 
To all who Masonry despise ... ? by Bro. J. T. Desaguliers 

To all you ladies now on land 
Where are these hydras? Let me vent my spleen (Epil.) 

Gentleman's Mag., 1735 

1735 Ha ! what a noble show of aprons here (Prol.) 

20 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

The Book M, 1736 

1736 A Mason one time condemned for a crime 

Beneath the Masons' awful dome . . . Swalwell 
Hail to the Masons' sacred Art ... by Bro. L. Umfreville 
If gloomy cares your mind oppress 
The azure lustre of the sky 

We gentlemen who here do meet . . . Swalwell 
When Sanballat Jerusalem distressed 

While others sing of wars and martial feats (Prol.) ... by Bro. 
R. Bulrley[s7c] 

Engraving by H. Roberts, 1736 

'Tis Masonry unites mankind 

Music engraved by Roberta 

MS. RawL C. 136 

? 1736 I'll tell you a story, a story so merry 

Misc. works of J. Banks, 1738 

1738 Genius of Masonry, descend ... by Bro. J. Banks 

Bickham's Musical Entertainer, 1738 {By C, Vincent) 

B. of C, 1738 

Ye Brethren of the ancient Craft ... ? by James Anderson 
To all you ladies now on land 
Sailor Jack 
Glee in H olden, 1797 

Lampe's British Melody, 1739 

1739 Let Ancient Masons boast their style 

Music in Lampe 

B. Cole, 1751 

1751 Begin, O ye Muses, a Free-Masons' strain . , . by H. Jackson 

A t the broiv of the hill 
Music in Hale, 1763 
Pray lend me your ears, my dear Brethren awhile 
Original -music, engraved sheet [anon) 

Pocket Companion, Edinburgh, 1752 

1752 No more, my Muse, in doggerel rhyme delight 
Some folks have with curious impertinence strove 

Holden, 1797 

Pocket Companion, 1754 

1754 Wake the lute and quivering strings ... by Bro. Jackson 
Music by Bro. Gilding 
When a Lodge of Freemasons are clothed in their aprons 
Ye lads of true spirit, pay courtship to claret 

Ahiman Rezon, 1756 

1756 As Masons once, on Shinar's Plain ... by Bro. L. Dermott 

Mutual Love- 
As some cracked chemist, of projecting brain (Prol.) 
Attend, attend the strains ... by Bro. J. Cartwright 

Smile, Britannia 
Attend, loving Brethren, and to me give ear ... by Bro. 
Alexander Kennedy 

Deny Down 

Air in J. Cole, 1801 
Blest be the day that gave to me ... by Bro. J. Cartwright 
Come, are you prepared 

E. A . Song 

Masonic Song and Verse of the Eighteenth Century. 



by Bro. E P- 

. by Bro. Alexander 

by Bro. Il- 

Come, boys, let us more liquor get ... by Bro. J- 
Come, come, my Brethren dear 
II olden, 1797 

Come, fill up a bumper ... by Bro. E . P 

Come, follow, follow me 

The fairy elves 
From the depths let us raise 

E. A. Song 
Hail, Masonry divine 

God save, the King 
Eastman, 1825 
Hail, sacred Art, by heaven design'd . 
Hail, secret Art, by heaven designed 
How blessed are we from ignorance freed . 

How happy a Mason whose bosom still flows 

How happy a state does the Miller possess 
If to delight to humanise the mind (Prol.) 
If unity be good in every degree 
King Solomon, that wise projector 

Come all hands along to the anchor 
Jerry Fitzgerald 

Have ye heard of a frolicsome ditty 
Come, Fye, let us a' to the wedding 
H olden, 1797 
Let Masons be merry each night when they meet 
Let worthy Brethren all combine 

Hail, Masonry, etc. 
Of all institutions to form well the mind 

p . } Esq. 

By Jove, I'll be free 
Once I was blind and could not see 
Sailor Jack 

II olden, 1797 ( = var. of "To all you ladies ") 
See in the East the Master placed ... by Bro. John Jackson, 

The curious vulgar could never devise 
On, on, my dear Brethren 

To Masonry your voices raise ... by Bro. J. Cartwright 

The Bonny Broom 

Holden, 1797 
To the Science that virtue and art do maintain ... by Bro. 
B-^d CI ke 

By Jove, I'll be free 

Urania, sing the Art divine 
Rule, Britannia 

Waste and irregular still the world had been 
We Brethren Free-Masons, let's mark the great name 
How happy a state does the Miller possess 

Well, heavens be praised, the mighty secret's out (Prol.) 

When earth's foundation first was laid ... by Bro. J . C . 

Rule, Britannia 

When Masonry, by heaven's design 
Rule, Britannia 

Whoever wants wisdom must with some delight 
Derry down 

by Bro. Alexander 

22 Transactions' of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

With cordial hearts let's drink a health 

The first of August 

Come, jolly Bacchus, God of wine 

II olden, 1797 
With harmony and flowing wine ... by Bro. L. Dermott 

Greedy Midas 
With plumb, level, and square to work let's prepare 

Ye thrice happy few 

long live the King 

F.M.'s Magazine Hi., p. 363 
Ye ancient sons of Tyre 

Ye mortals that love drinking 
Ye people who laugh at Masons, draw near 

Polly, you might have toyed and kissed 

The Free Masons' Melody, Bury, 1818 

1757 Like an arch well cemented together ... by Sir W. Grant 

Pocket Companion, 1759 

1758 Behold in a Lodge we dear Brethren are met ... by Bro. Laurie, 

Berry down 
Eastman, 1825 

1759 Though bigots storm, and fools declaim ... by Bro. Blacklock, 

Ye thrice happy few 

Freemasons' Magazine, Vol. rii. 

Freemasons' Songs, Edinburgh, c. 1760 

1760 Come, come, my dear Brethren, great news I proclaim 

Freemasons' Songs 

British Magazine, 1760 

Great Jupiter took it one day in his head ... by Bro. Alexander 
Reid, from the French 

Derry down 

Abbot of Canterbury 
In spite of the prejudiced hate . . . (ditto) 

An old woman clothed in grey 

Master Key, 1760 

Must then our Society still be abxised 
Ye Brethren all (catch) 

British Mag., or Monthly Repository, 1760 

Deign, bright Urania, from above ... by Mr. E d K s 

of Reading 

Engraved by T. B., c. 1760 

Advance, each true Brother, my song now attend ... by Bro. 
J. Williamson 
Music by Bro. L. G. A. Granom 
Dear Tom, this brown juc/ 
Holden, 1797 

Pocket Companion, Dublin, 1761 

1761 Arise, gentle Muse, and with wisdom inspire 
Five ancient Lodges first began 

Stephen Jones, 1797 

1762 When the Grand Master, and great Lord of all Prol., 


Masonic Song and Verse of the Eighteenth Century. 23 

Hale, Social Harmony, 1763 

1763 Arise, gentle Muse, and thy wisdom impart , -by Bro. J. 


Dear Tom, this brown jug 

Music by Orme (II ale) 
Comus, away, with all thy revel train ... by Bro. Jackson 

Hale, 1763 
Descend, Urania, mystic maid ... by Bro. Hudson 

Hale, 1763 
'Tis to Masons ever pleasing 

Hale, 1763 

Multa Paucis, 1764 

1764 Although I'm no Mason, and cannot be free 
Come, Brethren of Fame 

Defence of Masonry, 1765 

1765 All you who would know what a Mason should be ... by Bro. 


The big-bellied bottle 
A Mason is great and respected ... by Bro. C. Smart, A.M. 

Ye frolicsome sparks of the game 
Come now, loved, loving Brethren ... by Bro. Brice, Exeter 

So hi y the as the linnet 

Of noble race was Shenkin 
It has oft of the females been said ... by Bro. Riley 

my kitten 

Ye swains that are courting a mmd 
The sun is set, the Lodge is closed ... by Bro. Riley 

Come, learn by this, ye bachelors 

As calms appear when storms are past 
Under mystery's wing ... by Bro. Alex. Reid, from the French 

Give us glasses, my wench 
When a Lodge, just and perfect, is formed all aright ... by 
Bro. Brice 

Boast Beef of old England ~ 

Oh! the brave tars of old England 

Printed (Broadley Collection) 

Joy to my Brother Masons . . . Glasgow Royal Arch 

Memoirs of R— ch— d G— rd— n— r, 1782 

While royal splendour and theatric state . . . Prol., by Bro. 
Richard Gardiner, Sw r affham 

Select Collection, Exeter, 1767 

1766 The Hebrew spies of Canaan's land spoke ill . . Prol., by Bro. 


1767 As long as our coast shall with whiteness appear 

Freemasons' Magazine, Vol. Hi. 
Assist me, ye fair tuneful Nine ... by Bro. Foote, Exeter 

My fond shepherd 

Music by Dr. Arnold 
Attend, Brother Masons, while I faintly describe 
Come, ye Masons so free, who do ever agree 

Hearts of Oak 
Come, come, my dear Brethren, and list to my song 

Come, come, my fond shepherds 

24 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Here let no dull faces of business appear 

Inspire me, Muse, with lays divine ... by Bro. Churchill, 

The Hemjp-Dressers 
Of all the places in the town ... by Bro. Oborne, Plymouth 

A-begging we will go 
One night as Ned crept into bed 

The humours of Rag Fair 
Our grave work is o'er, high twelve beats the clock ... by Bro. 

So blythe as the linnet 
When first a Mason I was made ... by Bro. Oborne 

Attic Fire 

Eastman, 1825 
When Masons in a Lodge do meet ... by Bro. Oborne 

Black Joke 
Whilst some sing of love and its amorous flame ... by Bro. 

Green Sleeves 
With grateful hearts your voices raise ... by Bro. Edw. Fenner, 

[The Editor will be glad to receive notes of any additional Songs or 
Tunes, or of any appearances earlier than those noted in the above list.] 

A hearty vote of thanks was unanimously passed to Bro. Poole on the proposition 
of Bro. W. W. Covey-Crump, seconded by Bro. Geo. Norman, comments being offered 
by or on behalf of Bros. J. Heron Lepper, H. C. de Lafontaine, J. AV. Hobbs, G. W. 
Daynes, B. Telepneff, and Gordon P. G. Hills. In replying to the comments, Bro. 
Poole expressed his personal thanks to Bro, F. H. Chawner, who had collaborated 
with him in setting the music, and to Bros. E. Warren, F. J. Asbury, H. W. 
Burden, and Hedley Staniland, who had so kindly attended and rendered the 
various musical items. 

Bro. W. W. Covey-Ckump said: — 

It is with much pleasure that I ask you to accord a hearty vote of thanks 
to Bro. Poole and to those Brethren who have kindly co-operated with him in 
the lecture this evening. To many of us it has been a very pleasant survey 
of a province of Masonic lore not hitherto explored, and we all appreciate the 
research which it has involved. A scope for criticism is scanty, and I feel 
very deficient in the qualifications requisite for a censor of it, though my 
appreciation is none the less competent and sincere. 

We shall all agree with Bro. Poole's premise that in Masonic meetings in 
the Eighteenth Century singing played a definite part — a part prominent though 
quite different from that of the instrumental music which gives dignity and 
variety to the ceremonial work in our Lodges to-day. His use of the phrase 
"early organised Masonry" was probably an unconscious pun on Bro. Poole's 
part. It is needless to point out that organs, harmoniums and pianos were 
almost non-existent accessories in Lodges in the early part of the eighteenth 
century. The Moderns Grand Lodge first acquired an organ when their Hall 
was built in 1775, and even then accommodation was also provided for an 
orchestra of other instruments. Prior to that time the instrument requisitioned 
for playing accompaniments in ordinary Lodges would usually be a Violin, 
Flute or French Horn. The Masonic songs and glees were incidentals in the 
proceedings (then called "table Lodge"), whilst the Brethren were called off 

Masonic So/ir/ an<J Verne of the Eighteenth Century. 25 

from labour to refreshment — or, at all events, were at refreshment — and were 
interspersed betwean those catechetical exercises which have now become practically 
obsolete. Consequently, as Bro. Poole reminded us, we cannot entirely separate 
even the old drinking songs from what we understand as ''Lodge music," 
though their more obvious analogy would be to the vocal items which nowadays 
are introduced as a relaxation from post-prandial oratory. May I not add 
parenthetically a regret that, except for the Entered Apprentice Song (dating 
from 1721), those vocal items to-day have but seldom a distinctively Masonic 
congruity ? 

To-night we have reverted to that old custom of interspersing vocal 
music in the work of the Lodge, and we shall all agree that the result has 
been delightfully harmonious. 

Bro. Gilbert W. Daynes said: — ■ 

I should like to add my thanks to Bro. Poole for the very charming 
paper he has read to us this evening and to express my delight at the 
fascinating manner in which certain of the early Masonic songs have been 
brought to our notice. These ancient songs — sung by our Masonic forefathers 
in the eighteenth century — possess an old-w T orld charm that is mostly absent 
from the usual musical programme at Masonic gatherings to-day. 

In the eighteenth century the Masonic song and the toast seem to have 
been closely interwoven. In many collections of songs a toast is given after 
each song. In the 2nd Edition of Smith's Free Masons' Pocket Com panion 
(1738), The Master's Song, by Dr. James Anderson, heads the Collection. This 
song is divided into five parts, and a toast is given after each part. For 
instance, after part one there is a note, " stop here to drink the Present Grand 
Master's Health." 

One of the earliest Masonic songs is the Entered Apprentice's Song, 
composed by Matthew Birkhead. Throughout the eighteenth century this song, 
when sung, appears to have had a special ceremony attached to it. In that 
so-called exposure, The Three Distinct Knocks, there is the following note after 
this song : — 

" N.B. When they sing the aforesaid song, they all stand round a 
great table, and join hands across, that is, your right hand takes 
hold of your left hand man's left hand; and your left hand man, 
with his right hand, takes hold of his left man's left hand, and so 
crossing all round ; But when they say the last verse, they jump up 
altogether ready to shake the floor down." 

Of the many rhyming toasts to be found there is one I like even better 
than the two quoted by Bro. Poole: — 

" To each faithful Brother both antient and young, 
Who governs his Passion and bridles his Tongue." 

Bro. Poole refers to songs being sung in Grand Lodge "as late as 
26th November, 1728." In the 2nd Edition of Smith's Free Masons' Pocket 
Companion I find the two following references to Grand Lodge in this con- 
nection. There is a note attached to the Warden's Song, by Dr. James 
Anderson, as follows: — "To be sung at the Quarterly Communication." There 
is also a note to the Fellow-Crafts Song, by Charles De la Faye, that that s-ong 
was "to be sung and play'd at the Grand Feast." 

Bro. Poole quotes eight lines from the Prologue spoken by Mr. William 
Mills on the 27th December, 1728, at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. These 
self-same lines were used by J. Morgan, in January, 1731, in the dedication 
he wrote/ for his collection of tracts, which he entitled Phcenir Jir'ttannicus 

26 T ra-nsaet ions of the (Juatuor Coronati Lod/je. 

(A.fy.C. xix., 127, et scq,). The Editor of 77/ r Freemasons' Mayaiine prefaced 
the contents page with these lines, when he published the first number of the 
Magazine in June, 1793. 

The laudatory strain, so prominent in the Entered Apprentice's Song, 
becomes less pronounced during the second half of the century, and a song in 
the Edinburgh J' 1 rec masons' ioehet (.'otn pennon for 1761 has these two lines: — 

"We're Sons of Antiquity 
But not of pride." 


These lines occur in the song, quoted by our Lecturer, from the Free Afas 
Sone/s, by Robert Bremner. 

The item quoted from The Generous Freemason , written by W. R. 
Chetwood, was one of seven new songs selected by Anderson for inclusion in the 
Constitutions of 1738, and was there entitled ■- " An Ode to the Eree Masons." 
Chetwood seems to have been at first a Bookseller and, later, Prompter at the 
Drury Lane Theare. lie died about 1760, and there is a fairly full account 
of him in our Transactions (A .Q .(..' . xxi.. Ifio-ti). Another song appearing in 
the Constitutions of 1738 is The Deputy Grand Master's Song. It commences: — 

" On on my dear Brethren, pursue your great Lecture. 
And refine on the rules cf old Architecture: 
.1 Figh Honour to Masons the Craft daily brings. 
To these Brothers of Princes and Fellows cf Kings.'' 

To this song an additional stanza was added by Brother Gofton, " at the time 
when the Prince was made a Mason, and while the Princess was pregnant." 

From the so-called exposure, Hiram, or The. Grand Ahuter A>//, published 
in 1764, it would appear that there- were really two classes of Masonic songs. 
There were those which were sung after the Lectures, and as a prelude to certain 
toasts. They were sung during Lodge hours, and dealt, mainly with Masonry 
and its principles. The most important of them appear in the various editions 
of the Book of Const if nt ions. So, also, in the Minutes of the Lodge of Friend- 
ship No. 6, for the 10th March, 1740, it is recorded: — 

" Part of the Songs of the Craft were read by the Master in lieu of 
a Lecture from the Constitutions." 

There were, also, those sung at the end of the evening, either just before, or 
even after, the Lodge was closed. Thus, in "Hindu, or the Grand Master Key, 
we read : — 

"It sometimes happens, that after the Lodge is closed, some Member, 
being warmed with the juice of the grape, thinks ho may dispense 
with the laws of Decency, and indulge himself with an Obscene Song : 
but though it is a Maxim pretty generally receiv'd, that good Singers 
should be free from all Restrictions, yet the better sort of Freemasons 
have not adopted it, though they do not exclude gay and joyous songs 
after the Lodge is shut." 

Bro. Poole quotes the song, " We have no idle prating, of either Whig 
or Tory." This song, said to have been composed by a Country Attorney on 
his, being admitted a Mason, appears in Peter Farmer's Book, .1 Xeir Afnde! for 
Ited-uddinej AJasoi/r//. In this work the song is prefixed by the note: — 

"The following song was sung by a Son of Bacchus at a Bacchanalian 
Banquet of Free Masons and passed the approbation of the late D. 
of W." 

This indicates its date as being between 1721 and 1725. 

I observe that Bro. Poole attributes the song, " To all who Masonry 
despise," to Dr. J. T. Desaguliers. I should be glad to know upon what 
authority, as I cannot find it attributed to him in any book that I have 

DlSCUXSLOn . 2' 

consulted. It is termed ''The Sword Bearer's Song/' by Anderson, in the 
Constitutions of 1738, and he appears to have been the first to have so named 
it. There is no title to the song in Alt-iman lie '.on, where it appears with 
the altered verse mentioned by Bro. Poole. This was no doubt because, in 
1756, the Autients Grand Lodge did not appoint a Grand Sword Bearer. 
It may also be mentioned in passing that all the eleven songs printed in the 
Constitutions of 1738 were incorporated by Laurence Dermott in the first 
edition of A.himan liezon. In each case, however, where Lord Carnarvon's 
name appears in the earlier set Dermott has altered the line. Although 
Dermott altered the verse quoted by Pro. Poole, the original verse was retained 
by .Wellins Calcott in his Candid Disquisitions, and also by the Author of the 
Edinburgh Freemason's Pocket Conepeuiion of 1765. Another of the songs 
taken by Laurence Dermott for his collection in the first edition of A h email 
llv.un was one beginning: — 

" As I. at Wheelers Lodge one Night." 

This song was composed by a Member of the One Tun Lodge in Noble Street. 
Falcon Square, London, a Lodge constituted under the premier Grand Lodge 
in May, 1722, and now Royal Alpha Lodge No. 16. Bro. Dermott was thus 
quite impartial as to the source from whence lie culled his Masonic harmony. 

Richard Gardiner, who composed the Prologue spoken in 1765, at 
Swaffham, Norfolk, was a founder and the first Master of the Great Lodge at 
Swaffham. remaining an active member until 1770. He appears to have been 
the mainstay of that Lodge (A.Q.C. xx., 232, et see/.). 

The song, "Attend loving Brethren and to me give ear," in which the 
verse commencing " Let Moderns and Critics with impious Rage " appears, is 
stated in Ahiman liezon of 1756, to have been composed "by the foregoing 
Hand." As the last previously named song in Aliiman lie-on is given as "By 

Brother L D ," it might be assumed that the song in question was 

by him. In the second edition, however, it is stated to have been written by 
" Brother Alexander Kennedy, Schoolmaster." Tt is omitted from some of the 
later editions. Prichard was still remembered in 1807, as also was Slade, for 
we find, in the edition of Alii/nan lie: on- for that year, an Ode which, after 
describing the vain efforts of the "curious world with prying eyes " to discover 
the "'Masons Mystery," ends thus: — 

" And after all their wise conceits are weigh'd, 
Spite of tales of Prit chard, Plot and Slade, 
They ne'er can know how a Freemason's made." 

Bro. Poole refers to an anti- Masonic movement of about 1757 or 1760. 
It was about this time that the third great series of so-called exposures began 
to make their appearance, edition after edition, of one or other of them, being 
published. In the first edition of the Edinburgh Freerneison's Foel-ct Convpeution , 
published in 1761, the first piece printed in the Appendix was "Act of the 
Associate Synod concerning t lie Mason Oath." This Act was promulgated in 
Edinburgh on 25th August, 1757, and was first published in the Scots Magazine 
for that month. The action taken by the Associate Synod may have been 
inspired by the so-called exposure that had appeared previously in the Scots 
Magazine in 1755. This strongly worded denunciation by the Associate Synod 
of Freemasonry produced a reply entitled " An impartial examination of the 
Act of the Associate Synod against the Free-Masons," which was published in 
the .E din-burgh Magazine for October, 1757. This w T as also reprinted in the 
Appendix above referred to. I think that it is very probable Bro. Laurie of 
the Lodge of Alloa, and Bro. Blacklock of the Ledge at Dumfries, who, in 
1758 and 1759 respectively, wrote the songs mentioned by Bro. Poole, were 
inspired to do so by these two Articles, and the stir they must have created in 
the Lodges in Scotland. 

28 Transaction*; of the Qimhtor Coro/iati Lodyc. 

Finally, I would like fully to endorse the remarks of Bro. Poole as to 
the value of some of the suggestions and hints contained in the song and verse 
of the period under review. There is, I am sure, much to be learnt from a 
careful perusal of the many collections of songs ; and while there is undoubtedly 
a vast amount of rubbish to be cast aside there is also an abundance of valuable 
material to be gathered together. 

Bro. B. Telepneff said: — 

It is a great pleasure for me to be able to congratulate Bro. Poole on 
his excellent paper, both entertaining and instructive. Its instructiveness may 
even possibly be overlooked behind its entertaining side; yet the paper provides, 
in my opinion, not only valuable glances into ' the atmosphere ' of early 
Masonic Lodges in England, but also into other matters of importance. Such, 
taking one instance, is Bro. Poole's evidence concerning the Old Charges not 
being quite forgotten even "by the middle of the eighteenth century." 

Bro. Poole limits himself strictly to the first fifty years of the existence 
of the Grand Lodge of England; also, he does not refer to Masonic songs in 
Continental Lodges of the same period. Thus he very generously leaves 
fascinating vistas for similar research in other Masonic periods and areas. It 
would be, therefore, hardly relevant to review to-night Continental achieve- 
ments in Masonic song and verse. I hope, however, to be not altogether out 
of place by giving an English translation of a few lines sung in Russia aboiit 
1741 to 1761 in honour of General James Keith, the first real propagator of 
Masonic Art in Russia and the second Provincial Grand Master of that country, 
appointed as such by the Grand Lodge of England during the period embraced 
by Bro. Poole's paper. The song, of which I have translated only the first 
part, exhibits the same " laudatory, moral and social " characteristics which are 
so aptly illustrated by Bro. Poole's examples: — 

" Then l Keith, enlightened, came to the Russian Empire 
And, full of zeal, lit up for us the sacred fire. 

A Temple of Wisdom 2 lie erected, and its spark 
Showed Virtue, Brotherhood to Masons, still in dark. 

lie was an image of the Sun whose rise, po bright, 

Is message of the shining dawn of the Queen of Light, " — 

i.e., of the rise of Freemasonry in the dark world of the profanes. 

Bro. H. Poole write* as follows, in reply: — 

There seems to be little for me to do beyond congratulating myself on 
my good luck in lighting upon material which has ' gone down ' so well. I 
hasten to apologise for my pun (if any) ; and I almost feel that I ought to 
apologise for not having put before the Lodge more music and less prose. 

Bro. Daynes has caught me out on the date of a song from Peter Farmer : 
and I am very glad to be able to correct my Appendix accordingly. In this 
connection, may I say that any corrections or additions will be very gratefully 
received, so that my list may form the basis of a record, as complete and accurate 
as possible, of the verse of the period for the benefit of future students. 

Bro. Daynes also challenges my attribution of a Song to Desaguliers ; 
and all I can say is that I have found it so stated in one of the many collections 
which I have looked through, and of which I have made no note. The complete 

1 After Peter the Great, the traditional founder of Russian Freemasonry. 

2 A Lodge, no doubt. 



silence of the vast majority as to the authorship of this song makes the ascription 
very doubtful indeed, and I have only allowed it to stay in mv Appendix with 
a query. 

I like lira. Telepneff's suggestion that, others may in due course deal with 
the Masonic Songs of other countries, and I hope that it will be acted on before 

Since this paper was read, several Lodges have adopted songs which I 
collected, or verses with fresh tunes composed for them, for use at their 
meetings — and 1 believe they are appreciated. I can only say that I shall be 
very pleased to do what I can to help on any such movement, and to place any 
material I have at the disposal of either singer or student. 


Transact tuns of the- (Juatuor Coronati Lodge 


1723, 24th June, to 1739, 12th December, 





HE First two Minute Books of the Grand Lodge of 1717 

contain three lists of the names of Members of Lodges, as well 

as incidental references to Freemasons who were not included 

in either of these lists; some of whom indeed were made 

Freemasons after the latest of the lists was compiled. The 

lists are commonly known as the 1723, P725, and 1730 lists. 

although, in some cases, it is clear that Lodges constituted 

after the year dates are included. 

Brother Songhurst, the Editor of Q.C.A. x., which comprises the two 

Minute Books referred to, intimated, in the introduction to the Reprint, that 

the names of Freemasons so recorded might usefully be gone through so that 

the Craft might know more about them. 

The following particulars are the result of a comparison between the 
names in Quatuor Coronal or win Antifjrapha, vol. x., and the Dtctionan/ of 
Xatiotutl Biographt/ . The inclusion of a short Biography of any person in that 
monumental work indicates that he attained a certain degree of eminence or 

The mere coincidence of names is not sufficient to prove identify ; but 
where the period of the person, as well as his name, coincide, the identification 
becomes at least probable. Thus if we find a name in the 1730 list which 
agrees with a name in the O.X.B.. identification is (save in some very rare case) 
excluded if the person in the JJ.X.B. is stated to have been born less than twenty 
years before 1730. If, however, such a person w?re born in 1705 and died after 
1730, according to the dates given in the D.X .B., identification would be probable. 
Strict legal identification is, in many cases, not obtainable; but in most of the 
items hereinafter particularized, the ordinary critic who has not unduly developed 
the sceptical side of his mentality, will probably conclude that the persons named 
are identical. In some cases where I have had a doubt on the subject, it has 
seemed to me better to provide my readers with the materials for forming their 
own judgment, than that I should exclude such names from the list. There are 
also a few names where, although the dates entirely negative identity, the 
similarities of names are interesting and point to a close relationship worthy to 
be recorded. The particulars given sufficiently indicate such cases. 

Every name in Q.C.A. x., has, I believe, been compared by me with the 
D.X.B. There are many persons of nobility, and of rank in the Army, and 
in social life, who are named in the Minutes, but not in the D.X.B. These 
names remain for investigation and description by other students, except so far 
as they have already been noted in these Tra/inactions and elsewhere. Nearly 
200 names are included in the following list. 

Afftsottic I'craomdid, ffi-i-.l'd, 31 

In addition to the information contained in the D.X .Ii. a few incidental 
matters have also been noted. Reference has also been made to the British 
Museum Catalogue of engraved Portraits, and the information thereby obtained 
has been included so far as it appears to have a Masonic bearing. Some 
information culled from f/oi/arth's- London by IT. B. Wheatley, P.S.A. (1909), 
has also been embodied. 

For information and co-operation in much of the work the compiler 
desires to express his indebtedness to Bro. W. J. Songhurst, P.G.D., the Editor 
of these Tnwmctio-ns. 

AdarYtSOn, Mr. Thomas. Q.i'.A., x., 187. 
Lodge: Daniel's Coffeehouse- in Lombard Street (1730 List). 

Atlumxfiii* Thomas (n. 1080). D.X. 11.. i., 115. Master-gunner; })ublished 
I'Juffhind'a J)cf('ii<'< 7 , <t Trcdtixe concerning Invasion , 1680. 

The Freemason so named is more likely to be his descendant. 

Albemarle, Earl of. QA'.A., x., '272. Present at Grand Lodge 15th 
April 1736. Not named in any of the Lists of Lodge Members. 

KrpprJ, William Anne (1702-1754). D.X.B., xxxi., 44. Second Earl of 
Albemarle. Suceeded to Earldom 1718. On 7th May 1733, appointed Colonel 
of 3rd troop of Horscguards. Governor of Virginia, 1737. Lieut. -General. On 
the Staff at Dettingen, 1743. Woundad at Fontenoy, 1745. At Culloden, 1746. 
Commander in Chief in North Britain, 1748. K.G. 1749. lie was a great 
spendthrift. lie was buried in the Chapel in South Audley Street, London. 

Alcock, Mr. Thos, Q.C.A., x.. 177. 
Lodge: King's Arms in Cateton Street (1730 List). 

Mcork. Thomas (1709-1798). D.X.Ii.. i., 238. Miscellaneous writer. 
Younger brother of Dr. Nathan Alcock. 

Thomas Alcock was educated at Braseuose, Oxford, Entered the Church 
and was presented to the Vicarage of Runcorn in Cheshire. Afterwards held a 
living at Plymouth. 

(His brother, Dr. Nathan Alcock, was M.A.. M.D., F.R.S., and afterwards 
practised at Runcorn,) 

Anderson, Rev. James. Q.C.A., x., in many places. Also Articles in 
A. (J A'., xviii., 9 and 28; xxiii.. 6; and xrxvi., 36 and 86. 

A/utrrxrw, James (1680 ?-1739). D.X.B., i., 380. 
In 1723 and 1725 Justs as of the Home Tavern Lodge at Westminster. 
The names in the 1730 List are not supplied in the case, of that Lodge. In 1725 
he was also member of Lodge at Solomon's Temple, TIemmings Row. 

Arbuthnott, Dr. Q.C.A., x., 27 

Lodge: Bedford Head, Covent Garden (1725 List). 

Arhiithnot, John (1667-1735). D.X.B., ii., 62. Physician and Wit. 
The British Museum has plate No. 3 of Groups at Button's Coffee House which 
includes a portrait, of Dr. Arbuthnot attributed to Hogarth. He was interred 
in the Church of St. James's, Piccadilly. 

Asgill, John. Q.C.A., x., 176. 
Lodge: Three Tuns at Billingsgate (1730 Just). 

A spiff, John (1.659-1738)." D.X.Ii., ii., 159. Eccentric Writer. 
Called to the Bar 1698. M.P. for Enniscorthy 1703. For Bramber 1705. 
Passed much of his life in the Fleet. He is mentioned in Coleridge's Table Talk 
and Southey deals at some length, with his writings as to eternal life, in The 
Doctor, &c. 

Athol, Duke of. Q.C.A., x., 252. 
Present in Grand Lodge 17th April 1735. 

A/tirr.'t//, James, Second Duke of Atholl (1690 M764). D.X.Ii., xxxix., 
371, Succeeded to Dukedom in 1724 consequent on his Brother William, 

32 TrdtiMictioiix of the Qi/tituor Coruiiat/ Lodge, 

Marquis of Tullibardine, being attainted. Lord. Privy Seal 1733-63 (that is 
when he visited Grand Lodge), Keeper of the Great Sea] and Lord Justice 
General 1763. 

Ball, John. Q.C.A., x., 28. 
Lodge: Sun Tavern in Clare Markett (1725 List). 

Half, John (1665 1-1745). D.S.B., iii., 74. Presbyterian Minister at 
Honiton 1705-45; opened seminary which on account of his learning was not 
suppressed under Toleration Act; published religious works. 

(I can find no indication of his having been near London.) 

Baskett, John. Q.C.A., x., 10 and 27. 
Lodge: The Cardigan Head at Charring Cross (1723 and 1725 Lists). 

Bmkett, John (d. 1742). D.X.B., iii., 369. King's Printer. Master of 
Stationers' Company 1714-5. Bankrupt in 1731. Printed a New Testament in 
1742. Publisher of the " Vinegar " bible. 

His Son, Thomas Baskett (x., 27) was also a Freemason in the same 
Lodge, and King's Printer. He printed the Old Testament in 1743 and died 
in 1761. 

Bates, Tho. Q.C.A., x., 16, 32, 177. 
Lodge: The Dolphin in Tower Street (1723 and 1725 Lists). 

Mr. Thos. Bates at page 177 in 1730 List, at the Lodge Kings Arms 
in Cateton Street. 

Kates, Thomas (fl. 1704-1719). D.X.B., iii., 399. Naval Surgeon. 
F.R.S. in 1719. Practised in London. Energetic measures adopted on his 
advice stamped out Cattle Plagues which had reached Islington Cowyards. The 
date of his death is uncertain. 

Beckingham, Mr. Q.C.A., x., 27, 32. 
Lodges: Bedford Head, and King's Armes, St. Paul's. (Both in 1725 List). 

Beckiitf/ham, Charles (1699-1731). I). A.M., iv., 85. Dramatist. 

Produced plays at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre in 1718 and 1719. Quin played 
Scipio in Beckingham's Scipio Africanus. 

Bedford, Wrothesley, Duke of. Q.C.A., x., 38. 
Lodge: Queen's Head at Bath (1725 List). 

There is no separate article about him in /J.X.B., but xlix., 447, refers to 
John Russell the 4th Duke as second son of Wriothesley Ituxself second Duke of 
Bedford and as having succeeded his Brother the 3rd Duke in 1732. The third 
Duke was (according to Burke's Peerage) born 25th May 1708; succeeded to 
the Peerage 26th May 1711, and died 23rd October 1732. Thus he was only 
17 in 1725 when he was a Member of the above Lodge. 

Berkeley, Maurice. Q.C.A., x., 33. 
Lodge: Dolphin in Tower Street (1725 List). 

D.X.B., iv., 365, has a notice of Maurice Frederick Fitzhardinge Berkeley, 
first Baron Fitzhardinge (1788-1867). Probably the Freemason Maurice Berkeley 
was his ancestor. 

Berkley, Miles. Q.C.A., x., 28. 
Lodge: Bull Head in Southwark (1725 List). 

B.X.B. in Supplement i., 183, has a notice of Miles Joseph Berkeley 
(1803-1889), an eminent botanist and F.R.S. He may be a descendant, of the 
said Miles Berkley. 

Bertie, Mr. Peregrine. Q.C.I., x., 184. 
Lodge: Rainbow Coffee House in York Buildings (1730 List). 

■D.X.B., iv., 404, has an article on Bertie, Peregrine, Lord Willoughby 
De Eresby (1555-1601) ; and under Sir Thomas Bertie states that he married 
daughter of Peregrine Bertie Esq. whose name he assumed 1788. 

In the British Museum List of engraved Portraits is one of Bertie, Peregrine 
(of Long Sutton, Lincolnshire), 1688-1743. 

Masonic Personalia. 11 'J-J-.W. 33 

Bickham, George. Q.C.A., x., 172, 191. 
Lodges: Castle and Legg in Hoi bourn, and Oxford Arms in Ludgate Street. 
(Both in 1730 List). 

As these are both in the 1730 List and at different Lodges they are 
probably the two persons named in D.X.B., v., 8, as follows:- — 

Bickham George the younger d. 1758 Engraver, one of the earliest political 
caricaturists; and his Father Bickhnn George the elder d. 1769 Writing Master 
and Engraver. The latter was the most celebrated penman of his time. Tn 
1743 he published a folio volume, "The Universal Penman." This gives his 
portrait in a Headpiece to a Poem and in a frontispiece depicts a penman. At 
the foot of that picture, on the floor, a gauge and Compasses appear. 

Blackbourn, or Blackburne, Mr. Q.C.A., x., 8, 25. 
Lodge: Rummer Tavern at Charing Cross (1723 and 1725 Lists). 

WurkhouriH', John (1683-1741). D.X.Ji., v., 119. Nonjuror who in 1725 
was consecrated by "King James III." bishop of nonjurors. He published an 
edition of Bacon's works in 1730. He took part in the consecration of Richard 
Rawlinson as a nonjuring Bishop. 

Seeing that Brother Richard Rawlinson, also a nonjuror, was consecrated 
a Bishop in 1728 but is frequently referred to as Mr. Richard Rawlinson, there 
is a fair probability that the Blackbourn named in the Minutes is the person 
referred to in JJ.X.B. 

Blackbourne lived in Little Britain for a time and was buried at Islington. 

Bladen, Mr. Q.C.A., x., 8, 25. 
Lodge: The Rummer at Charing Cross (1723 and 1725 Lists). 

Bladen, Martin (1680-1746). D.X.B., v., 154. He was M.P. for three 
places virca 1715-1746. Supported Sir Robert Walpole. 1714 Comptroller of 
the Mint. 1717-1746 Commissioner of trade and plantations. Was a Lieut. - 

Pope satirises Bladen in Diinciad, Book IV., thus: — 

" With French libation, and Italian strain 
"Wash Bladen white, and expiate Hays's stain." 

Warton's note on this is: — "Colonel Martin Bladen was a man of some 
literature, and translated Caesar's Commentaries. I never could learn that he 
had offended Pope. He was uncle to William Collins, the poet, whom he left 
an estate." 

Martin Bladen was buried in the Chancel of Stepney Church. Inscrip- 
tion is in Lyson's Knvironx. 

Boswell, Rev. Mr. John. Q.C.A., x., 37. 
Lodge: Queen's Head, Bath (1725 List). 

Boxwell, John (1698-1756). D.X.Ji. , v., 439. Author. B.A. Balliol 
College, Oxford, 1720. Tutor. M.A. at Cambridge. Prebendary of Wells, 
1736. He was the Author of Sermons and other Works. There is a Latin 
Inscription to his Memory in Taunton Church', 

Bowen, Emanuel. Q.C.A., x., 19, 24, 44. 
Lodges: Blew Boar in Fleet Street (Eman Bowing, Master); Griffin in Newgate 
Street (Warden) ; Nagshead and Starr in Carmarthen, South Wales (Master, 
9th June 1726) (1723 and 1725 lists), A deputation was given to him with 
others to constitute this Lodge. 

Boirfn, Emanuel (fl. 1752). D.X.B., vi., 48. Map engraver to 
George II. and Louis XV. He published a Complete Atlas of Geography 
1744-7. He is said to have been the Engraver of the List of Lodges for the 
year 1744. Musgrave's Obituary gives the date of his death as 8th May 1767, 

34 Transactions of the Quatnor Coronati Lodge. 

Bowen, Thomas. Q.C.A., x., 45. 
Lodge: at Carmarthen, where he is described as a Glover (1725 List). 

Bowen, Thomas (d. 1790). D.X.B., vi., 48. Engraver. Son of 
Emanuel Bowen. He died in Clerkenwell Workhouse at an advanced age in 
1790. (Can this be the Mason who was described as above?) 

Bradbury, Thomas. Q.C.A., x., 25. 
Lodge: Rose & Crown in King Street, Westminster (1725 List). 

Bradbvry, Thomas (1677-1759). D.X.B., vi., 150. Congregational 
Minister in London 1707 to 1728 and after. Published religious works and 
sermons, many of which were political. It is said that upon the death of Queen 
Anne he took for his text on the occasion of her funeral sermon, " Go, see now 
this cursed woman and bury her, for she is a king's daughter." He was a 
turbulent spirit who brought upon himself strong reproof from Daniel Defoe. 

Several engraved portraits of him are in the British Museum Catalogue, 
including one by J. Faber, Senr., and one by J. Faber, Junr. 

Brown, Mr. John. Q.C.A., x., 4, 35, 42, 164, 194. 
Lodges: Queen's Head Turnstile, Holborn (1723 List); Bell Tavern at West- 
minster (1725 List); King Hen. Head, Seven Dyalls (1725 List); Three Kings 
in Spittle Field removed to the Sash and Cocoe Tree in Upper Moore Fields 
(1730 List); and Crown in Upper Moore Fields (1730 List). 

Brown, John (d. 1736). D.X.B., vii., 10. Chemist, F.R.S. 1722 
Published discoveries in Chemistry. Served on Council of the Royal Society 

(There may be two or more John Browns in the Minutes.) 

Byram, John. Q.C.A., x., 170. 
Lodge: Swan in Long Acre (1730 List). 

Probably same as John Byrom. 

(See note by Bro. Simpson in A.Q.C., xxi., 236, who cites a Poem where 
the name is spelled By-ram.) His Portrait is in A.Q.C., xxi., 236-7. 

Byrom, John. D.N.B., viii., 129. Teacher of Shorthand. Published 
verses. Author of the Christmas Hymn "Christians, Awake! " 

His Diary shows he was on friendly terms with several eminent Masons : 
but records his non-acceptance in the year 1725 (April 6th.) of an offer to be 
made a Mason. (A.Q.C., xxix., 85.) He was a Jacobite, 

Gantillon, Mr. Q.C.A., x., 26. 
Lodge: Bedford Head, Covent Garden (1725 List). 

Cant-ill on, Richard (d. 1734). D.N.B., viii., 455. Born towards end of 
seventeenth century. Economist. Of Irish extraction. Merchant in London 
and Paris. Murdered by his cook at his house in Albemarle Street. A book 
by him on the modern science of economics is said by Jevons to be "more 
emphatically than any other single work, the cradle of political economy." 

Carpenter, Colonel. Q.C.A., x., 23, 118, 119, 131, 138, 144, 198. 

Carpenter, Hon. Col. Q.C.A., x., 5. 

Carpenter, Lord. Q.C.A., x., 217, 218. 
Lodge: The Home Tavern at Westminster (1723 and 1725 Lists). 

29th Jan. 1730. The Honble. Coll. Carpenter. Senr. Grand Warden 
appointed by the Duke of Norfolk G.M. ; present as G. Warden at Grand Lodge 
on 21st April 1730, 15th Dec. 1730, 29th Jan. 1731, and 17th March 1731; 
named in list of officers 1729 as G. Warden. 

(The Duke of Norfolk was declared G. Master for the ensuing year in 
January 1729 old style.) 

Was present at Merchant Taylor's Hall 19th April 1732, when Viscount 
Mount ague was installed as G.M., and dined with him at Hampstead. 

He is not mentioned in D.N ,B. 

His Father, George, Baron Carpenter, had a very notable military career 
and was a General. Suppressed the northern rebellion at Prenton in 1715. 

Masonic J'ersonalia, !?J-i-AH. 35 

Commander in Chief in Scotland. Created Baron Carpenter in the Irish. 
Peerage in 1719. M.P. for Whitchurch 1714 and for Westminster 1722-9. 

Probably the Col. Carpenter named in Q.C.A. was his son and succeeded 
to the title in 1732 on his father's death. 

Chandler, Mr. Richd. Q.C.A., x., 190, 
Lodge: Sun in Fleet Street (1730 List). 

{■handler, Richard (d. 1744). D.N.B., x., 39. Printer and Bookseller; in 
partnership with Csesar Ward ; committed suicide on financial failure. In 1737 
his firm issued an octavo catalogue of 22 pages, of works published by them. 

Note. — The title page of the 1738 Edition of the Constitutions by James 
Anderson, D.I)., has this at foot:- — ■ 

London : Printed for Brothers Csesar Ward and Richard Chandler, 

Booksellers, at the Ship without Temple-Bar ; and sold at their shops 

in Coney Street, York, and at Scarborough-Spaw. 

(Caesar Ward's name does not appear in Q.C.A., x., unless he be the Mr. 

Ward at p. 43 in 1725 List. Lodge; Mitre Tavern, Covent Garden. Caesar 

Ward was Gazetted a Bankrupt in June 1745.) 

Gibber, Mr., Jun. Q.C.A., x., 178. 
Lodge: Bear and Harrow in the Butcher Row (1730 List). 

Cibher, Theophilus (1703-1758). D.N.B., x., 362. Actor and Playwright. 
Patentee of Drury Lane Theatre 1731-2. Son of the more celebrated Colley 
Gibber. In 1733 he published a letter to J. Highmore complaining of harsh 
treatment received from patentees of Drury Lane Theatre. There is an engraved 
Portrait of him in the British Museum Catalogue, 

dark, John. Q.C.A., x., 19, 27. 
Lodges: The Blew Boar in Fleet Street (1723 List); and The Castle Tavern, 
St. Giles (1725 List). 

Clark, John (1688-1736). D.N.B., x., 403. Writing Master of London, 
who published books on Penmanship and Book-keeping 1708-32. There are two 
engraved Portraits of him by G. Bickham in the British Museum. 

Cleland, Mr. William. Q.C.A., x., 153. 
Lodge: One Tun in Noble Street (1730 List). 

i'lelnnd, William (1674 M741). D.N.B., xi., 30. Friend of Pope. 
For further particulars see my Paper on Pope in A .Q.C., xxxviii, 

Cobham, Ld. Viscount. Q.C.A., x,, 37. 
Lodge: Queen's Head at Bath (1725 List). 

Temple, Sir Richard, Viscount Cobham and fourth Baronet of Stowe 
(1669 M749). D.N.B., lvi., 40. 

This Brother was a General, an M.P., and Colonel under Marlborough. 
He was made Baron in 1714 and Viscount Cobham in 1718 by George T. 
Captured Vigo in 1719. Opposed Walpole. Field Marshal and Colonel of the 
Horse Guards in 1742, but resigned his commission on political grounds. He re- 
built Stowe. 

Pope wrote of him. He was a member of the Kit-Cat Club. Portraits 
of him were engraved by John Faber, junr. (1732), and George Bickham (1751). 
Both Engravers were Freemasons. 

Coleraine, Lord. Q.C.A., x., 81, 82, 83, 85, 95, 116, 119, 131, 133. 
144, 165, 197, 203, 204, 210, 217, 222, 300. 

Lodge : Swan in Tottenham High Cross removed to the Three Tuns and Bull 
Head in Cheapside (1730 List). This is now the Castle Lodge of Harmony 
No. 26. 

At p. 197 (date 1727) : The Right Honble, Henry Lord Coleraine, Baron 
of Coleraine in the Kingdom of Ireland. 

The Masonic activities of this Noble Brother are worthy of separate 

Hare, Henry, Third Baron Coleraine (1693-1749). D.N.B., xxiv., 367. 
Antiquary. At Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Became F.S.A. in 1725 and 

,'36 Tm/ixacfio/t* of the Qitatuor Coroiui-ti Lodye. 

was frequently Vice-President. F.R.S. in 1730. Member of Spalding Society 
to which so many eminent Freemasons belonged. M.P. for Boston 1730-4 (as 
his peerage was Irish he could sit in the House of Commons). Buried at 
Tottenham. There are engraved Portraits of him in the British Museum 

Collins, Richd. Q.C.A., x., 19. 
Lodge: The Blew Boar in Fleet Street (1723 List). 

Collin*, Richard (d. 1732). D.X.B., xi., 374. Draughtsman of the 
Spalding Society. Was a pupil of Michael Dahl the portrait painter. 

Cooper, Richard. (J.C.A., x., 19. 
Lodge: The Blew Boar in Fleet Street (1723 List). 

Cooper, Richard, the elder (d. 1764). JJ.J.'Ji., xii., 146. Engraver. 
Pupil of John Pine, the Engraver of Lodge Lists, &e. Studied in Italy and 
settled in Edinburgh. Engraved many portraits, including one of himself in 
Britisli Museum. 

Courteville, Raphael. Q.C.A., x., 15. 
Lodge: The George at Charing Cross (1723 List), 

CottrteriHe, Raphael or Ralph (d. 1772). D.X.H., xii., 347. He is 
described as organist and political writer: author of Memoirs of Burleigh 1738. 
Bemg editor of the ' Gazetteer,' which was a government organ, he was nick- 
named 'Court-evil.' His Father died in 1675, so he must have been at least 
96 years old in 1772. 

COX, Revd. Mr. Thomas. Q.C.A., x., 33. 
Lodge : Dolphin in Tower Street (1725 List). 

Co.f, Thomas (d. 1734). JJ.J.B. Topographer; Rector of Chignal 
Smeary 1680-1704. Vicar of Broomfield 1685-1734, and Rector of Stock- Harvard 
in Essex 1703-34. 

Published translations and Sermons 1694-1726 and edited Camden's 
Britd-nii'm 1720-1731 (published in the Savoy). 

His literary work must have necessitated frequent vists to London, and the 
identity seems reasonably probable', especially as he was Lecturer of St. Michael's, 
Cora hill, until he resigned in 1730. 

Coxetsr, Tho. Q.C.A., x., 29. 
Lodge: Sun, Southside, St. Paxil's (1725 List). 

Coj-rter, Thomas (1689-1747). JJ.X.B., xii., 422. Described as a literary 
antiquary who entered Trinity College. Oxford, 1705. Came to town at com- 
pletion of his University course. A collector of old English plays. Said to have 
forged titles of plays. Was biiried in the Chapel Yard of the Royal Hospital of 

Coxon, Tho. Q.C.A., x., 15, 32. 
Lodge: The Queen's Head in Great Queen Street (1723 and 1725 Lists). 

Co.roii, Thomas (1654-1735). D.X.Ji., xii., 423. Joined the Jesuits in 
1676. Mission Priest in England 1695-1724; died at St. Omer. Prepared the 
splendid edition of Ribadeneira's Live* of the Saint*, London 1730 fol. translated 
by Hon. Wm, Petre. 

(This may be nothing more than a coincidence of names and dates. Still, 
there w^as nothing to prevent a Jesuit being a Freemason in 1723-5. The Papal 
Bull was not dated until 1738. The omission of the prefix Reverend can easily 
be accounted for having regard to certain Statutes.) 

Crauford, Earl of (G.M.). Q.C.A., x.. 231, 238. 239. 240, 241. 243. 
247, 251, 252, 253, 264, 271, 273, 281, 286. 

The particular English Lodge (if any) of which the Earl may have been a 
Member is not stated. 

It will be seen that there are fifteen entries mentioning him in the Minutes 
and as these range only from 13th Dec. 1733 to 28th April 1737, he must have 

Masouie IX 'rttuMtl ' t<< , 77JJ--J-K < > < 

been very active as a Mason during that period. He had been made a Mason 
in the Lodge of Edinburgh (Mary's Cliapzl) oil 7th August 1733. 

l/uulxuu, John, 20th Earl of Crawford (1702-1749). D.X.L., xxxiii., 305. 
He was educated at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh and at a military 
academy m Paris. Entered the Army in 1726. Scots representative Peer in 

1733. (This would bring him to London.) Captain in 1734 he served under 
Prince Eugene in 1735 (specially distinguishing himself at the Battle of Clausen 
on 17th October 1735) and in the Russian Army 1738-41. He was at Dettingen 
and Fontenoy and took part in crushing the 1745 Rebellion. Made Lieut. - 
General in 1747. His Portrait by Worlidge is in (J J ' . St. John's Card 1906 
together with a Memoir by Brother Henry Sadler. 

DaltOn, Mr. John. Q.C.A., x., 160. 
Lodge: Anchor & Baptist's Head .in Chancery Lane (1730 List). In this Lodge 
List there are twenty-five members every one being styled " Mr." 

/Jalfoii, John (1709-1763). D.X.B., xiii.. 427. Poet and Divine. 
Entered Queen's College, Oxford, 12th October 1725, and took M.A. degree in 

1734. if be is the same person as the one named in the Minutes he must have 
become a Mason as soon as he was twenty -one. 

He adapted Milton's Count* for the stage in 1738. Became Fellow of 
his College. Canon of Worcester 1748. Rector of St. Mary at Hill in 1748, 
and D.I), in 1750. He published Sermons and Poems. Was buried in Worcester 
Cathedral, where there is a Menu mental Inscription to his Memory. He raised 
funds to help a granddaughter of Milton. 

Dance, Mr. Geo. Q.C.A.. x., 44. 
Iiodge : Bell Tavern, Nicholas Lane (Master in 1725 1,1st). 

Jhiiire, George, the elder (1700-1768). D.X.Ii., xiv., 10. Architect and 
Surveyor to the Corporation cf London. The present Mansion House was 
designed by him (1739). A collection of his drawings is in the Soane Museum. 

(Xf)tc. — His son, George Dance, the younger, 1741-1825, had a yet more 
distinguished Architectural career. He followed his Father as City Surveyor. 
Rebuilt Newgate. Built the front of the Guildhall and was Professor of 
Architecture at the Royal Academy.) 

De L'Abelye, Charles (p. 42). Q.C.A., x., 42, 84, 90, 101. 185. 

De Labelye, Charles (p. 84)-, Mr. Labelle (p. 90); Bv. LabelJe (p. 101): 

De La Be!ie, Mr. Cha : (p. 185). 

Lodges: (1) Solomon's Temple, Hemmings Row (1725 List). That was a French 
Lodge. (2) Master (pro tempore) of Lodge at Madrid. Constitution confirmed 
17th April 1728 having been (in a way) constituted 15th Feb. 1728 by Philip 
Duke of Wharton who was then in Madrid and styled himself Depty. G. Master. 
(3) White Bear in King's Street, Golden Square (1730 List). 

Label >/c, Charles (1705-1781?). D.X.B., xxxi., 365. Architect of the 
first Westminster Bridge. Born at Vevey. Came to England about 1725, (Tf 
so, he must at once have joined the French Lodge). Was naturalized in 1746 
and died at Paris. 

He was an intimate friend of Dr. Desaguliers, who co-operated with him 
in certain matters relating to Westminster Bridge. Dr. Desaguliers also was a 
Member of Solomon's Temple Lodge. 

The D.X Ji. states that a letter from him to Desaguliers, dated 17th April 

1735. is "the earliest authentic evidence of his presence in this country." The 
evidence of Q.C.A., x., could not have been known by that Biographer. 

Batty Langley in one of his books shows Label //e, whom he styles " the 
Swiss Impostor," hanging in mid-air from an arch of Westminster Bridge. 

The query in D.X Ji. as to the date of his death is cleared in Musgvave's 
Oh/tt/str//, which refers to the London Mdyaiiiic and (,' entlenxui'x Mar/ai/ne as 
recording his death on 18th Febry. 1762. 

De Loraine, Earl of. Q.C.A., x., 5, 23. 

Lodge: The Home Tavern at Westminster (1723 and 1725 Lists). 

38 Transactions of the (Jtiatuor Coronati Lorfye. 

Scott, Henry, first Earl of Deloraine (1676-1730). IJ.A'.B., li., 24. He 
was a Son of the ill-fated Duke of Monmouth (natural son of Charles II.), who 
after Sedgemoor was executed in the Tower 1685. The Earldom was created in 

He was one of the Scottish representative Peers 1715, 1722 and 1727. 
Received Order of the Bath in 1725 and was gentleman of bedchamber to 
George I. He also served in the Army. A Portrait of him when Lord Henry 
Scott is in the British Museum engraved by W. Faithorne, Junr., after .1 , 

Demainbray, Mr. Stephen. Q.C.A., x., 160. 
French Lodge at the Swan in Long Acre (1730 List). 

Demainbray, Stephen Charles Tribcmdet (1710-1782). JJ.X.Ji., xiv., 330. 
He may have joined when only twenty, or his birtli date may be wrongly stated. 

Electrician and astronomer : of Huguenot extraction. Was educated at 
Westminster School and at Leyden. LL.D. of Edinburgh. While at West- 
minster School he was boarded in the house of Dr. Desaguliers. 

He discovered the influence of electricity in stimulating the growth of 
plants. Fought at Prestonpans in 1745. Tutor to George III. when Prince 
of Wales in 1754. Astronomer at Kew Observatory 1768-82. Buried at 
Northolt, Middlesex. 

(His son, Stephen George Francis Triboudet Demainbray, born in 1760, 
succeeded him at Kew Observatory and became Rector of Somerford Magna in 
Wiltshire from 1799 to 1854.) 

Desaguliers, Dr. J\ T. Q.('.A.< x. (many entries). 
Lodges: The Horn at Westminster (1725 List); Solomon's Temple, Hemmings 
Row (1725 List); Bear and Harrow in the Butcher Row (1730 List); University 
Lodge (1730 List); Third Grand Master 1719; Deputy Grand Master 1722 and 
1723 and 1725. His career as a Freemason and a Scientist has been the subject 
of several papers and among them the Installation Address of W.Bro. John 
Stokes in 1925. 

Demyuliers, John Theophilus (1683-1744). D.N.B., xiv., 400, gives a 
short account of his career and credits him with authorship of " The ( 'ontrionfions 
of the Freemasons floJ." 

His Portrait engraved by P. Pelham (after II. Hysing) appears in QJ". 
St, John's Card 1902. 

Earl, Erasmus, Esq. (or Earle, Erasmus). Q.C.A.. x., 37 (twice). 
Lodges : Queen's Head at Bath, of which he was Junior Warden; and Maid's 
Head at Norwich. (Both entries in 1725 List). 

Earle, Erasmus (1590-1667). D.X.B., xvi.„ 317. The exact, coincidence 
warrants the inclusion of this name in our list. Probably the Freemason was 
a son or grandson of the person noticed in D.XJi. Barrister of Lincoln's Inn; 
bencher, 1635-41; reader, 1639; M.P. Norwich, 1647; serjeant-at-law, 1648 
and 1660; counsel to the State, 1653. 

He had four sons and two daughters so one of those four sons might well 
have been the parent of the Freemason who died at Bath in 1728, and was 
buried in Heydon, Norfolk. (See A.Q.G., xxxviii., 263.) His papers are 
noticed in the 10th Report of Historical MSS. Commission Appendix iv. 

Ecton, John. Q.C.A., x., 34. 
Lodge: Ship without Temple Barr (1725 List). 

Ecton, John (d. 1730). JJ.X.Ii., xvi., 353. Born at Winchester. He 
was Receiver in Queen Anne's Bounty Office. F.S.A, in 1723. Died at 
Turnham Green. Left his MSS. aud books to Oxford University. He compiled 
two works of reference as to Queen Anne's Bounty Fund. 

Edwards, Tho., Esq. Q.C.A., x.. 5, 17, 23, 32, 33, 60, 180. 
Lodges: (1) The Horn Tavern at Westminster (1723 and 1725 Lists) (2) In 

Masonic I'r/'xo/ial/(/, I?.JJ-^'K 39 

1723 Master of The Crown at Acton (1723 and 1725 Lists). (3) Ship without 
Temple Barr (1725). (4) Kings Head in Fleet Street (1730 List). 

(Possibly there may have been two or three Brethren of the same name in 
the Lists.) 

Thomas Edwards was appointed by the Duke of Kichmond G.M. on 
17th March 1725 as one of the Committee on the General Charity (p. 60). He 
was probably the Warden of the Horn Lodge who on 13th Dec. 1733, notified 
Grand Lodge of receipt of a Chest of Arack and £10. 10. to the General Charity 
from our Brethren in East India. 

Edivardx, Thomas (1699-1757). JJ.X.B., xvii., 129. He was a critic. 
Entered at Lincoln's Inn in 1721. F.S.A. in 1745. Criticised Warburton's 
edition of Shakespeare; w T as a friend of the novelist, Samuel Richardson, and 
w r rote some sonnets. 

His Portrait engraved by W. Holl in 1728 is in British Museum. 

Ellis, Mr. John. Q.C.A., x., 178. 
Lodge : Rose Tavern without Temple Bar (1730 List). 

Ellis, John (1698-1790). D.N.B., xvii., 286. Scrivener and political 
writer. In partnership as Scrivener with one Tanner. He was four times Master 
of the Scriveners' Company. Was in Dr. Johnson's circle. An intimate friend 
of Moses Mendez. (See A.Q.C., xviii., 107.) Published a poem in Hudibrastic 
vers3 in 1720, entitled "the South Sea Dream," and translated but did not 
publish Ovid's epistles. 

(There are two or three other persons named John Ellis who lived about 
the same time, who are not quite impossible. The John Ellis above referred to 
seems to be the type of mati who would become a Freemason.) 

The British Museum has an engraved Portrait of him as Deputy for 
Broad Street Ward (City of London). Painter, T. Frye ; Engraver, B. Reading. 
It was painted at the expense of the Scriveners' Company to be hung in their 
Hall. The engraving appeared in European Mnyazine 1792. 

Evans, John. Q.G.A., x., 34, 43. 
Lodges: Ship without Temple Barr and Free Masons Coffee House, New Belton 
Street (the latter now represented by the Old King's Arms Lodge). (Both in 
1725 List). 

Evans, John (1680 ?-1730). D.X.B., xviii., 65. Divine. Congrega- 
tional Minister at Wrexham 1702-4. Sole Pastor of the Hand Alley meeting- 
house, Westminster, 1716. 1723 Preacher of Merchants' Lecture at Salter's 
Hall. About 1723 became honorary D.D. Edinburgh and Aberdeen. Completed 
part of a history of non-conformity. He lost his own and his wife's fortunes in 
the South Sea Company. Was buried in Dr. Williams's vault in Bunhill Fields. 
(The name is far from uncommon. He is not styled Revd., but this was not 
unusual for a dissenter. The fact that he was Hon. D.D. of Aberdeen may 
indicate connection with Dr. James Anderson, who sometimes negotiated the 
conferring of that Degree. 

The D.X.B. records another John Evans (1693 ?-1734) Actor. He con- 
fined his performances to Ireland, but may have been in London just before his 

Faber, Bro. John. Q.C.A., x., 316. 
The particulars of his Lodge are not given. He is mentioned once only, being 
chosen as a Steward on 3rd May 1739. 

Fahc-r, John, the younger (1695 ?-1756). D.X.JL, xviii., 12. Mezzo-tint 
engraver. Engraved portraits of Charles II., Ignatius Loyola, and others. (His 
Father died in 1721.) He was the Engraver of the well-known portrait of 
.Anthony Sayer, which was painted by another Freemason, Joseph Highmore. 

The British Museum Catalogue of engraved portraits contains many 
examples of the work of J. Faber, Junr. Looking through the list I noticed 
the names of the following Freemasons whose portraits were engraved by him: — 
2nd Duke of Atholl, Alex. Chocke, Ri. Viset. Cobham, James Figg, Martin 

40 T ni-nx'irf ions of flu j 'Quatitor Coronatt T,od;/c. 

Folkes, Frederick, Prince of Wales, J. J. Heidegger, Lord John Hervey, 4th 
Earl of Loudoun, 2nd Duke of Montagu, Eiehd. Nash, Nathaniel Oldham, Thos. 
Pellett, James Quin, '2nd Duke of Richmond, Anthony Sayer, Sir J. Thornhill, 
5th Baron Wharton, George Parker, 2nd Earl of Macclesfield. He also 
engraved a Portrait of Sir Chr. Wren. 

Figg, James. Q.C.A., x., 26. 
Lodge: Castle Tavern, St. Giles (1725 List). 

Fif/tj, James (died 1734). D.X.B., xviii., 437. Pugilist. Taught boxing 
and swordsmanship at his Academy in Marylebone. The T fitter and Guard '/ft n 
both praised his swordsmanship. When the Duke of Lorraine (a Freemason) 
visited England in 1731, Figg and Sparks fought in his presence a broadsword 
duel in the Haymarket Theatre, Sometimes gave exhibitions of bear-baiting and 
tiger fighting. He is also referred to in John Byron/s diary. 

Folkes, Martin. Q.C.A., x., 26, 37, 58, 62, 63, 68, 74, 197, 204, 213. 
Lodges: Bedford Head, Covent Garden (1725 List), and Maids Head at Norwich 
(1725 List). 

His career has been frequently dealt with so that any comments here are 
unnecessary. He was Deputy G.M. in 1724-5. The engraved copper plate of 
his portrait by Hogarth is in the possession of Quatuor Coronati Lodg p . 
Hogarth's portrait of him was engraved both by Hogarth himself and by -J. 
Faber, Junr. Other portraits of him are in the British Museum, one of them 
being engraved by J. Faber, Junr., after J. Vanderbank. 

Foil-ex, Martin (1690-1754). D.N.B., xix., 361. Was bom m Great 
Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London. Antiquary. Studied at Saumur 
University. Was M.A. of Cambridge (1717); D.C.L. Oxford (1746); President 
of R.S. (1741-1753). Member of the Academie des Sciences. Published tables 
of Coins. 

A monument to him is in Westminster Abbey, but he was not interred 
there but at Hillington Church, Norfolk. A curious portrait medal of him 
exists with Emblems probably intended as Masonic. It was executed at Rome 
and is dated the era of Masonry corresponding to 1738 or 1742. 

Freek, John. Q.C.A., x., 34. 
Lodge: Ship without Temple Bar (1725 List). 

Freke, John. D.X.B., xx., 246. He was born in 1688 and died in 1756. 
He was Curator of St. Bartholomew's Hospital Museum and Surgeon 1729-55. 
Became F.R.S. in 1729. Mentioned in Tom J on ex. He was buried in the 
Church of St. Bartholomew the Less under the Canopy of a 15th Century Tomb 
erected to the memory of an unknown person. 

The 1725 List discloses that, out of eighteen members there named, three 
had the prefix " Reverend " and in addition there was Dr. Radcliff. of whom 
more will be said later. 

Gadbury, John. Q.C.A., x., 36 and 41. 

Lodges: The Crown and Sceptre; and Crown and Harp (both in St Martin's 
Lane) (1725 List). 

(Jadhur//, John (1627-1704). D.J.B., xx., 345. An Astrologer: educated 
at Oxford. He was falsely accused of complicity in a plot against William 111., 
1690. He was buried at St. Margaret's, Westminster, and left a widow. 

(It will be understood that the Freemason as named is only included in 
this list because of the identity of names indicating as they do that the Freemason 
was related to the Astrologer.) The Astrologer's portrait is in the British 

(iXotc. — Of the fifteen Members of the Crown and Harp Lodge, eight were 
Members of the Crown and Sceptre Lodge, even if we do not identify Mi 1 . Rich. 
Ware as Rich. Ward and J. Valore as Mr. Jams. Vanlove. Perhaps one Lodge 
succeeded the other, though both are in the 1725 List). 

If atonic I't'rxDiiftj 'in , 172A--ifl. 41 

Gardner, Thomas. Q.C.A., x.. 43. 
Lodge: Blew Posts in Devereux Court (1725 List). 

(itinhtcr, Thomas. D.X .li., xx., 432. Antiquary of Southwold (1690 1- 

1769). He published an "Historical Account of Dunwicli . . . Blithburgh 

and Southwold" (London 1754), but would probably have had occasion 

to be in London in or about 1725 so that lie may well have been -the Freemason. 

Gatilff, James. Q.C.A., x., 29. 
Lodge: Sun, Southside St. Paul's (1725 List). 

G'ntlif, James (1766-1831). D.XJL, xxi., 67. Divine. Educated at 
Manchester. Perpetual Curate of Gorton. Imprisoned for debt and sequestrated. 
lie was son of James Gatliff, of Manchester, "Chapman." 

(Noted here because the identity of names suggests relationship.) 

Other similar coincidences occur in connection with the names of: — 
Gifford, Richard. Q.C.A., x., 26; and D.X.B., xxi., 305 (1725-1807). 

Gifford, William. (J.C.A., x., 11, 28; and D.X.B., xxi.. 306 and 308 

(1554-1629) and (1756-1826). 

Gilbert, Thomas. Q.C.A., x., 35, 40, 168; and D.X.B. (three entries). 

Goldsborough, John. Q.f'.A., x., 16, 33: and D.X.B., xxii., 79. 

(Sir John Goldsborough died 1693 at Calcutta.) 

Gordon, J no. Q.C.A., x., 24. 
Lodge: Griffin in Newgate Street (1725 List). 

Gordon, John (1702-1739). D.X.B., xxii., 217. lie was educated at 
Westminster and Trinity College, Cambridge; but left College for London in 
1722. Barrister at Gray's Inn 1725. and was Gresham Professor of Music 1732- 
1739. Buried at St. Dunstan's in the West, Fleet Street. 

Gurney, J no. Q.C.A., x., 44. 
Lodge: Golden Lyon, Dean Street (1725 List). 

(Ji/r/ie//, John. D.X.B., xxiii., 361. A Quaker. Was a friend of Sir 
Robert Walpole, and defended the Norwich Wool Trade before a Parliamentary 
Committee in 1720. 

The family is still well represented in Norfolk, and it is not unlikely that 
he was the Freemason so named. It is clear from the D.X Ji. that he occasionally 
came to London. 

Harcourt, Lord. Q.C.A., x., 272. 
Lord Visct. Harcourt is named as present on 15th April, 1736, at Grand Lodge. 

Owing to the absence of any list of names for that period, no information 
appeal's as to the Lodge to which he belonged. 

ffarroitrt, Simon. First Earl Harcourt (1714-1777). D.X.B., xxiv., 325. 
Upon the death of his grandfather, Simon first Yixcoiinf Harcourt, in 1727, he 
succeeded to the family titles and estates. Educated at Westminster School. 
Then went abroad. Returned to England 1734. On 9th May 1735 appointed 
Lord of Bedchamber to George IT. Present with the King at Dettmgen. Raised 
a Regiment in 1745 and was made Colonel. In 1749 was created Viscount 
Nuneham (so Burke's 1'i'crayi' — not Harcourt, as in D.X.B.) of Nuneham 
Courtney and Earl Harcourt of Stanton-Harcourt. 

In 1751 Governor to Prince of Wales afterwards George III. He was 
very active in many ways. Portraits of him by Sir J. Reynolds and others are 
on record. 

Harris, Joseph. Q.C.A., x.. 153, 302, 316. 
Lodge: One Tun in Noble Street (1730 List). This Lodge is now the Royal 
Alpha No. 16, of which William Cleland, the friend of Pope, was also a Member. 

On 27th April 1738, Pro. Joseph Harris was chosen as Steward (p. 302), 
and on 3rd May 1739, he appointed his Succesor, 

42 Transactions- of the Quatuor Goronati Lodge. 

Harris, Joseph (1702-1764). D.N.B., xxv., 18. Born at Talgarth in 
Breconshire, he came to London at an early age and soon made his mark as a 
writer on Scientific subjects. Appointed Assay Master of the Mint in 1748 and 
writer of an Essay on Money and Coins and a treatise on Optics. 

Harrison, Jno. A.Q.G., x., 42. 
Lodge: Lebecks Head, Maiden Lane (1725 List). 

There are four persons named John Harrison of whom notices are given 
in D.N.B., but three of them died in the seventeenth century. 

Harrison, John (1693-1776. D.N.B., xxv., 35. Is the celebrated inven- 
tor of the Chronometer which gained a prize of £20,000, offered for determining 
longitude at sea. George III. had to interpose on his behalf before the prize 
so well earned was all paid to him. John Harrison was the son of a Carpenter. 
His tomb in Hampstead Churchyard was reconstructed by the Clockmakers' 
Company in 1879. He is referred to in Stukeley's Diaries (Surtees Society, ii., 
298, 348, 367). fie came to London in 1728 with drawings of an instrument 
for determining longitude. There are two engraved Portraits of him in the 
British Museum. One is a plate in the European Magazine, published 1788. 

Harvey, Jno., Ld. Q.C.A., x., 37. 
Lodge: Queen's Head at Bath (1725 List). 

Reeve,/, John, Baron Hervey of Ickworth (1696-1743). D.N.B., xxvi.. 

Notwithstanding the slight variation in the spelling of the surname, there 
can be no doubt as to identity. 

His Father was the First Earl of Bristol and survived him, dying in 1751. 
He was styled Lord Hervey after the death of his elder Brother in 1723. 
Educated at Westminster, he went to Clare Hall, Cambridge and became M.A. 
in 1715. Elected M.P. for Bury St. Edmunds in 1725. He deserted Frederick 
Prince of Wales and thereupon was pensioned by George II. Pope attacked him. 
He supported Sir Robert Walpole by certain pamphlets and wrote Memoirs of 
the Reign of George II. which were reprinted so recently as 1884. He was 
summoned to the House of Lords in 1733 by virtue of his Father's Barony and 
was in many ways a distinguished personality. 

His Memoirs were published first in 1848. His Portrait by Vanloo, 
engraved by J. Faber, Junr., is in the British Museum. The original oil 
painting is in the National Portrait Gallery. 

Hawkesmore, Nicholas, Esq. Q.C.A., x., 192. 
Lodge: Oxford Arms in Ludgate Street (1730 List). 

HawJcsmoor, Nicholas (1661-1736). D.N.B., xxv., 232. This Brother 
was an eminent Architect and employed by Wren, first at the age of eighteen as 
scholar and domestic clerk," and then as deputy surveyor at Chelsea Hospital, 
Kensington Palace, &c. He also assisted Wren at St. Paul's, 1678-1710, and 
worked with Vanbrugh at Blenheim. He was Architect of several London 
Churches, and Surveyor-General of Westminster Abbey in 1723. He contimied 
the work on the two Western Towers of the Abbey. 

His daughter married Nathaniel Blackerby, the First Grand Treasurer of 
Grand Lodge, whose name appears frequently in Q.G.A., x., although he is only 
mentioned incidentally in the D.N.B. The D.N.B. refers to a Memoir of 
Hawksmoor, supposed by Vertue to have been written by Blackerby, which 
appeared in Read's Week!;// Journal, 27th March 1736. D.N.B. also refers to 
Proc. of Archit. Coll. of Freemasons of the Church, Part II., p. 60. 

Hayes, Mr. Cha. Q.G.A., x., 9. 
Lodge: The Rummers at Charing Cross (1723 List). 

HatfCH, Charles (1678-1760). D.N.B., xxv., 289. He was a mathe- 
matician and economist, a sub-governor of Royal African Company till 1752, 
and wrote Treatises on Fluxions and on Chronology. 

(To he Gonfi/ineel.) 

FRIDAY, 4th MARCH, 1927. 

HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall at o p.m. Present : Bros. 
Lionel Yibert, P.Dis.G.W., Abulias, P. M., as W.M.; George Norman, 
P.A.G.D.C, S.AV. ; J. Walter Hobb.s, I.G., as J.W. ; \\ . J. 
Songhurst, P.G.I)., Secretary; Gordon P. G. Hills, P.A.G.Sup.W., 
P.M., D.C.; H. C. de Laiontaine, P.G.D., S.D. ; W. J. Williams, 
as J.C.; J. Heron Lepper, P.Pr.G.Ins., Antrim, P.M.; A. Cecil 
Powell, P.G.I)., P.M.; and T. M. Carter. 

Also the following Members of tlie Correspondence Circle: 
Bros. E. C. P. Mullett, Geo. Elkington, P.A.G.Sup.W., L. G. Wearing, Walter Dewes 
C. A. Newman, T. Vnillennoz, V. J. H. Coutts, Wm. Lewis, Fred. Underwood, H. W 
Chetwin, Ed. M. Phillips. G. W. South, "B. K. James, B. Telepneff, Sydney Meymott 
H. E. Davenport, E. Warren, B. Ivaiioff, C. F. Tyson, H. E. AfcMeel, G. P. Brook 
Geo. C. Williams, W. R. Hornby Steer, J. C. MeCuIlagh, C. E. Newman, F. Houghton 
Sir A. A. Brooke-Peehell, H. G. P. Rees, W. Francis, E. W. Marson, J. F. Halls-Dally 
A. E. Gnrney, Herbert Goodwin, Eric Lofting, P. H. Horley. Ivor Grantham, J. F. H 
Gilbard, L. F. Dennant, Geo. P. Simpson, A. Soldatenkov, H. Wm. Burden, G. C 
Parkhurst Baxter, George Young, A. P. Salter, F. J. Boniface, H. Johnson, J. F 
Yesoy-FitzGerakI, L. Sykes, W. Brinkworth, W. Stubbing*. Robt. Colsell. P.A.G.D.C. 
A. P. BoTilt, F. J. Asbury, A.G.D.C., and S. W. Rodgers. 

Also the following Visitors: -Bros. C. R. Heiser, T.P.M., Aldersgate bodge 

Xo. 1657; Geo. F. Lewis, W.M.. Grosvenor Lodge No. 1257; Wilfred E. F. Peake. 

P.Pr.G.O., Bristol; L. A. Margetts, St. Mary Balham Lodge No. 8661; and R. W. 
Anderson, P. G.St. B.. 

Letters of apology for non-attendance were reported from Bros. Rev. W. W. 
Covey-Crump, W.M. ; E. Conder, L.R., P.M.; Sir Alfred Bobbins. P.G.W., Pres.B.G.P., 
P.M.; Rev. H. Poole, J.W. ; S. T. Klein, L.R., P.M. ■ John Stokes, P.G.I). , T.P.M. ; 
R. H. Baxter. P.A.G.D.C., P.M.; Edwai'd Armitage, P.O. I)., P.M., Treas. ; Gilbert W. 
Daynes, J.D.; J. 1'. Thorp. P.G.D., P.M.; and F. J. W. Crowe, P.A.G.D.C. P.M. 

Till' WoHsinppri, Mastkk read the following 




Since our Lodge last met it has lost its oldest member. Our final 
surviving Founder has passed from us in the person of R.W. Bro. Sir Charles 
Warren. Although not the most Masonically erudite or famous member of 
that coterie of savants, who in 1884 inaugurated the first Lodge formed 
exclusively for conducting sound Masonic research, our Bro. Sir Charles Warren 
had then already achieved an eminent reputation as a soldier and explorer, a 
Biblical archeologist and a Freemason. Indeed, so high was the esteem in 
which he was held by his Masonic colleagues of the Quatuor Coronati that he 
was unanimously chosen to be its first Master ; and the consecration of the Lodge 
was deferred for about eighteen months, awaiting his return to England, so that 
he should then be present to be intsalled in that office in 1886. 

Unfortunately for us, the greater part of Sir Charles Warren's life was 
spent abroad in service for his country. Consequently his attendance at our 
meetmgs was infrequent, his literary contributions to our Transaction.* were but 
few, and to the present generation he has been but a venerable and honoured 
name. With his decease our last link with those pristine days has been severed, 
and our Lodge is sadly thereby the loser. 

44 '/' rmixfH-f tons of the ( ( )tntiimr f'orojititt Ladi/i, 

Sir Charles Warren was born at Bangor in 1840. and came of an old- 
fashioned military family. He was educated at Cheltenham, Sandhurst and' 
Woolwich, whence he entered the Royal Engineers in 1857. Concerning his 
.subsequent public career f need say but little, because it has been recorded in 
various obituary notices which, have appeared in the public Press. Mis fame 
will be mainly and permanently associated with his successful work in excavating 
the Jerusalem of Biblical times, buried mostly some seventy feet beneath the 
streets of the present city. Tt was a work which he undertook in 1867. as an 
agent of the Palestine Exploration Fund, and in which his ability, piety and 
pertinacity accomplished the results embodied in his standard books on "The 
Temple" and '"Jerusalem." 

He afterwards rendered valuable national service as a skilful administrator 
alternately in South Africa and Egypt. ; for which he was made a G.C.M.G. 
in 1885, and three years later created a Tv.C.B. After several years as British 
Commissioner at Singapore he came home for a time, but on the outbreak of the 
Boer War he was again despatched to South Africa and assisted in the relief of 
Ladysmith in 1900. 

His career as a Freemason was almost equally varied, for he was, of cuuino. 
a member of Lodges in various parts of the Empire. He was initiated on 
30th December, 1859, in the Royal Lodge of Friendship (now No. 278) of 
Gibraltar, and was returned as a Past Master of that Lodge in 1863. There is 
no record of his having joined any Lodge in the Channel Islands, although he 
served for a time as Lieutenant-Governor of Guernsey. His residence in South 
Africa is marked by the formation of the Charles Warren Lodge No. 1832, which 
was named after him in 1879 at Kimberley. Tn the Grand Lodge of England 
he received the rank of Past Grand Deacon, in 1887, which was accompanied by 
that of Past Grand Sojourner in the Supreme Grand Chapter. Whilst acting 
as Special Commissioner for Her Majesty's Government in the Straits Settlements 
he was appointed District Grand Master of the Eastern Archipelago in 1891, 
retaining that office until his return to England in 1895. 

Not without an effort can we realize that all these varied activities reached 
their conclusion more than a quarter of a century ago. So long has been the 
interval — filled with tremendous events national and imperial, and with changes 
social, scientific and industrial — during which our veteran Brother was allowed 
to enjoy his honourable retirement. One by one old and intimate Masonic 
friends have crossed the Bar ; whilst he lived on quietly at Weston-super-Mare 
until January 21st last, when he passed away at the ripe old age of eighty-six. 
His portrait appears as a frontispiece in vol. viii. of our Tntnx<t<-ti>>its, taken in 

One Grand Led^e, two Lodges and Twcnty-eijdil brethren were admitted 
membership of the Correspondence Circle. 

The Sk< kktary drew attention to the following 

By Bio. LioxKr. Yibkrt, of Bath. Jkwkl of fiist Principal. Boyal Cumberland Chapter No. 41, Bath. 

By Bro. Ivor, Cuantham. of London. 

Stkwaiids Arcorvr ol' Cowdray; with the mention of Krancis Hill. Imwiiiiimhi, 
on the. 12th January, 1657. 

A hearty vote of thanks was accorded to the Brethren who had kindly lent 
these objects for exhibition. 

Bro. Boms .Ivan ok !■■ read the following paper 

Transact ionx <>[ tin Qua/nor Corouati Loc/ac. 



in; una. n. ivaxoff. 

11.EK-E is extensive literature about Cagliostro in the English 
language, but very little is said in it about his visit- to Eastern 
'Europe (Courland, Russia and Poland), which lasted just under 
a year and a-haif — from February, 1779, to June, 1780. And 
yet this visit may be of considerable interest to those who are 
interested in Cagliostro generally. Although short, it was very 
eventful, and about it there are some very detailed accounts 
by eye-witnesses, which, unfortunately, cannot be said of most 
of the other accounts concerning that mysterious personage, especially before the 
Affaire of the Diamond Necklace (1785-1786). Besides, it was during this visit 
that Cagliostro started practising and teaching his peculiar mystical system called 
bv him "The High Egyptian Masonry-" And it was in St. Petersburg that he 
made- his first attempts to acquire the reputation of a miraculous healer. 

My main object is to record as fully as is possible within the limits of a 
short paper all the information which I have been able to find about Cagliostro's 
visit, to Russia, with a prolonged stay in. one of her dependencies — Courland — 
on his way there, to prepare his ground in St. Petersburg; and a much shorter 
stay iu her other dependency — Poland — on his way back, to try and recover his 
prestige, which had been seriously shaken in St. Petersburg. But the events 
which I am going to relate may be difficult to understand without a. few 
preliminary remarks about Cagliostro's personality and his connection with 



Cagliostro was the most famous of those strange personages so popular in 
the eighteenth century, who claimed to be great initiates and to possess super- 
natural powers. Cagliostro travelled all over Europe, and in most countries, he 
was welcomed not only bv the mystically inclined members of the highest 
aristocracy but in some cases by the monarch s themselves. He had a large 
number of admirers, whose opinion of him can best be expressed by the four 
lines inserted under his popular portrait bv Houdon, the English translation of 
which is as follows: — 

"Here of the friend of man behold the features, 
Each day he succours suffering human creatures, 
Life prolongs and illness drives awav, 
The love of doing good his only pay." ' 

lie had a still larger number of enemies who looked on and denounced 
him as a dangerous charlatan and swindler, deceiving credulous people and 
extracting from them material benefits by every conceivable means. At the 
instigation of these enemies, Cagliostro, during his adventurous life, was tried 

T Kranz Kuiuk-lheiitaiio, The Diamond Xcrklace (London. 1901), p. 109. 

46 Transact tons of the Quattior Curoiiatt Lodge. 

for many alleged crimes, but was always released until eventually (in 1791) a 
sentence of death, modified later to perpetual imprisonment, was passed on liim 
by the Roman Inquisition for the only crime which the Inquisition declared to 
be definitely proved, and which Cagliostro did not deny — that of being a Mason. 
The question as to who actually was the man commonly known as Count 
Cagliostro can hardly be considered as definitely cleared up even now. 

It is obvious that the name of Count de Cagliostro and the Spanish 
nationality of the person known under that name were invented by him, as he 
confessed it himself to his friends in Courland ! and later publicly declared 
during the famous affair of the Diamond Necklace in Paris and in liis "Letter 
to the English People/' - It is believed that he assumed this name for the 
first time in 1776 (while residing in London)." But what w r ere his real name 
and origin ? When lie had to answer this qustion, during the famous trial of 
the Diamond Necklace (1785), lie declared that he could not say anything 
positive as to the place of his birth or the names and social standing of his 
parents, and started the story of his life by a description of his early vouth 
which, according to him, he spent in Medina, in Arabia, residing under the 
name of Acharat with his wise and highly educated tutor Althotas. But, 
generally speaking, Cagliostro's own account of himself v was so fantastic and 
absurd that no credit could be given to anything in it, and the question of his 
real identity became a source of wide speculation. The numerous conjectures 
as to Cagliostro's nationality have been carefully collected by W. P. II. 
Trowbridge, who, in his book The Sp/e/idoi/r and Miner;/ of a Matter of Matja-C 
writes: "Some thought him a Spaniard, others a Jew, an Italian, a Ragusan, 
or even an Arab. All attempts to discover his nationality by his language 
failed. Baron Grimm was ' certain that he had a Spanish accent,' others were 
equally certain that he talked ' the patois of Sicily or of the lazzaroni of Naples.' 
His enemies declared that he spoke no known language at all, but a mysterious 
jargon mixed with cabalistic words." The Inquisition biographer of Cagliostro, 
who was one of his judges in Rome during his last trial, assures us that Cagliostro 
"used a Sicilian dialect disfigured by many phrases of a foreign idiom which 
altogether formed an almost Israelitish jargon." ( > Other reports say that he 
used most of all the French language, which he spoke fluently, although with a 
strong Italian accent, and that Italian must have been his native language, 
while one person who spoke to Cagliostro in Portuguese came to the firm 
conviction that his native country must have been Portugal." As regards 
Cagliostro's original social standing, the theories were as numerous as those of 
his nationality. But all the various and sometimes verv fantastic theories as 
to Cagliostro's real identity, K were eclipsed by the one put forward by his 

1 Flisa U. von der Recke, Xaehricht von des herucehtu/tcn Cayliostro Aufcnfhtdt e 
in Mittait- im Jalire, 1770 und von dessen dortigen maijischen Operalioncn (Berlin it 
Stettin, 1787), p. 112. 

2 Lett re, du Comte dc Cagliostro au pen pie. anqlois (London, 1786). dd. 36 and 

3 The Jdfe of Joseph, Hahamo commonly vailed Count Ctt<dio$tro. by the 
biographer of the Roman Inquisition, English translation published in Dublin, 179*2, 
p. 62; Cagliostro and Compari i/, by Franz Funek-Brentano (London, 191)2), p. 48; 
The Splendour (end Misery of a Master of Magic, by W. R. H. Trowbridge (London, 
1910), p. 13; Cagliostro, by V. Zotoff, in the Russian magazine Ltusshoya- Starina 
(St. Petersburg, 1875, vol. xii.), p. 57, etc. 

4 See Memorial, or hrief for the Comte de Cajjliosfro. defendant, translated by 
P. Macmahon, London, 1786, pp. 10-22. The Life of Count Cagliostio, by 
Lucia, an anonymous writer, published in London, 1787, pp. 1-9; The Life of -Joseph 
ISalsamo, by the Inquisition biographer (Dublin, 1792), pp. 89-93; V. Zoloft in the 
I'usskai/a Starina. 1875. vol. xvi., n. 52, etc. 

■■•'pp. 197, 198. 

fi The Jdfe of Joseph B(dsamo (Dublin, 1792), p. 40. 

7 Von d. Recke, p. 12; Dr. Mare Haven J.e Mreitve Incaniiu Oa<iUoxfro, Paris. 
1912, p. 23. 

s See : Markyns Macmahon — Preface to the Memorial or Hrief, pp. ix.-xiii. : 
The Life of Count iUujiiostro, by Lucia (Y). p. 1; Trowbridge, pp. 200-201 and 26(5: 
Me mo ire authentigue pour scrvir a Vhisloirc du Comte de Cagliostro. by de Luchet (?) 
(Strasburg, 1786), Introduction; Tscttre ou peuple anglois, no. 66-67; Dr. Marc Haven, 
p. 27. 

Caf/llosfro in Eastern Europe. 47 

bitter enemy, Theveneau de Morande, the editor of a French paper, Le Conner 
dc I' Europe, in London, who spared no effort to discredit Cagliostro when he 
came to London after the affaire of the Necklace (1786), and eventually 
published a series of sensational articles to the effect that Cagliostro was none 
other than Giuseppe Balsamo — a Sicilian scoundrel and swindler born in 
Palermo on June 8th, 1743, whose daring and scandalous adventures in Italy. 
Spain, England and France were well remembered, 1 Cagliostro emphatically 
denied this theory, put forward quite a number of arguments against it, atul 
publicly declared that the motive of Morande's attacks was nothing else than 
blackmail, which he had already practised against many people. Cagliostro, in 
his turn, tried generally to discredit Morande by revealing his past, and even 
quoting Voltaire, who had expressed a great contempt for the man." Neverthe- 
less, this theory was later on (in 1790) picked up by the Roman Inquisition 
during Cagliostro's last trial, and largely developed and substantiated in the 
book which the Inquisition published for general information/ 1 and in the preface 
to which the readers are assured that the account of Balsamo-Cagliostro is 
founded on very thorough enquiries and investigations made during the trial, 
and that the Inquisition "would much rather have preferred eternal silence 
on this subject, than now to report a single circumstance as a fact, the 
existettce of which was not founded on moral certainty." ■' And, in fact, the 
proofs of Cagliostro and Balsamo being one and the same person seem to be so 
convincing :> that they were accepted practically by everybody. Only recently 
this theory has been subjected to severe criticism by some authors, such, for 
instance, as W. R. IT. Trowbridge 11 and Marc Haven, 7 In trying, however, 
to destroy the theory that Cagliostro was really Balsamo, they do not put 
forward any new one to replace it, and their arguments, especially those of 
Marc Haven, can hardly be accepted as indisputable. But further discu.-sion on 
Cagliostro's real identity would lead us far away from our main subject. A 
much more important question for the purpose of this paper is that of 
Cagliostro's connection with Freemasonry. 

The same editor of the Courier <}<> ]' Europe claimed to have ascertained 
definitely that Cagliostro was initiated into Freemasonry in London on April 12th, 
1777, and even gave all the particulars of this event.* According to De Morande, 
Cagliostro's Mother Lodge was the Esperance Lodge, which met in a room at 
the King's Head Tavern, in Gerrard St., Soho, and, on the occasiou of his 
initiation, Cagliostro described himself as " Joseph Cagliostro Colonel of the 
3rd Regiment of Brandenburg." At the same time— so T)e Morande informs 
his readers further — there were admitted Pierre Boileau, a valet, Count 
Ricciarelli, musician and alchemist, aged seventy-sis:, and the Countess 

Trowbridge in his book quoted above, having reproduced the statement 
of De Morande, adds that Cagliostro's Masonic certificate, for which he paid 
five guineas, was formerly in the celebrated collection of autographs belonging to 
the Marquis De Chateaugiron, and that the Esperance Lodge w 7 a,s affiliated to 
the Order of Strict Observance, which he describes as ' ' oue of the many secret 
societies grafted on to Freemasonry in the eighteenth century."" Later, 
according to the information obtained by Trowbridge, Cagliostro wan also 

1 Trowbridge, p. 266; Lett re an peuple anylois, pp. 56-57. 

3 Letfre au peuplc anylois, especially pp. 41-43; 72-77 and 86 See also: The 
Lite of the. ('(Hint Ca<jlif>nt\-<>, by Lucia (?), pp. iii.-viii. ; and Trowbridge, pp. 260-266. 

3 The .Life of Joseph lialsamo, 1792. 

* Ibid, p. vii. 

5 See also The Memoirs of Jacqua Casanova de Seinyalt (privately printed for 
the Navarre Society, Ltd., London, 1922), vol. ii., pp. 389-393 and 456', and OJoethe 
Jtidianisrhe 11-eise, notes made in Palermo on the 13th and 14th April, 1787. In Dr. 
Heinrich Diinker's edition (Berlin, 1885), pp. 158463. 

G In his book The Splendour and 'Misery of a Master of Mtujic (London, 1910). 

7 Tn his book Je Maitre Ineonnii, Cagliostro (Paris, 1912). 

8 Trowbridge, pp. 111-112: Cagliostro's Letter an priiptc. aiKjtois, n. S3. 
"Trowbridge, pp. 113-114. 

48 Transactions of the Quafuor ('oronati Lodije. 

admitted as a Freemason into a Lodge of the Order of Strict Observance in the 
Hague.' 1 

F. T. B. Clavel - assents that Cagliostro was made a .Mason in Germany, 
and was initiated into all the mysteries possessed by the Lodges, of that country. 

Cagliostro himself, replying to l3e Morande's public declaration to the 
effect that he had received in the Lodge d'Esperance in London Masonic degrees 
of an apprentice, a fellow-craft, Master Mason and Scotch Master, and that 
the members of that Lodge were mostly domestic servants and small artisans, 
wrote in his Lett re an pen pie A nr/fois '•'• as follows: — 

"For a long time I had known the zeal of the English for Masonry. 
When I came to this island, my first care was to visit their Lodges. I made 
enquiries as to the names of those among them where French was spoken. The 
Loge d'Esperance was indicated to me as one of the most regular. This 
information was sufficient for a real Mason, and it never entered my head to 
enquire about the social position of every member of that Lodge. In order to 
study better the English method, I wanted to present myself as a postulant. 
I confess that I was completely satisfied, that I found in the Loge d'Esperance 
excellent Masons, and that whatever is the social position of the good men of 
whom it is composed, I shall always pride myself on bearing the title of their 

According to the Inquisition biographer, Cagliostro, during his trial in 
Rome, also confessed to his association in Loudon with a Masonic Order 
"occupied with the discovery of secrets in the hermetic art, and more especially 
the philosopher's stone." ' 

Unfortunately I have not found any direct proofs that Cagliostro was 
actually initiated in the Loge d'Esperance. But the fact that the very definite 
and detailed statements made in the Courier <lc ]' Europe were not contradicted 
in the Press at the time appears to me to be indirect proof that in any case 
Cagliostro was admitted into it as a member. Although the question of 
Cagliostro's initiation into Freemasonry remains obscure, he must have been a 
recognised Mason of his time, because lie freely visited Masonic Lodges all over 
Europe (including England), and because the Masonic Convocation which took 
place in Paris in 1785 by the initiative of the Philaletes, made quite exceptional 
efforts to persuade Cagliostro to take part in the Convocation and to help in 
finding out the truth about Masonic symbolism and the origin and aims of 
Masonry. Repeated written invitations and even a special delegation were 
sent to Cagliostro by the Convocation, but he refused to participate in it on 
the grounds that the only true Masonry was in the so-called Egyptian rite 
introduced into Europe by himself, and therefore there was nothing to discuss."' 

This Egyptian rite which. Cagliostro started practising in Courlaud in 
1779/' and which later acquired considerable popularity in some other countries 
of Europe, particularly France, was, according to his statement to the Roman 
Inquisition, discovered by him in an old manuscript bv a man named George 
Coston, which he bought from a London booksaller in 1 7 77 . 7 But as no one 
seems ever to have heard of such a man or his works, the actual origin of that 
peculiar system remains unknown. Cagliostro may have invented it himself. 
In any case the Inquisition found this system only in his own manusciipt entitled 
"Egyptian Masonry." s After Cagliostro's condemnation, this manuscript, 
"together with other books, instruments, symbols, etc., etc., appertaining and 
belonging to this sect," was ordered by the Pope, Pius VI. , to be publicly 
burned by the hangman,' 1 which was duly carried out in the Minerva Square in 

1 Trowbridge, p. 11 o. 

2 Tli-Joire pittorrxquc. <lr hi Fro ne-Maron tieric (Paris. 1843). n. 17.1. 
;i pn. 83-8 -i. 

■tT'lie Life, nf Joseph Bahama, mi. GO. 130-1-34. 
-Clavel. pn. 196-199. 
F 'lhitJ, p. 178. 

7 The Jjife of JnseiJi Bulsamo, by the Inquisition biographer, p. 131: The. 

Diamond Xeeldaee, p. 1.08; Clavel, n. 17o. 

* The Life of Joseph Balsa, no, p. 241. 
'•> J hid, 241, 

C«<j1iaxtro in Eastern Europe. 49 

Rome on May 4th, 1791. [ But a short summary of Cagliostro's system is 
given in the book published by the Inquisition after his trial,-' and the actual 
rituals are reproduced in a French .manuscript kept in the library of the Grand 
Lodge of Scotland and in a series of instalments which appeared in the official 
organ of French Martinism, //Initiation, between November, 1 906„ and June, 
1909; they are declared in the preface to be reprints from a manuscript in 
Cagliostro's handwriting discovered in the archives of the Egyptian Lodge, " La 
Sagesse Triomphante," :i founded by Cagliostro himself in Lyons in 1782. ' 
According to these three sources of information, which do not materially differ, 1 ' 
Cagliostro's system of Egyptian Masonry was briefly as follows: — 

Cagliostro pretended that Egyptian Masonry was first propagated by 
Enoch and Elias, but has, since their time, lost much of its purity and 
splendour. Common Masonry, according to him, had degenerated into mere 
buffoonery, and women had. been wrongly excluded from its mysteries. But 
the Grand Koplita, founder and Grand Master of true Egyptian Masonry in all 
parts of the Glebe, had instructed him, Cagliostro, to restore the glory of it 
in Europe, and to allow its benefits to be participated in by both sexes. The 
aim of this Egyptian system was declared to be, to conduct its followers to 
perfection by means of moral and physical regeneration and to restore them to 
that state of innocence of which they were deprived through original sin. 
Separate Lodges and different rituals were reserved for men and women, the 
latter being admitted only into the so-called Lodges of Adoption (/,o/ycs 
d' Adoption il c la Haute M aeon ntrir. Eiji/pt ten nc), of which the Countess 
Cagliostro was declared to be the Grand Mistress. In these Lodges men were 
allowed to be present as visitors. The candidate could profess any religion, 
but a general bslief in the existence of a God and in the immortality of the 
soul was absolutely necessary for admission. From male candidates an additional 
qualification was required — that of being a Master Mason in an ordinary Craft 

In the Lodges established bv Cagliostro for both men and women, three 
grades corresponding to those of Craft Masonry and bearing the same titles 
were worked, namely, the grades of Apprentice, Companion, and Master or 
Master of the Interior. Similarly to Craft Masonry, the sun, the moon, 
triangles, circles, squares, compasses, numbers three, five, and seven, tracing 
boards, prayers, charges, exhortations, solemn obligations, the legends of K.S. 
and the K. of T. played an important, part in Cagliostro's rituals. But, in 
addition, a certain amount of Egyptian symbolism and a strong element of 
alchemy, astrology, Kabalali and magic were introduced into them. In fact, 
the ritual of the third degree was little else than a seance of ceremonial magic. 
The Lodge in this grade was opened with the Te Deum, a prayer to Jehovah, 
and an invocation of the seven angels presiding over the seven planets and 
surrounding the throne of God. Then, the Dove of the Rite — a young and 
innocent bov or girl — was brought forward clothed in a long white robe, adorned 
with a red ribbon and blue silk festoons. After a prayer and a pledge of 
fidelity, the Dove was breathed upon three times by the Master. This ceremony 
was supposed to bring the Dove into a state of clairvoyance, and to enable him 
or her to act as a medium between the spiritual and physical worlds. In such 
a state the Dove was placed in a Tabernacle or behind a screen, and from there 
answered the question of the Master as to whether the Spirits (the seven angels) 
considered the candidate fit to be received into the highest grade of Egyptian 
Masonry, or any other question which the Master would ask. Then mystical 
circles were drawn in the air with a sword in the four corners of the Lodge, 
a large circle was traced with chalk in the centre, certain mysterious words 

■'Marc Haven, L'KvanuUc tie Cuulioxfro, p. 20; Clavel, p. ISO. 
2 The Life, of Joseph Bahama, pp. 1.3o-146. 

•" A. E. AVaite. .'I Xeir Eneiielonetdin of F reemasoiiri/ (London. 1D'21V vol i 
pp. 93-99; vol. ii., p. 98. 
1 Clavel. ]). 179. 
'"' Pad, pp. 1 7-3-177, 

50 Transactions of the Q/iatnor t'oronati. LaJije. 

were pronounced, incense, mvrrh, ashes of laurel and of myrtle scattered in the 
North, South, East, and West respectively. After this, the candidate was 
brought in by two Elect .Brethren and placed within the circle. He was made 
to kneel down and sworn. A prayer for absolution was recited oyer him, and 
he was sprinkled with hyssop and water. Tire Master breathed on him three 
times, a red cord was placed about his neck, r and an oracle was obtained from 
the Dove to show that the candidate had been blessed by the Seven Angels. 

The ceremony of each degree was followed by a long lecture. That of 
the first grade dealt mainly with the First Mattel'; that of the second with 
the processes of spiritual and physical regeneration, for both of which detailed 
prescriptions were given; and thai of the third, with the Rose as a symbol ot 
the First Matter, with the Pentagon as the fruit of the great work of spiritual 
regeneration, and with the Phoenix signifying that a true Mason ri*es from his 
ashes, and that death has no further power over him. 

As regards the Adoptive Grades of Cagliostro's system, into which women 
were admitted, and which particularly contributed to the success of Cagliostro 
in Courland and later in Strasburg, Bordeaux, Lyons and Paris, the ritual of 
the first two was mainly based on legends connected with King Solomon, the 
Queen of Sheba, and with the serpent, of Eel en, symbolising pride. Tn the 
second grade the candidate cut off the serpent's head, and was promised hereafter 
the power of communicating with celestial spirits. The ceremony of the third 
grade was similar to that reserved to men alone. 

Such, in a few words, was Cagliostro's system of Egyptian Masonry, 
which found a considerable number of followers and made him popular among 
the highest aristocracy of several countries of Europe, in. spite of his unattractive 
appearance and vulgar manners. There are many descriptions of Cagliostro's 
appearance and manners by people who met him personally, 1 both his friends 
and enemies, and this is approximately his portrait as it appears from such 
descriptions : — 

He was below 7 middle stature, rather stout, with a short neck, round face, 
dark hair and complexion, round, black, vivid and exceedingly penetrating eyes. 
a broad and somewhat turued-up nose, full, red lips nearly always parted, 
excellent teeth, strong jaws, a fat, protruding chin, and small ears. In his 
manners and speech he was pompous, arrogant and impertinent. He was full of 
self-confidence, and at the same time very susceptible to flattery. He was 
extremely eloquent even in the languages he spoke least well, and had a strong 
and sonorous voice. In his speeches, which were as a rule very impressive, as 
well as in ordinary conversation, he usually adopted an evasive and ambiguous 
style and affected to make all his responses with an oracular obscurity. His 
great art consisted in uttering vague sentences so that the imagination of his 
hearers might interpret in their own manner whatever they could not under- 
stand. He was also exceedingly prompt and clever in. getting out of a difficulty 
when asked a question he could not properly answer, or when pressed to carry 
out some of his fantastic promises which he gave freely. 2 

Such w r as the man who unexpectedly appeared in the capital of Courland — 
Mittau — in February or March, 1779. 

1 Most of these descriptions have been collected by Marc Haven in T.r Mailre 
Ihvouhu ('(Kfliostro, nn. 13-28, and bv Trowbridge in The $r>ien<lnu r and Miscru of a 
Master of Magic, pp." 201-203. _ See also:— Von der Recke, p". 112; The Life of fo/eph 
HaUamo, by the Inquisition biographer, pp. 40-42, and the footnote by the Translator 
to page 63; The Life of the. Count Caul'ms'tro, by Lucia (Y ), pp. 124-126: Mare Haven, 
J/Lvnmjjle (hi Cagliostro, pp. 80-86; J. von. Guenter, Der Erzzauho'er Canlioxl ro, 
pp. .185-186 (extracts from the Journal ftier Frcimaurcr, published in Vienna, 1786). 

2 For examples of this see von der T?ecke, pp. 10-12. and other passages of her 
memoirs recording her conversations with Cagliostro • also CI ay el, p. 174. 

I 'ft/// "tost ro in I'lfixtvni- h'/trojif. 

There are very detailed and interesting memoirs about Cagliostro's visit 
to Courland by Charlotte Elisabeth Konstantia von der Eecke, m'-e Countess von 
Medem. 1 The memoirs were written by Mine, von der Eecke when Cagliostro 
was actually staying in Courland, i.e., in 1779, and she was one of his most 
serious disciples and followers, and they were published with her own lengthy 
comments in 1787, i.e., eight years after, when she was entirely disillusioned. 
The memoirs, as well as the later comments, are written in a very sincere and 
open-hearted manner, and, as they are not translated into English, I will record 
here Mine, von der Eecke 's statements as fully as time permits-. — 

The ground for Cagliostro's success in Courland was well prepared. 
Among the highest society in Mittau there were many enthusiastic and keen 
Masons. Their main leaders were two brothers, the Counts von Medem (IMme. 
von der Recke's father and uncle), who occupied very high social and official 
positions in Courland, and one of whom (the uncle) was the reigning Master 
of the Masonic Lodge in Mittau. Roth had been deeply interested in chemistry 
and mystical subjects since their early youth, and when they became Masons (in 
Halle about 1741) they closely linked up Freemasonry with Alchemy and Magic 
and started studying these sciences with great zeal. 2 As regards Cagliostro, 
both had already heard about him from the German Masons with whom they 
corresponded. It was not surprising, therefore, that when, a man presented 
himself and, producing some evidence that he was a Spanish Colonel Count de 
Cagliostro, declared that lie was on an important Masonic mission to the North 
bv order of his superiors, he was not only believed but received with great 
interest and respect. lie was immediately introduced to other prominent Masons 
of the city, amongst whom many had also a great inclination for magic, and, 
by his skilful conversation on mystical subjects, Cagliostro enchanted them all . ' 
Soon lie and his wife, who had come with him, were received as honoured guests 
in the best houses of Mittau, and Cagliostro, having noted a great interest in 
everything mystical among the ladies, decided that the easiest way of establishing 
his Egyptian Masonry in Courland with a view to introducing it later to Russia 
would be through them. Accordingly lie took the first opportunity of informing 
Madame von der Recke and some other mystically inclined ladies (relatives of 
the von M.edems) that he had come to Courland with special instructions from 
his Superiors (who, as he declared later, were none other than Elias the Prophet 
and a powerful spirit, Kophta, delegated specially to protect and help Cagliostro) ' 
to introduce there the Egyptian system of Masonry, of which he was the Grand 
Master, and to found a ' Lodge of Adoption ' accepting as members men and 
women on an equal footing."' He added that he was inviting these particular 
ladies to be the founders of that Lodge because he felt a great friendship for 
them and thought that they could become worthy members of that secret society 
which brings a higher felicity to those who strive for truth with a clean heart, 
and seek to increase their knowledge for the benefit of mankind. (i All this 
impressed and flattered the ladies very much, and they accepted the proposition 
enthusiastically. Rut the leading Masons of the city, in spite of their goodwill 
towards Cagliostro, raised a number of objections to carrying out his scheme. 
The ladies, therefore, advised Cagliostro to give up his idea, but he proudly 
replied that he had never yet undertaken anything without carrying it out, 
that he must organise this Lodge in all its splendour, and that his present 

1 yachrlcht von das hcracchtigtcn (Uigliosit'o Aufenthalte in Mittau. im Jahrc 
177!) und von- (lessen dorti'/en- matjischen Ojienttioncn (edited ln r C. F. Nicolai, Berlin 
and Stettin, 1787). 

2 Von der Reeke, pp. 3-i. 
a Ibid, rm. 6-7. 

1 Ibid, m 38. 
s Ibid, n. 7. 
t; Ibid. p. 26. 

;V2 '/' ' ruiixftctioiix of the ( { ) tttif itor ('ornnati Lurlt/e. 

adversaries would eventually become his greatest followers. 1 Thereupon he 
performed, in the presence of those who opposed the foundation of the Lodge, 
a number of alchemical experiments. Seeing how greatly the gentlemen were 
interested in these experiments he promised to disclose some further secrets in the 
Lodge he wanted to found, and offered to demonstrate his power over higher 
forces at a magical seance which could be arranged the following day, it they 
would find a boy of about six years of age to assist him. One of the Von 
Medems agreed to his little sou being used for this purpose, and this first 
magical seance of took place in the house of a very prominent person 
in Courland, and one of the Masonic leaders — Ober Burg Graf von der Howen. 
The particulars of this first experiment are recorded as follows-: — 

Cagliostro poured in the child's left, hand and on his head some liquid 
which he called the Oil of Wisdom, and, after reciting some prayers and psalms, 
declared that by this ceremony the boy was made a clairvoyant. Then Cagliostro 
wrote on the child's hand and head some mysterious characters, and instructed 
him to look steadily at his anointed palm. Just before the beginning of the 
seance, Cagliostro had asked Count von Medem — the hoy's father — so that the 
boy could not hear him, what kind of apparition the Count wished his son to 
see, to which the father replied that, in order not to frighten t lie boy, he would 
prefer him. to see the apparition of lus own mother and sister. In about ten 
minutes, after the conjuration, the child suddenly exclaimed that lie saw his 
mother and sister. Cagliostro asked him what his sister was doing, and the 
child replied: "She presses her hand to her heart as though it were aching."' 
A while afterwards the child exclaimed: "Now my sister is kissing my brother, 
who has just come home." The experiment took place in a house many streets 
away from the house in which the boy's sister lived, and his brother was supposed 
to be many miles away from the town, and was not expected home that day at all. 
Great, was, therefore, the surprise of the gentlemen present at the seance when, 
having returned to Count von Medem 's house immediately after its end, they 
learned that at the very moment when the boy saw his sister pressing her hand 
to her heart she actually had a bad heart-attack and felt quite ill, and that 
very soon afterwards the boy's brother came home unexpectedly and was kissed 
by his sister. 

Cagliostro had attained his aim. This magical experiment impressed the 
gentlemen so much that they themselves began to urge Cagliostro to found his 
Lodge of Adoption in Mittau and to initiate them into the mysteries of 
Egyptian Masonry. A mixed Lodge for men and women was accordingly 
opened soon, after, namely, on the 29th of March, 1779, and Madame von der 
Recke and her aunt and. cousin were duly admitted as its first female members.-' 1 
The Lodge worked Cagliostro's Egyptian system, some particulars of which have 
been given above. On April 10th, 1779, on the day when the original members 
of the Lodge of Adoption received their last grade, Cagliostro, after spending 
about half-an-hour alone in a closed room, informed the Count von Medem 
and Mme. von der Recke that he had just been in communication with his 
' Superiors,' who had given him further instructions concerning his work in 
Courland and disclosed to him that on one of the estates of the Count von 
Medem, called Wilzen, a great Magician had lived six hundred years before. 
That Magician, having found his disciples to be inclined to practise black magic 
instead of the white one, had buried in the forest some very important magical 
instruments and writings, together with large quantities of gold and silver. 
This invaluable treasure of extreme importance for the welfare of mankind was 
still there, but was being energetically searched for by some adepts of black 
magic, one of whom ' had already been in Courland for some time for this 
purpose, but so far without success, as the evil spirits subordinated to him were 

1 Yon dei- Kecke. pp. '27-2^. 

2 /hid, p, :](). et .st,,. 
;! Ibid, p. 34. 

1 Cagliostro probably meant his competitor and enemy Stark, who happened 
then to tie in Courland (see A. X, Pninin, Huxsian Masuii-n/ in the .V177/. and the 
First Part uf the XIX. Century, Fetro^rad, 1916. p. 290). 

( 'tit/l/ostra in Eastern Kit rope. 53 

not strong enough. concluded this sensational revelation by expressing 
the hope that the Great Architect of the Universe would bless his zeal and .make 
him happy by helping him to find the treasure, for the benefit of mankind. At 
the same time he warned his listeners that this undertaking would be the most 
dangerous in the world, because all the evil spirits would rise and try to gel 
him on their side, in order to preserve the treasure for the Principle of Evil, 
and thus bring about unspeakable misfortune for the world. Therefore, 
Cagliostro asked his friends to join him in prayer to the Eternal Source of Good 
that He might give Cagliostro sufficient strength to withstand the attempts of 
the evil spirits and to keep bis faith.. Then Cagliostro took a piece of paper 
and drew on it a plan, of the valley in which the treasure had been buried, 
and verbally described the position and the particulars of the forest so well that 
the owner of the estate, Count von Medem, was greatly surprised, as he knew 
for certain that Cagliostro had never seen the forest or the estate, and had never 
been even near Wilzen. Cagliostro, however, replied that during the half-hour 
he was believed to have spent alone in the next room, writing, he actually had 
been transferred by the power of his spirits and by order of the Great Kophta 
to Wilzen, had seen the spot and surroundings, and learned from the spirits 
watching the treasure everything about it. Further, Cagliostro assured Count 
von Medem that all the treasures when unearthed would be given, to him, and 
that Cagliostro would keep for himself, or rather for his Superiors, only 
documents and instruments referring to ^lagie.' 

On the following day, in the presence of a few chosen persons, Cagliostro 
made his second magical experiment, which was very similar to the first and 
with the same small boy as a medium. This time, however, the boy saw a 
forest and another small boy in it, who opened the earth at one particular spot 
and showed the medium in that opening a large quantity of gold, silver, pajjers, 
magical instruments and a box with some red powder. Further, as Caghostro's 
wife was rather worried about her father, from whom she had not had any news, 
Cagliostro made the young medium see the apparition of a man in good health 
and in a cheerful mood, whose appearance, according to the boy's description, 
was entirely that of Mme. Cagliostro 's father. 2 Mine, von der Recke, deeply 
impressed by what she had heard about this wonderful apparition (she was not 
present at. the seance) asked Cagliostro to let her see her dead brother, whom 
she had loved dearly. To this Cagliostro replied that he had no power over the 
dead and not sufficient power to evoke an apparition of any kind to a grown-up 
person. He promised Mme. von der Recke, however, that her dead brother 
would appear to her in a dream, and he even gave her father a sealed envelope 
containing, as he said, a question which would be answered by the dead man's 
spirit to his sister in that dream." But nothing happened. Mine, von der 
Recke, in her excitement, could not sleep at all the first two nights, and on 
the third went to sleep, but had only very disturbing and awful dreams. In 
the middle of that night, she woke up bathed in. perspiration, her heart beating 
violently, and with such pain in all her limbs that she could hardly move. The 
following morning her father and some friends of his came to see Cagliostro 
and to hear Mme. von der Recke's account, of her dream. But Mme. von der 
Recke was not there, and Cagliostro said he had instructed the most important 
spirits under his control to prepare her on the previous night for the interview 
with her dead brother, but the young woman's nerves and general constitution 
proved to be too weak to bear that preparation, and, as his spirits had informed 
him, she was then quite ill. Under the circumstances the continuation of that 
experiment would be dangerous for her life, and he had to give it up. 
Accordingly he demanded back the sealed envelope given to the young woman's 
father, and burned it unopened. Seeing the anxiety of Mme. von der Recke's 
father and friends about her health, he suggested that one of the old gentlemen 
should go and see her at once (it was about 9 a.m.) and then again at 3 p.m. 

1 Von der Recke, pp. 36-42, 

2 Ibid, p. 42. 

3 Ibid, pp. 44-4b'. 

54 '/' rattxttct ion* of the, Quatuor Coroitati Loili/r. 

The first time she would be found very ill in bed, but ah 3 o'clock she would 
already be sitting at her desk practically recovered and writing letters. lie 
said that such was the information received bv him from his spirits, and in 
order to prove it, he requested those present not to tell Mine, von der Kecke 
anything about his prophecy before its correctness had been proved. One ot 
the listeners followed Cagliostro's instructions punctually, and was greatly 
surprised to find Mine, von der Recke both times exactly as Cagliostro had 
foretold. 1 Towards evening Mme. von der Recke was sufficiently well to be 
present, at Cagliostro's invitation, at his magical experiment in the house of 
her uncle, where several members of the Lodge of Adoption were assembled for 
the purpose. This experiment was the longest and the most extraordinary of 
all made by him during his stay in Courland. In her Memoirs, Mme. von der 
Recke describes this particular experiment more in detail and with greater care 
than any other, and, therefore, in order to give a clear idea as to the character 
of Cagliostro's magical seances in general, I have thought it worth while to 
translate fully the corresponding passage of the Memoirs 2 : — 

'■ First of all." writes .Mine, von der Recke. '' Cagliostro asked me what were 
the Christian names of All 1 . N.N. whom 1 knew very well and those of niy decea.seil 
brother. When I had given him theie names, he wrote their initial letters on a piece 
of paper and drew between them some characters which T did not know. After that 
he remained for some time alone in the next room where he wrote something, burned 
something, then came out to ns and ret] nested us to suggest to the hoy :i that lie should 
nsk Cagliostro to show him something in the next room. The mother of the boy 
asked him to request Cagliostro to show him the same forest that he had seen a i'ew 
o venings before, or something else. Cagliostro took the boy on his knee, rubbed bis 
head with a paper he had just burned, kissed him and said: ' Child! you too can 
become a great man one day. Come, dear boy, you will see things of great importance.' 
Then he took him to the room where he had been writing. There was nothing in the 1 
room except the usual furniture. Only two candles were burning on my uncle's 
desk ' and between, them lay a sheet of paper covered with some characters. When 
the child was in the room, Cagliostro locked the door and told the child to wait 
patiently until the beautiful things promised him Mould appear, that he must not be 
afraid of anything, and that even if he heard a noise in the other room it would 
not mean any danger to him. We all sat in the front room and formed a circle 
opposite the locked door. Cagliostro stood in the middle of the same room with a 
naked isword in his hand, and recommended to all of us calm, silence, seriousness 
and meditation. 'then he drew with his sword certain characters on the door of the 
room in which the child was. He further stamped his foot on the floor, kicked the 
locked door violently, drew some characters in the air with his sword, pronounced 
various names and words, which none of us could understand, but of which the 
following three were uttered more frequently than the others: — Hebon, Mel ion, 
Tetragrammaton. In the midst of this work my aunt"' sent her elder hoy to see 
whether the other doors were also locked, Cagliostro cried out with surprising 
indignation: 'For God's sake, what are you doing:' Be quiet, be quiet, do not 
move. You are in the greatest danger and I with you.' He redoubled the stamping 
with his feet, shouted with a terrible loud voice some unknown words and names, 
made various signs in the air and drew around us a new circle with his sword. He 
remained standing in the circle, told us with terrible threats that all of us would 
become unhappy if any of us moved or even whispered. Then, he renewed his 
invocation, ordered the child, who until then had been quite still locked up in the 
next room, to kneel down, to repeat everything he said and not to get up before he 
saw an apparition. Then Cagliostro stamped his feet, made various movements with 
his sword, and asked the child: ' What do you see notvy 

1 Von der Kecke, pp. o2-62. 

2 I bit], pp. 62-74. 

:i The same boy, aged six, who acted as medium in the preceding seances. 

1 Count von Medem. 

5 Countess von Medem. the mother of the hoy acting as medium. 

( 'ttf/liosf r<i in Ifa-xtcrn Europe. -^ 

The Child: 'T soo the beautiful little boy who opened the earth in the forest 
for me the lust time.' 

Cagliostro: 'Good! Ask the hoy to show you Mr. von N.N. with chains on 
hi.s neck, hands and feet! ' 

The Child: ■ I see Mr. von N.N. He looks very unhappy and his nook, hands 
and feet are in chains. ' 

Cagliostro: ' What do yon see now'r ' 

The Child: ' The beautiful little boy pulls the chain round his neck tighter and 

Cagliostro: ' Where is Mr. von. N.N. at present? 

Here the child gave the name of Mr. von N.N.'.s estate, which was several 
miles from the town. 

Cagliostro: 'Stamp your foot on the ground and request the beautiful boy to 
make Mr. von N.N. disappear and in his place to show you the deceased brother of 
your Cousin von der Reoke.' 

The Child : ' The brother is here.' 

Cagliostro : 'Does he look cheerful or sad, and how is he dressed '1 

The Child: ' He looks quite contented and has a red uniform on.' 

( -agliostro -. ' Tell him he must answer ''yes" or u no" to my thoughts by a 

The Child : ' .He says yes.' 

CagJiostro : 'What is he doing now 'i ' 

The Child: 'He places his hand on his heart and looks at me kindly.' 

CagJiostro: ' What do yon want to see now'r ' 

The Child: 'The little girl who is like your wife and whom you showed me last 

Cagliostro: ' What do yon see now!-' ' 

The Child : ' The little girl is here.' 

Cagliostro: ' Kmbraee the girl, kiss her and ask her to show you the forest.' 

Then we heard the child kiss the apparition. .Major von Korff and my uncle 
asserted that they heard the kiss of the apparition too, but 1 only heard one kiss. 

The Child: ' 1 see the forest and in it the stump of a tree.' 

Cagliostro: ' Ask the girl to make the ground open.' 

The Child: 'The ground is open, and J see five candlesticks, gold, silver, various 
papers, red powder and also iron instruments.' 

Cagliostro: ' Now lot the ground be (dosed again, the whole forest disappear and 
the gill also and then tell me what you see.' 

The Child: ' Everything has disappeared and now 1 see a handsome, tall man. 
He has on a very long, white robe and a red cross on. his breast." 

Cagliostro: 'Kiss that man's hand and let him kiss you.' 

We heard both kisses, and Cagliostro asked the apparition to become the child's 
Guardian Spirit. 

After that Cagliostro spoke Arabic again (at least we thought it was Arabic 1 ), 
kicked the door with his feet, finally opening it, let out the child, told us we could 
now leave our places, reprimanded my cousin again for having left the circle, and at 
the same time fell into a kind oi convulsive fit. We revived him, and when he came 
to ho asked all of us to be silent and serious, went to the room where the child had 
seen the apparitions, banged the door behind him. and we heard him speaking some 
foreign language there very loudly. At last we heard a muffled noise, after which he 
came out of the room quite calm and well again and said with a triumphant expression 
on his face that he had had to inflict punishment on Mr. von N.X., that he was now 
punished very severely and that in the morning we should hear that von X.N. had 
felt very ill with a choking feeling in his throat and an acute pain in his limbs at the 
very moment when the child saw his apparition in chains. Cagliostro even gave us the 
nama of the doctor who would be called in to the suffering von N.N. when the night 
was over. And the next morning wo heard that everything Cagliostro had told us had 
actually happened. 

His swoon, Cagliostro explained later as a torment by evil spirits who temporarily 
acquired power over him, because the elder cousin of Mime, von dev Reeke. as mentioned 

56 TntHxurtioiix of flic (Jimtunr ( 'ortnxiti l.odtji . 

above, li;ul stepped out of the circle surrounding those present, at the seance, and lie 
added that at every invocation the evil spirits were trying to overpower him who 
was conducting his seances with the help oi' good spirits. .By the magic circle the had 
spirits are fettered and deprived of their power. 1 And when asked how lie could 
induce the good spirits to assist him in punishing Mr. von X.X. so severely, lie said 
that the punishment of this man had been ordered by his Superiors. ' \{ you only 
knew,' he added. ' how my heart aches when I am sometimes compelled to cause pain 
to my fellow-creatures. Tint when I think that by this means I often save countries 
and nations from misfortune and that even the one who feels my chastisement can 
perhaps be saved by it from eternal suffering, then I acquire courage to carry out the 
will of my Superiors in full confidence.' " - 

During his stay in Mittau, Cagliostro held several more magical seances 
(eight altogether are recorded in Mme. von der Ilecke's Memoirs). In their 
form and essence they were all similar to the one just described in detail. In 
all of them the same boy acted as a medium, and lie was always the only one 
who saw the apparitions. The preliminary operations were also always the 
same, and the apparitions in most cases dealt with the same subject — the 
treasure buried in the forest belonging to the Count von Medem. During oue 
of such .seances, the child was given an iron nail, to which the apparition of 
the Knight with the red cross tied itself and promised Cagliostro to guard the 
treasure so that nobody could get near It without ids knowledge and that without 
Mr. von Howen (who was a prominent Mason and an ardent follower of 
Cagliostro) it could never be lifted or even found." 

Mine, von der Ilecke asserts that, during the same seance, all those 
present distinctly heard the footsteps of the child-medium descending and then 
passing along a tunnel when Cagliostro requested him to go to the treasure 
through the opening in the ground seen by him in his vision of the forest. 
They also heard the kisses exchanged between the boy and seven white appari- 
tions of knights, one of whom had a red heart on his breast and the others 
red crosses. l This particular seance took place at Wilzen (the estate where the 
treasure was supposed to have been buried) between ten and eleven o'clock in 
the morning, and as on several subsequent occasions the child-medium was 
placed not in a separate room but behind a screen in the same room where all 
the onlookers sat forming a circle within which Cagliostro stood." 1 After the 
seance, Cagliostro, accompanied by some of his followers and the child, went to 
the forest and fastened the nail sanctified during the seance, on the spot where 
the treasure was supposed to be hidden. (; On two other occasions, the boy behind 
the screen gave the names of the persons who at Cagliostro' s command by signs 
had entered the magical circle, and he saw in a vision these persons kneel down 
holding Cagliostro's watch (which he asserted to be magical) just at the time 
when the persons in the circle were actually doing so. 7 In her Memoirs, Mme. 
von der Recke assures us that the screen behind which the boy stood was 
previously examined by her and there were no holes in it, nor any mirrors or 
instruments behind it and that generally speaking there was no possibility what- 
ever for the boy to see what was going on in the room on the other side of the 
screen. N 

During one of these seances, a rather peculiar incident happened. In 
addition to the usual apparitions, the child saw a spirit in a long white robe 
with a golden crown on its head and a red cross on its breast. Cagliostro 
requested the child to ask the spirit its name. The child put the question but 
no reply was heard. A while after Cagliostro asked the bov : "Well, has the 
Ghost given his name to vou ? " 

The Child: "No."" 

Cagliostro : ' ' Why not 1 ' ' 

The Child: "Because he has forgotten it." 

3 Von der Reoke, p. 74. ^ Ibid, p. SS. 

2 Ibid, p. 76. <; /7,/,/,' 1K 92.' 

;i ""'</. P- ^- 7 Ibid, no. 94-10(5. 

• l lhi,l pp. 90-92. n //„",/, j/ 9(5. 

('(<</lioxh'G in Hrixteni Europe, 57 

This threw Cagliostro into a stale of fury. He stamped his feet, made 
all sorts of signs in the air with his sword, shouted some strange words amongst 
which Heliou, Melion and Tetragrammaton were again very frequently repeated, 
and required complete silence, seriousness and contemplation. Then he 
dashed behind the screen where the boy was standing and could be heard writing 
something very hastily with a pen. All tins made those present very nervous 
and some of them felt the ground shaking under their feet, heard some clang 
and other strange noises and two even were sure they had been pulled by their 
arms. But soon Cagliostro entered again the magic circle with a serious face 
and proceeded with the soance by evoking a few more spirits. After the seance 
Cagliostro made a long speech to his followers and said that the silence of the 
crowned knight when asked about his name was a sure sign that there was 
among his (Cagliostro's) followers a, Judas seeking to betray him and to do him 
harm. He warned that prospective Judas, however, that the power and strength 
of the spirits protecting him were very great and that the very thought of 
harming Cagliostro was very dangerous, 1 

These magical experiments were made at a time when those who witnessed 
them were very greatly infatuated by Cagliostro, and believed in him implicitly. 
Hence, while Cagliostro was in Mittau no investigations, or even attempts at 
investigation, were ever made as to whether the wonderful demonstrations of his 
magical powers were quite genuine. Hut later, when Cagliostro left CourSand 
without recovering the famous treasure about which his Superiors and the 
apparitions had talked so much, a certain doubt began to creep into the minds 
of his admirers. It is true he had said he could not lift the treasure owing to 
the fact that it required a long time to conquer the evil spirits guarding it, and 
that he had unexpectedly received an order from his Superiors to proceed to 
St. Petersburg urgently." But after his departure it was discovered through a 
letter from Normandez, the Spanish charge d'affaires in St. Petersburg, published 
in the local papers, that Cagliostro was neither a Spaniard nor a Colonel nor a 
Count.' 5 The impression created by this news was somewhat softened by 
Cagliostro himself. Becoming aware of the attitude taken up bv the Spanish 
charge d'affaires, just before he left Courland, Cagliostro informed his admirers 
that he had assumed the name of Count Cagliostro by the order of his Superiors, 
that he had formerly served the great Kophta under the name of Frederik 
Gualdo, but that his real name and standing could not yet he disclosed, and 
that he might do so and appear in all his glory in St. Petersburg.' All this 
was readily believed at the time, but now, when Cagliostro's enormous personal 
influence on his disciples had already begun to fade, this public accusation of 
imposture, to which Cagliostro did not reply, could not pass without some effect. 
Then gradually it became known that during his stay in Courland, Cagliostro 
had obtained under false pretences considerable sums of money and valuable 
jewellery from some of his most prominent admirers.'' All this, of course, gave 
food for considerable doubt about Cagliostro in general and his morality in 
particular. But his magical seances remained inexplicable and his supernatural 
powers were not doubted for a long time.' 1 Some onlv thought that he had 
fallen under the influence of evil spirits." Gradually, however, this belief in 
the supernatural powers of Cagliostro began also to disappear among his former 
admirers hi Courland, and attempts were made to give a natural explanation 
of his magical experiments. 

In the copious comments to her Memoirs, iYlme. von der Recke makes 
quite a number of such attempts. 

First of all, she accuses Cagliostro of falsehood in general and gives 
numerous examples of bis art in impressing credulous people and of cleverly 
getting out of difficulties, when detected in lying. s Then she tries to explain 
Cagliostro's seances as follows: — 

1 Von der ReeUo, pp. H)o-1 tl». ■> Ihuh v. 146. 

- Ibid, p. 1-13. ''■ UiUL n. .146. 

■•' Ibid. h. 110. 7 IhhL pm VMS. 14.1. 

1 //./(/. pp. 1 12-114. N IbiiL n». Ki-12, L;jo-i;i7. 

58 Transactions of the Q nut nor f'oronati Loihjc. 

When Cagliostro came to Mittau and was received in the house of Count 
von Medem aw a prominent brother-Mason, lie very soon made friends with his 
host's clever, bright little son, who later became his medium.. Cagliostro played 
very often with the child, showed him various pictures, asked him various 
questions, taught him the answers he was to give and generally prepared him 
for the part he was to play later on in the seances. Then he informed the boy 
that by obeying him and keeping his words and instructions very secret, he 
could make himself, his parents, his sisters and, in general, everybody he loved, 
very happy. On the other hand, Cagliostro threatened the boy with all sorts of 
terrors if he disobeyed him in any way or ever spoke about their arrangements 
to anybody. This, according to Mme. von der Recke, accounts for the fact that 
the boy never made a full confession to his parents or relatives even later on, 
after Cagliostro's departure from Courland. The boy believed in his promises 
and was terrified by his threats, even at a distance. This explains why the poor 
child was in such a heat and perspiration during every seance: he was mortally 
afraid of forgetting something Cagliostro had taught him. 

As regards the apparitions the child was supposed to have seen, Mine. 
von der Recke suggests that under the paper covered with mystical characters 
there were other pieces of paper on which all the apparitions required were drawn 
and placed in the order corresponding to Cagliostro's questions. The boy saw 
these pictures one after the other and could therefore answer honestly: ''Now 
T see a forest and so forth." ' The fact that Cagliostro could so fully describe 
the forest at Wilzen, where he had never been and where his famous treasure 
was supposed to be hidden, Mme. von der Recke tries to explain by suggesting that 
he had made preliminary careful enquiries through secret agents, or by a series of 
clever questions put to the owner of the forest in conversation and unnoticed 
by him. 2 In her comments about the sudden illness of Mr. von N.N. at the 
very moment when, at a distance of many miles, Cagliostro evoked his apparition 
in chains with the object of punishing him, Mine, von der Recke advances the 
supposition that Cagliostro, who' had dined with von N.N. the previous day, 
might have given him some slight poison which he knew would act in so many 
hours. There is no mystery in Cagliostro's declaring the name of the doctor 
who was summoned to Mr. von N.N., adds Mme. von der Recke, as the latter 
always called in the same doctor. ;; Discussing the question of the kisses 
exchanged between the child and the apparition, she says, that the child must 
have kissed his own hand as many times as was necessary. 1 

Such are the chief explanations which Mme von der Recke and her friends 
were able to find for Cagliostro's magical experiments, several years after they 
had taken place. In a general way she also supposes that Cagliostro had a 
number of unknown assistants, who were giving him secretly all sorts of 
information, the declaration of which would produce the effect of clairvoyance."' 

There may be much truth in these explanations, but, on the other hand, 
they may be wrong, as, unfortunately, they are not based ou any proper 
investigation at the time when the seances actually took place, and, therefore, 
they are rather speculations than real explanations. Besides, they are far from 
being complete. Quite a number of striking phenomena during Cagliostro's 
experiments described by Mme. von der Recke and partly recorded above she 
does not even attempt to explain, and in those cases for which she tries to find 
an explanation, her comments are sometimes contradictory of the facts stated 
previously in her Memoirs. For instance, her supposition about the medium 
having been previously chosen and prepared by Cagliostro, is contradictory of 
her previous records, from, which it appears that. Cagliostro did not specially 
insist on auy particular child acting as his assistant and left the choice of the 
medium to others. And her theory that the apparitions were nothing but: 

1 Von der Recke. pp. 48, 45. 47. 

2 Ibid, p. 43. 
■" I bid, p. 75. 
■* Ibid, p. 77. 
* Ibid, p. 35. 

Cayliostro ut Eastern- Europe. 59 

drawings on sheets of paper put in certain order before the boy, does not 
correspond to her statements that on several occasions the kind of apparition 
to be seen by the boy was suggested to Cagliostro by members of the audience 
in the course of the seance itself and so that the boy could not hear what was 

However, there can hardly be any doubt that Cagliostro's magical seances 
to a large extent consisted of clever conjuring tricks. Pie confessed it himself. 
In his Memorial or Brief drawn up during the Diamond Necklace trial in Paris 
lie himself fully describes the tricks employed at a very similar seance arranged 
by, him at the request of the famous Mine, de la Motte, when Mile, de la Tour 
acted as a medium, and concludes this description by the following words: 
"Could I then foresee that this social recreation would one day be represented 
to the magistrate as an act of witchcraft, a sacrilegious profanation of the 
Christian mysteries? " J 

But, if we are to believe all the facts recorded in Mine, von der Reeke's 
Memoirs, we must admit that while in Courland, Cagliostro not only demonstrated 
clever and artfully arranged tricks, but also a certain amount of hypnotism and 

In addition to the establishment of the Lodge of Adoption in Mittau, 
where the ritual of his Egyptian Masonry was worked, and to numerous magical 
experiments in the presence of chosen members of that Lodge, Cagliostro 
instructed his followers in Masonry and magic by means of private talks and 
lectures which he started for a small circle of the more advanced initiates in 
the mysteries he professed to possess. During these lectures, which he delivered 
i?i bad French but with great enthusiasm, he talked mostly about the hidden 
knowledge of magic. 2 

To give an idea as to the general character and subject matter of these 
lectures and to show at the same time in what an extraordinary state of mind 
his listeners must have been to take them seriously, I give in Appendix A. a 
translation of extracts from one of the lectures written down by Mme. von der 
Recke in 1779. ; < 

Sometimes, however, especially towards the end of Cagliostro's stay in 
Courland, he seemed to forget himself entirely during his lectures and either 
talked about magic in such a way that his listeners began to suspect him of 
practising Black Magic, or treated on subjects which had nothing to do with 
magic or Masonry. ' 

Once, when discussing the sixth chapter of the First Book of Moses (second 
and fourth verses), he developed such doctrines of Demonology that he greatly 
shocked the moral feelings of his hearers. ' And during another lecture, given 
shortly after the one just mentioned, he suddenly began to talk about love 
between the sexes, and went so far — in spite of the presence of several women — 
as to give a prescription by means of which a woman wdio does not respond to 
the love of a man may be brought to experience even physical love by magic.' 1 

When his surprised audience protested against lectures of this kind and 
asked him for explanations, he realized his mistake (or absent-mindedness) and 
resorted to his usual excuse, namely, that he was only testing his disciples. 
Nevertheless, the confidence of some of his followers in him w T as considerably 
shaken. This was particularly the ease with Mme. von der Recke. After these 
lectures, and when she had learned of his cruel treatment of his servant 

] Memorial or Brief for the Pontte <Je Cmjlinsfrn, defeiulenit against //if 7v/hi;/'.s 
Attorney (Jenerai, plaintiff (English translation, London. 1786), pp. 38-44. 

- Von der Recke, p. 112. 

3 Ibid, pp. 116-1515. 

1 IbUt p. 112. 

5 In these lectures Cagliostro spoke of the love which must exist between the 
children of heaven and earth and gave to understand that not only Christ but he 
himself owed his presence on earth to such a union. The demi-gods of whom the 
Greeks speak in their mythology, must, he said, have been nothing else than the fruit 
of a similar love. — Von der Recke. pp. 136-137. 

e Ibid, p. 137. 

GO Transact mint of tin- Qtutfiior t'ornnatt hodiji . 

(mercilessly thrashed by him and turned out of doors for an insignificant iault), 
Mme. von der Recks became convinced that Cagliostro had fallen a victim to 
evil spirits, and refused point-blank to comply with his earnest and persistent 
requests that she should accompany him and his wife to St. Petersburg, to 
which she had previously agreed.' Through his own blunders, therefore*. 
Cagliostro lost a powerful assistant and was forced to proceed to St. Petersburg 
accompanied only by his wife and servants, although well supplied with letters 
of introduction from several leading Masons in Courland, such as the Brothers 
von Medem and Ober Burg Graf von der Howen, who remained his admirers to 
the last. 


Cagliostro arrived in St. Petersburg in the autumn of 1779 and stayed 
there until April, 1780. - 

[lis first visit in the capital of Russia was to Baron Henry Charles 
Heyking, to whom he bad a warm letter of introduction from his most ardent 
admirer in Courland, Ober Burg Graf von der Howen, 

Baron Heyking was born in Courland in 1751, and, after extensive and 
serious studies in Germany, lie enlisted first in the Prussian and then in the 
Russian Army. In 1779 he was Major of a Russian Guards regiment.'* He 
left interesting Memoirs in which he describes his first interview with Cagliostro, 
as follows ' : — 

Baron Heyking, although a Mason of high degree in the Order of Strict 
Observance, prided himself on his education in materialistic philosophy and met 
Cagliostro with a certain hostility. 

"I forgive you your incredulity and your ignorance," said Cagliostro to 
him, "because you are nothing but a novice in the Order in spite of all your 
Masonic titles. If I wished, I could make you tremble." 

"Yes, if vou give me fever," replied Baron Heyking, ironically. 

" Ah, what is fever for the Count de Cagliostro, who commands spirits! 

The conversation went on, Baron Heyking remaining sarcastic, and 
Cagliostro very patient. When the question of chemistry was raised, a science 
that Baron Heyking had studied very carefully, Cagliostro said: — 

" Chemistry is an absurdity to those who possess the knowledge of alchemy, 
and alchemy is nothing to a man who commands spirits. As for myself. 1 have 
plenty of gold (tapping his pocket, full of coins) and diamonds (showing a ring 
with dark and badly set stones), but 1 despise all that, and rav happiness lies 
in my power over beings forming a class above men." 

Baron Heyking could not help smiling, and Cagliostro remarked: — 

" I am not angry with you for your incredulity, for you are not the first. 
strong being whom I had to conquer and did it successfully. Which of your 
dead relatives would you like to see?" 

" My uncle, but on one condition." 

" What condition? " 

"That I should fire a pistol aimed at the place where he will appear. 
As he will be only a spirit, I cannot do him any harm in that way." 

"No," cried Cagliostro, "you are a monster. I will never show }-ou 
anything. You are not worthy of it." 

He jumped up from his seat and ran out of the room, looking very 
indignant. A few minutes later, however, he entered the room again, smiling 

1 Von der Recke, pp. 137-143. 

2 V. Zotov, Riisslidju Slurimr, TS7o. vol. xii.. up. ()J-6o. 
■' 5 Dr. Marc Haven, Lc ^fa'iiri: I neon nit ('(iiilintitru. p. 73. 

1 Fragments of these Memoirs were published in /' I nit'ml mti (August, 1SHS), and 
are quoted by Mare Haven in Lt Mfittrc I iirnti ait. pp. 73-76. 

< 'ac/l mstm in Rasttrn Ihiropc. 01 

find amiable, as though nothing had happened, and simply said: — " 1 see you 
are brave. That is good. In time you will know Cagliostro and his power." 

After that he never spoke to Baron Heyking again of the spiritual world, 
and generally tried to avoid him, but the impression he made on Baron Heyking 
was so bad that the Baron thought it necessary to warn several friends of his in 
high Society at St. Petersburg against him. 

Unfortunately, after the full account given by Baron Heyking of 
Cagliostro's first visit, he very rarely mentions him again in his Memoirs, and 
then only casually and in nothing of importance. And there is very little other 
first-hand information concerning Cagliostro's stay in St. Petersburg. 

In the Memoirs written bv several contemporaries belonging to St. 
Petersburg Society and residing there during Cagliostro's stay in that city 
(Khrapovitsky, Gribovsky, Lopukhin, etc.) his name is not even mentioned. 
Nor is it mentioned in any of the correspondence of the Moscow Rosicrucians 
and Masons ' who, nevertheless, must have heard of his presence in Russia. 

Mine, von der Recke, who, being closely connected with the Russian 
aristocracy, must have known the truth about the visit to St. Petersburg of a 
man in whom she was so deeply interested, says but very little about it in her 
Memoirs. In the beginning of her book, which, as stated above, was published 
in 1787, she only expresses her firm conviction that the main object of Cagliostro's 
stay in Courlaud was to acquire the necessary connections and to prepare the 
ground for his visit to St. Petersburg, where he hoped to interest the Empress 
Catherine in his Egyptian Masonry and to get her protection and support for it. 
It was, in the opinion of Mine, von der Recke, with a view to facilitating this 
task, that he was so insistent in his requests that she should accompany him to 
St. Petersburg, and he was so eloquent in describing the enormous advantages 
and benefits that Courland would derive if the protection of the Empress o\' 
Russia for Egyptian Masonry were assured, that Mme. von der Recke's old father, 
who was a great patriot, was keenly disappointed when she refused to : go on the 
grounds recorded above. 2 And at the end of the same book there are only three 
short passages referring to Cagliostro's stay in St. Petersburg, which, translated, 
are as follows: — 

(1) Prom St.. Petersburg several letters were received here saving that 
Cagliostro had made a deep impression there with his magical experiments, and 
sometimes he wrote to us from St. Petersburg himself. In most cases the 
contents of his letters was that the hour had not yet come for; him to use his 
power for our welfare, much as he washed to.'"' 

(2) In a few months' time Cagliostro left St. Petersburg and passed 
quietly through Courland on his way to Warsaw. He was seen by a servant of 
Marshal von Medem, through whom he sent us his greetings.' 

(3) I cannot say anything definite about Cagliostro's stav in St. Peters- 
burg. Only this much is certain, that although there also he held various 
persons in suspense for some time by all sorts of fantastic prospects, he entirely 
failed in the attainment of his principal aim/' 

The Inquisition biographer, referred to above, only mentions in one pari 
of his work that Cagliostro practised chemistry and medicine in St. Petersburg, 1 ' 
and in another gives the following very short account of his stay in that city: — 

" The celebrity of his name heralded his arrival, and he was received into 
all the Lodges as a tutelary divinity. Among other uncommon circumstances lie 
discovered a secret intrigue between an uncle and a niece, he prophesied the 
future misfortunes of a great prince and foretold to a young ladv the melancholy 

1 Edited by J. L. Unrkskov (Petrosjnul, 101-7). 

2 Von der Recke. pp. *2~>-29. 
" Ibitl, p. 117. 

■\ //»/</, p. I.-.4. 
•' /huh ]). 157. 
G The Life of J i/xc jih lhtlxnmn, p. 73. 

62 T ra /i*act ion. 9 of the (Juafiwr (.'ororudi Lodge. 

circumstances of her approaching death. ' I uttered all these predictions,' said 
lie to his judges, 'in consequence of divine inspiration; but I always pretended 
that it was by means of my cabalistical knowledge that I. was enabled to 
disclose these secrets.' " ' 

A very brief reference to Cagliostroi is also made in the diary of Baron 
Schroeder, a German Rosicrucian who lived at St. Petersburg at the same time 
as Cagliostro. He mentions Cagliostro's connection with Yelagin, a very 
prominent Russian Mason, and adds: — " Yelagin wanted to learn from Cagliostro 
how to make gold. The latter promised to send him the necessary ingredients 
from Poland^ but never did." 2 

This connection between Cagliostro and Yelagin is also corroborated in a 
pamphlet published by the latter's secretary (Andrew Krivzov), who considered 
Cagliostro to b> a vulgar and ignorant charlatan deceiving credulous people by 
promises to impart to them the secret knowledge of curing the gravest maladies, 
prolonging life and making gold, and he ended up by striking Cagliostro in the 
face after learning that he had succeeded in obtaining a considerable sum of 
money from Yelagin. :! 

This is practically all the first-hand information about Cagliostro's stay 
in St. Petersburg. All the other information thereon is nothing but tales, 
rumours and perhaps sometimes even pure invention recorded by third persons 
several years afterwards when Cagliostro had become so famous in connection 
with the Diamond Necklace affair. 1 It is difficult to say, therefore, how much 
truth there is in these records, but they may be of some interest as being 
characteristic of the general impression left by Cagliostro in St. Petersburg, and 
I will give a short summary of them. 

In spite of the bad report given on him by Baron Heyking, to whom he 
paid his first visit, Cagliostro seems to have very soon acquired quite a number 
of influential friends in St. Petersburg. Among them we find the names of 
such illustrious persons as the Chevalier De Corberon, who represented the 
French Court in Russia, the leading Masons — Senator Yelaguin, General Melissino 
and Count Alexander Stroganov, who were eagerly searching for ' higher Masonic 
knowledge ' and, therefore, could not help being interested in a man who pro- 
fessed to possess such knowledge ; and even the all-powerful favourite of the 
Empress, Prince Potemkin, who is alleged to have developed quite a serious 
affection for Cagliostro's beautiful wife.' Having acquired all these important 
connections, Cagliostro naturally did not want to lose time in attaining his 
principal aim — the establishment of his Egyptian Masonry in the capital of 
Russia — and in order to convince his listeners of the supernatural powers given 
by Egyptian Masonry, he took the first opportunity to demonstrate to them one 

1 The. J/ifc of -Joseph lialsamo, p. 157. 

2 Pekarsky, Supplement to the History of Hussion Mosunnp St. Petersburg. 
1*69, p. 78. 

a A. Veidemeier, The Court and the Xotorious Fcrsons in Eussin in the tfeeond 
Half of the XVIII. Century, St. Petersburg, 1846 ; pp. 196-198. 

4 De Luehet, pp. 10-14; Liber memoritdis de Caliostro cum easel Holiureii, anony- 
mous. Roveredo, 1787, translated from the Latin and published by Dr. Marc Haven 
under the title of L' Evan (/He de Cagliostro (Paris, 1910), see pp. 66-69 mid 77-7S. 
Le Charlatan demasque , anonymous, Frankfurt am Main, 1786. Ephemeriden dee 
Ereintaurerei in Deufschland, 1785, p. 112. Kin pater Trojiftein aim dem Jintnnen 
dee Wahrheit ausfjeaossen von dem tieiien Thaumaturgen Cayliostro, anonymous 
(Bode ?), Frankfurt am Main, 1781, etc. The information about Cagliostro's stay in 
St. Petersburg contained in these and other contemporary writings was much later 
reproduced in various fragments, by T". Zotnf (" Cagliostro, His Life and Visit to 
Russia," in the " Russkaya Starina," St. Petersburg. 1875, vol. xii., pp. 64-67). 
E. Karnoviteh (" Cagliostro in St. Petersburg," in the " Drevniaya i Novaya 
Possia," St. Petersburg, 1875, No. 2). and I. E. Andrcievsk}) (" Kncyelopanlia." St. 
Petersburg, 1895, vol. xvi., p, 51), in the Russian language; by Dr. Mare Ilteren 
(" Le Maitre Inconnu Cagliostro," Paris. 1912, pp. 49-95), in the French language; 
and partly by TF. K. II. Tro\rl>rid<je ('' Cagliostro, The Splendour and Misery of a 
Master of Magic," London, 1910, pp. 142-148), in the English language. 

5 M. N. Longinor, Xovihov and the Maseoic Marti nists. Moscow, 1867, p. l.'tt; 
.1 . P. Andreievsky, Enctirlnptrdia, vol. xvi., p. 82: V. Bogolubov. Xovilcor and his 
Time, Moscow, 1916. p. 355; Marc Haven, Le Maitre Inconnu, p. 76, etc 

( ' (UjJUtslro In I'Juxttfn 1'Juropc. 0)3 

of his magical experiments of the same character as those he performed with 
such great success iu Courland. The seance was arranged in the house of a 
well-known actress, whose niece was chosen to act as a medium. The experiment 
was performed without any apparent hitch. After the usual conjuration, waving 
of the sword, stamping the feet, etc., the medium from behind a screen told 
those present of the wonderful things she saw in a carafe of water. But later 
in the evening, when Cagliostro, surrounded by his new believers, proud of his 
triumph and sure of his success, was discoursing on the excellence of his Egyptian 
Masonry, the medium suddenly declared that she had not seen anything iu 
the carafe and that the whole performance had been arranged beforehand by 
Cagliostro and herself. All skillful repudiations of this accusation and promises 
of proving on future occasions that the experiments were genuine, were of no 
avail, and Cagliostro realized that his idea of establishing Egyptian Masonry in 
St. Petersburg must be given up for ever. He was, however, too ambitious and 
vain to leave such an important city as St. Petersburg without having produced 
any effect on its society, so, having failed as a magician, he decided to puzzle 
everybody's mind by his extraordinary knowledge of chemistry and medicine. 
Accordingly, he organised a laboratory where, in the presence of his visitors, 
he worked on various chemicals, declared by him to be necessary for making 
gold and producing the philosopher's stone. At the same time he began to 
receive a large number of people suffering from various ailments, to whom, after 
careful examination, he gave medical advice and medicines without making any 
charge, and, in cases of extreme poverty, even gave money. Bv such proceedings 
he very soon acquired, for the first time in his adventurous career, the reputation 
of a great benefactor and healer, which he maintained and strengthened during 
his later wanderings, particularly in Strasburg. 

Unfortunately, very little is known about the effects of his cures. 
Tn the pamphlet Kin 1'aar T/opffein an* dem Brit tin en der Wnhrheif 
ansf/ef/oxse?i, which was published in Frankfurt am Main in 1781, it is stated 
that, while in St. Petersburg, Cagliostro cured Assessor Ivan Tsleniev of an 
open cancer when all hope had been abandoned by the doctors, and that this 
cure was testified to by a special certificate given to Cagliostro. 1 

The Chevalier de Corberon, the French Charge d'affaires in Russia, whose 
name has already been mentioned, made the following entry in his diary on 
July 2nd, 1781: — "At. St. Petersburg, Cagliostro cured Baron Stroganov, who 
had attacks of lunacy, caused by his nerves, Yelaguin, Mme. Boutourlin, etc." ; 
and in another place he remarks: " Cagliostro cured, not everybody, but many." - 
In his book he Mali re fnconnii. Dr. Marc Haven states that Cagliostro 
in effecting his cures in St. Petersburg used very little medicine, often none at 
all ; that he mostly contented himself with appealing to Heaven for help or 
consulting his medium; and that sometimes he simply commanded, the illness 
to disappear and it did so."' As an example of the latter method, Dr. Marc 
Haven relates the following striking case, unfortunately, however, omitting in 
this instance to give the source of his information: — 

Cagliostro was sitting in an armchair at Prince Potemkin's when he 
learned that a man in whom the Prince was interested was dying of fever in a 
hospital. " I command the fever to disappear at once," said Cagliostro, without 
moving, and an hour later the news came that the fever had disappeared at the 
very moment when Cagliostro gave his command. 1 

There are two much more detailed accounts of Cagliostro' s medical 
activities in St. Petersburg. The first is recorded in an anonymous work 
entitled, Liber me mar ad tx de Cayli-ost to ruin, e*uff Itnboreti, written in Hoveredo 
(Italy) in 1787 and published in a French translation by the same Dr. Marc 
Haven under the title of Id Evttnt/de tic (' r i<//iu-<f ro.:' The story is said to have 

1 .Mare Haven. Le M<dfre liiconnu, p. 77. 
- I hid, p. 77. 
:; I hi<i, p. 77. 
1 Ibid. p. 79. 
- 1 Paris, 1910, pp. (>(> 09, 

64 Transact ton* of Qnati/or ('orouati Loihji.:. 

been told by Cagliostro himself to his friends in Roveredo, where lie resided for 
some time in 1787. It probably deals with the same case of lunacy which was 
mentioned in the Chevalier de Coroeron's diary, and dees not contain anything 

A Minister of the Empress of Russia ' implored Cagliostro to cure his 
brother, who was chained up in a lunatic asylum. He imagined himself to be 
greater than God, continually shouted all sorts of blasphemies, and treated every- 
body who approached him with inhuman fury and violence. When Cagliostro 
appeared and paused in front of him with a majestic and authoritative air, the 
lunatic became quite frantic and screamed orders to his invisible attendants to 
cast the impertinent mortal who dared thus to appear before the God of all 
Gods into the deepest abyss. But Cagliostro shouted back, calling the lunatic 
an ignorant liar because he. Cagliostro, was Mars, the God of all Gods. And 
to prove his power he struck the lunatic with such, force that the latter fell to 
the ground and could not move for some time. When, with the assistance of 
his warders, he eventually got up, he gazed on Cagliostro with surprise and 
bewilderment. Cagliostro lost no time in humiliating him in every possible way, 
took him then in a closed carriage to the river Neva, and threw him quite 
unexpectedly into the cold water to give him a sudden shock. The lunatic was 
helplessly drowning when the warders pulled him out of the river. All this 
made him realize that there was a being stronger than himself, He became 
meek and submissive to Cagliostro and allowed himself to be treated normallv, 
and this resulted in the gradual regaining of His mental faculties. 

Another case, recorded in the pamphlet Le Charlatan dhnaaquf (Frankfurt, 
1786) and the spurious Mtmoire avtheniique (Strasburg, 1786), is of quite a 
different nature and would have removed the last doubts as to Cagliostro's 
personality and methods could it have been definitely established that it actually 
took place. 

The story runs thus: A rich Russian lady, having heard a great deal about 
the miracles of Cagliostro, came to him and implored him to save her child of 
two years of age, whose case had been declared by all the doctors to be quite 
hopeless. Cagliostro promised to do so, but stipulated that the child should be 
sent to his house for three weeks. The distressed mother agreed to this, and 
at the appointed time Cagliostro returned the baby to her in perfect, health, for 
which he received a large sum of money. This wonderful cure created a 
tremendous sensation in society, and Cagliostro became one of the most popular 
and admired men in St. Petersburg but not for long. The mother of the child, 
supposed to have been so miraculously cured, soon became convinced that the 
child returned to her was not her own baby. She complained to the authorities, 
who made thorough investigations, and Cagliostro was compelled to confess that 
the baby he restored to the mother had been substituted for the real one, which 
had died. The authorities demanded the dead child's body and repayment of 
the sum received bv Cagliostro from the unfortunate mother ; but Cagliostro 
could not produce the body, and said he had burned it to test the theory of 
reincarnation. In repayment of the money received, he offered bills of exchange 
on a Prussian banker, which, when presented later, were dishonoured. 

All this scandal, according to the author of the J/V moire (nithciii'iqiir, 
was the real cause of Cagliostro's sudden departure from St. Petersburg. 

There are, however, several quite different versions of the reasons which 
compelled Cagliostro to leave St. Petersburg hurriedly. There is, for instance, 
a theory, according to which Cagliostro was deported from Russia by order of 
the Empress Catherine the Great, because she had become jealous of the atten- 
tions paid bv her favourite, Prince Potemkin, to Cagliostro's wife. 

There is also another and, perhaps, the most probable version, to the 
effect that the medical practices of Cagliostro met with strong disapproval on 
the part of Catherine's Scotch doctors, Rogerson and IVlouncey, who reported to 
the Empress that Cagliostro's quasi-medical activities threatened to destroy every 

1 Probably Count Alexandre Strogauov, who was the Empress's private Secretary. 

66 Transaction*' of the- Qnatitor Coronati Lodge. 

aristocracy. Just as in Courland, Cagliostro talked in Warsow a great deal 
about Egyptian Masonry, declaring himself to be the head of it, and as a proof 
of the extraordinary knowledge and power to be derived from that system of 
Masonry, he also performed here a number of magical experiments very similar 
to those which had been such a great success in Courland. His medium in the 
beginning was a girl of eight, who, on being placed behind a black curtain, 
after some special oil had been poured on her hand and an invocation recited 
over her, made most remarkable replies to Cagliostro's questions, saw and kissed 
angels and delivered mysterious sealed pieces of paper with the exact signatures 
of the members of the audience surrounded by cabalistic signs, after Cagliostro 
had publicly burned a similar piece of paper with the names of the same persons 
signed by themselves. L 

All this was taken by most of the witnesses as a genuine demonstration 
of Cagliostro's supernatural powers and knowledge given to him by superior 
Masonry. Only Count Moczinsky and the father of the small medium refused 
to believe in Cagliostro and extorted from the child the confession that she had 
not seen anything during the seances. 2 Raving learned of this confession. 
Cagliostro immediately changed his medium. This time it was a girl of sixteen, 
and with her assistance the seances were so successful and marvellous that even 
Count Moczinsky began to waver in his distrust of Cagliostro. But. one day the 
girl came to Count Moczinsky and declared that all the time she had been 
deceiving the audience in obedience to Cagliostro's detailed instructions. She 
added, however, that she had decided to make this confession in order to avenge 
herself on Cagliostro for treating her insultingly. This deprived the confession of 
half its value, and when Count Moczinsky informed Cagliostro's admirers of it, 
it did not produce any effect on them, 3 

Cagliostro's activities in Poland were not limited to his magical seances. 
As in Courland, here also he gave lectures on the mysteries of his Egyptian 
Masonry, wrote recipes for melting amber, making pearls and coral and gave 
prescriptions against various ailments. Most of the ingredients in Cagliostro's 
recipes and prescriptions could not be found at the chemist's, and those pre- 
scriptions which could be made up did not, according to the author of the 
pamphlet, show any beneficial results. 1 Cagliostro was also assiduously working 
at making gold from mercury, and the author of the pamphlet gives a detailed 
description of this work, which in his opinion revealed Cagliostro's cunning and 
inventive faculty, but at the same time his great ignorance, even in elementary 
chemistry. Tn spite of tin's, however, when the pot, in which mercury ami some 
red powder had been boiling for a considerable time, was at last opened, the 
surprised witnesses found at the bottom of it a lump of silver with some traces 
of gold.;' 1 Again, Count Moczinsky's distrust was shaken. A few days after, 
however (on June 25th, 1780), fragments of a similar pot. together with the 
remains of some mercury amalgam, were found in a ditch in the garden of 
the palace in which Cagliostro lived. 1 ' 

But the most striking example of Cagliostro's deception related in the 
pamphlet is undoubtedly the description of the seance during which he showed 
his admirers the shadow of the supreme chief of Egyptian Masonry, the great 
Kophta, who, he declared, still lived in Egypt, being several thousands of years 
old. In a large room lit only by two glimmering candles, on a specially erected 
platform, there appeared an old man with long white hair, dressed in a long 
white robe and with an Oriental turban on his head. Tn a low, muffled voice 
the apparition asked one of the spectators: "What do you see before you?" 
The person to whom this question was addressed, quite unexpectedly answered 
that he saw before him Cagliostro with a mask on his face and an artificial 
beard attached to his chin. The apparition on the platform indignantly blew 

1 C(ujViosfro (K'tnaxqut a Yafwvic, pp. 3-\. 

2 Ibid, p. 5. 

3 Ibid, p. 6. 
tlhid, pp. 7, 2->26. 

5 Ibid, pp. 8-22, 26-28. 
« Ibid, pp. 40-41. 

I ''(ujhost r<i in Eastern Europe. 


out. the caudles and disappeared in the darkness, and present could hear 
the rustling of the robe and other articles falling on the floor. 1 

But even this kind of trickery did not diminish Cagliostro's popularity 
among his Warsaw admirers. Count Moczinsky was practically the only one who 
did not believe, in him, and he did not lose a single opportunity of attacking him. 
To all such attacks Cagliostro replied by long and animated speeches, in which 
he declared that his aim was not the attainment of any worldly advantages, but 
the highest heavenly bliss; that he would make humanity happy in spite of all 
the insults of his envious enemies, and. he pathetically invited his listeners to 
kill him if he did not carry out his promises. His eloquence usually had the 
desired effect, and he was again believed and admired. 2 When, however, as 
related above, the broken pot with mercury was found in the garden, on June 
25th, and revealed his deceit with regard to his making of gold, all his eloquence 
failed to. remove the doubts which even his most ardent admirers began to 
harbour. Cagliostro, therefore, it best to disappear, and he left the 
estate of Prince Poninsky on the night of June 26th, 1780, and Warsaw the 
following night, thus having 1 , spent less than two months in Poland. ;s 

Such, briefly, is the account of Cagliostro's stay in Warsaw given in the 
pamphlet entitled, {'agVioMru (leiiutxt/t/e a Yarsovie. The very unfavourable 
picture given, here of Cagliostro may be somewhat exaggerated. The pamphlet 
was obviously written by a. bitter enemy of his. Besides, according to Dr. 
Marc Haven, 1 Count Moczinsky was a poor man entirely dependent on Prince 
Poninsky, who supported him particularly as an authority on chemistry, in which 
the Prince was very much interested. It is quite possible, therefore, that Count 
Moczinsky was envious and feared Cagliostro as a rival in the eyes of his protector 
and the public m general, and tried to discredit him by all possible means. 
But, on the other hand, the general impression conveyed by this pamphlet, if 
not the actual account, is to a certain extent confirmed by the statement of 
Madame Bdlimer, the wife of the jeweller in the famous Necklace affair, a state- 
ment quoted by the Countess de la Motte in her defence during the trial, i.e., 
before the pamphlet was published. This statement is as follows 5 : — 

"A person who has just come from Poland, tells me that Cagliostro was 
admitted to Court on. the strength of his knowledge of the occult, particularly 
of the philosopher's stone. There were some, however, who were not to be 
convinced without actual proof. Accordingly, a day was set aside for the 
operation, and one of the incredulous courtiers, knowing that Cagliostro had a 
young girl as an assistant, bribed her. ' Keep your eye,' said the girl to the 
courtier, ' on his thumb, which, he holds in the hollow of his hand to conceal the 
piece of gold he is going to slip into the crucible.' All attention, the courtier 
heard the gold fall, and, immediately seizing Cagliostro's hand, exclaimed to the 
King, ' Sire, did you not hear ? ' The crucible was examined and a small lump 
of gold was found, whereupon Cagliostro was instantly and, as 1 was told, very 
roughly flung out of the palace." 

There is another account of Cagliostro's stay in Poland which speaks much 
more in his favour than the two preceding ones. It is from a letter written 
by Laborde, the Farmer General, who happened to be in War paw 7 when Cagliostro 
was there. Laborde emphasizes a great admiration for Cagliostro on the part 
of King Stanislas Augustus, and relates a striking case of Cagliostro's clair- 
voyance. He concludes, however, by saying that, although he had heard about 
tliis case on good authority, he could not guarantee its truth.''' 

1 Ytii/liusfro tlrnuixijitr ii \~ti movie, pp. 2. c ->-24. 

2 Tbitl pp. 38-36. 

: ' 7 bid pp. 16-47, 61. 

'■ Lc Matt re Inconnv. pp. S8-Sf). 

3 Trowbridge, p. tot. 
c Ibid, pp. to.3-154. 

G8 T ran^aidians of the (Jaataor <'orotiah Ltxhjt . 


I have finished my record of the information which 1 succeeded in 
obtaining: in London about Cagliostro's stav in Eastern Europe. There remains 
only to say a few words about its consequences. 

We have seen that, although Cagliostro acquired during that stay quite 
a number of admirers, among wliom many were Freemasons of high standing, 
practically all of them became thoroughly disappointed in him before long. 
As regards his peculiar system of so-called Egyptian Masonry, we have seen that 
it met with complete failure in Russia and in Poland, while in Courland, where 
Ire succeeded in introducing that system, his Lodge apparently ceased to exist 
immediately, or very soon after his departure from that country. In any case, 
nothing has been heard about it since that time. 

Thus, there were practically no direct consequences of Cagliostro's visit to 
Eastern Europe. But some Russian historians consider that it had a certain 
indirect effect on the fate of Russian Freemasonry. This effect, according to 
them, consisted in the fact that the Empress of Russia, Catherine the Great, 
having heard of Cagliostro's adventures and considering him to be one of the 
leading Masons, began to see in Freemasonry a public danger, and instead of 
preserving her former neutrality, she started an open campaign against it, which 
resulted in the closing of Masonic Lodges in Russia until her death. 1 

Bro. B. Telepnef, in his works about Russian Freemasonry, 2 puts forward 
a number of much more serious reasons for Catherine's change of attitude towards 
Freemasonry, or, rather, as Bro. Telepnef insists, towards some of its individual 
leaders in Russia. 

Of course, Cagliostro alone could not alter entirely the views of such an 
intelligent woman as Catherine on Freemasonry in general. But the extra- 
ordinary adventures of a man whom she considered to be an important Mason, 
undoubtedly made a deep impression on her mind and may have influenced her 
opinion on Freemasonry to some extent. 

Catherine the Great, with her extremely realistic cast of mind, never 
had much sympathy for Freemasonry, and although, at the suggestion of Masons 
around her, she read a few Masonic books, she never understood the real meaning 
and the real ideas of Freemasonry, and only saw in it, as she puts it herself in one 
of her letters: "A futile and ridiculous masquerade, which is unnecessary for those 
who are doing real good."' At first, however, she did not see much harm in 
Freemasonry, and only indulged in occasional jokes about it. But Cagliostro's 
activities and the high regard in which this self-styled magician was held by the 
Masons around her, put Catherine on her guard. 

According to her own words, 4 and contrary to the assertions ascribed to 
Cagliostro himself, 1 Catherine the Great never met Cagliostro or his wife. But 
she could not help hearing a great deal about him, for the whole of St. Peters- 
burg was talking about him, and among his supporters were several people with 
whom she was in constant contact. These included, as has been mentioned 
before, such prominent Russian Masons as Yelaguin, Melissino, and Count 
Stroganov, and Catherine, without going carefully into the question, decided 
that Cagliostro and persons similar to him, influenced much larger circles of 
Freemasons in Rnssia than was actually the case. "Cagliostro arrived at the 
time most favourable for him," she writes to her German correspondent, 
Friedrich Grimm, in 1781, "at tire time when several Masonic Lodges nourished 

1 AL N. Louginov, Xovilov and the Moscotr Martinisfs. AIosoow, 1867. p. 133; 
A. N. Puipin, Russian Masonri/, St. Petersburg. 1916, p. 282. 

2 Free mason n/ in- Russia, in A.Q.C. xxxv. ; and Russian Masons, in the Masonic 
Record. 1924. and 1925. 

3 Quoted by V. Bogolubov, Xovikov and liis Time. Moscow, 1916, p. 335. 

4 /jimmennann's I'nliaeltnixse mit Kayscrin CatJiei ina II., edited bv H. Atarcard 
(Bremen, 1863). p. 325. 

5 L'Rvanijile dc Cagliostro, p. 78. 

Cayliott ru in K astern Europe. 69 

by Swedeuborg's teacliings, wanted to see gliosis at any price. So they rushed 
to Cagliostro.'' ' From her point of view, people who could believe, admire 
and follow such a charlatan as Cagliostro could not be desirable elements in 
her Empire, and although even much later, in May, 1788, she was assuring 
her other German correspondent, J. G. Zimmermann, that she considered the 
followers of Cagliostro to be "as harmless as those of Mahomet, because they 
are a sect of weakminded people and fanatics," ~ yet she thought it necessary 
to express her views on the matter publicly and thus to give a warning to her 

Accordingly, having collected all the available information about 
Cagliostro, which became quite voluminous after the Diamond Necklace affair, 
she published in 1786 three comedies — The Deceiver? The Seduced? and The 
Siberian Wizard? The comedies were obviously directed against those Masons 
who were attracted by magic and alchemy. Catherine represents them as easily 
deceived by persons like Cagliostro and brought into* such a mental state that 
thev became quite useless and very unpleasant people. While the first comedy 
was only a satire, the second and third ones even contain a certain threat. Tlie 
concluding words of the second comedy are as follows: — "Only those centuries 
are praised which were distinguished by commonsense and not by reverie. The 
direction of the people is undoubtedly in the hands of the authorities. We 
must be grateful to Fate for living in times when mild methods are used for 
correction." And at the end of the third play, the Siberian wizard is arrested 
by the police not only for deceit and charlatanry, but mainly for starting a 
wizard's school with a view to propagating his ideas. 

Soon after the play appeared, this fate befell Novikov, a leading and the 
most active Rosicrucian in Moscow. 

That her comedies were directed against Cagliostro and similar persons, 
amongst whom she apparently, and, of course, quite erroneously, included some 
of the Moscow Rosicrucians, is confirmed by Catherine herself in her cor- 
respondence with J. G. Zimmermann. 

Writing to him on January 10th, 1786, about her first two comedies. 
The Deceiver and The Seduced, she acids; "The first of these comedies represents 
Cagliostro as he really is and the second depicts those deceived by him." '' 

In her letter to Zimmermann dated April 21st, 1787, we find the following 
passage: — "I am very glad you spoke well of The Siberian Wizard, but I am 
afraid the comedy will not correct anybody. Absurdities are catching, and these 
particular absurdities have become fashionable ... I remember that in 
1740 the least philosophical people pretended to be philosophers, and by this 
means at least reason and commonsense were not lost. But these new erroneous 
ideas have made fools of many who were not fools before," 7 

And on July 1st, 1787, writing to Zimmermann about his article in the 
Hamburg Gazette, in which he denounces the Strasburg Magnetists aud com- 
pares them with the wizard in her play, Catherine adds, jokingly: "I do hope 
these magnetists will be asked to come from there to those countries where 
similar charlatans are so decidedly liked. I can give an assurance beforehand 
that they will be taken less seriously and will cost less than Cagliostro and his 
comrades." s 

The deep impression left by Cagliostro on Catherine the Great is also 
confirmed by the fact that even many years after his departure from Russia, in 

1 Quoted by V. Bogolubov, Sovikov and ]i-is Time, p. 355. 

2 Zimmerrnann'a 1'erJiaeltnissc. pp. 36-5-366. 

ri Ubmarbshchik (St, Petersburg, 1786), available at the British Museum in 
Russian, and in a German translation by Karl Schnoor Tinder the heading Dir 

4 Oltohchenmii ("St. Petersburg, 1786), also available at the British Museum, 
but in Russian only. 

n Shaman y (St. Petersburg, 1786). available at the British Museum in 

c Zim /nermann' s Yd iiaeltnixxe, pp. 324-325. 

7 Ibid, p. 352. 

8 Ibid, p. 355. 

TO T mustn't ion* of the. (Jitatitor ('orniiati Ludyt'. 

1787, when she received a copy of Mme. von der Recke's book on Cagliostro, 
she immediately entered into correspondence with the authoress, ordered the 
book to be translated into Russian without delay, paid for the translation, and 
gave the translator a special bonus of 400 Roubles. 1 


Catherine the Great seems to be the only person in Russia on whom 
Cagliostro produced a strong and lasting impression. In the documents and literary 
works left by her Russian contemporaries, so far as I have been able to ascertain, 
Cagliostro is not even mentioned, and, in later historical and Masonic literature, 
I could trace only the pamphlet by Yelaguin's secretary, referred to previously, 
three short and rather superficial articles on Cagliostro," and a few occasional 
remarks in books dealing with Freemasonry in general. As regards Russian 
playwrights and novelists, they seem either not to have known anything about 
him or not to have found him a sufficiently interesting subject for their works. 
Only in 1890 was there published in St. Petersburg a novel by a well-known 
Russian historical writer, Vsevolod Soloviev, entitled, The Mai./tcianx^ followed 
in 1898 by a second volume under the title of 'flie Grc<tt h'ox/erucian. 1 In both 
volumes, Cagliostro, and particularly his stay in St. Petersburg, play a prominent 
part. This is an interesting and well-written novel, and although there is, of 
course, a great deal of mere invention in it and many episodes are historically 
incorrect, yet it is of value, because the author gives a general picture of 
Cagliostro which, in my opinion, is not far from the truth. He represents 
Cagliostro as a man endowed with considerable magnetic and hypnotic powers 
and possessing a certain knowledge of occult sciences, but using those powers 
and that knowledge exclusively for the attainment of his selfish ends, mainly for 
the gratification of his boundless vanity and extracting material benefits from 
his admirers, a part of which, he shared with the poor in order to increase his 
popularity. To this I can only add that, as clearly appears from all I have 
said above, in cases where Cagliostro's magnetic and hypnotic powers were not 
sufficient duly to impress his audience, he did not scruple to resort to more or 
less clever conjurer's tricks. 

I will conclude bv quoting the following words of Mme. von der Recke, 
in which she shows the lesson she ultimately derived from her acquaintance with 
Cagliostro :> : — ■ 

"When I think of the dangers which, thank Providence, I have escaped, 
I feel an irresistible impulse to lay bare the errors of mv soul in order to warn 
every good soul : — not to indulge in obscure feelings in religion, not to strain 
the imagination, not to long for miracles and not to seek communion with 
spirits, as Holy Providence, obviously, did not deem such a communion necessary 
for this world, — where our duty is to work for the good of our fellow-creatures 
and for our own improvement, — and reserved it for a future and more perfect 
state. " 

1 A. N". Puipiii. Ihixxian Masonri/ in the AT/7/, ('cnfuri/. in Tr.sfnih I'lvrajiij. 
September, 1867. p. 22 (quoted from the lU'.rlinische. Monafxelirift . March, 1788. p. 2101: 
A. N. Puipin, Ihtftxian Jfo.xonn/ (St. Petersburg, 1916), up. 284-28.>; V. hhigolubov , 
Xovikov and Jiia Tune, p. 366. 

2 \. Zotov, ('(ii/liosfru, hia life and visif to li-uxxln , published in Ititsskai/tt 
Sturirui, St. Petersburg, 187o, vol. xii.; E. Knrnoviteh, Gat/liostro in Sf. J'ctcrsburij. 
published in the maga/ane Drevniiuiu i Xorin/n J'o.s.shi, St. Petersburg, 187-5, No. 2; 
and an anonymous article, entitled ('iujlioafro, in T. E. Andreievsky's Eiiv\irln \><i din , 
St. Petersburg, 1895, vol. xvi., p. ol. 

'■'' Voh-livi, available at the British Museum, but only in Russian. 

4 Vtdiky Iloxvnkrcuzci', also available at the British Museum, in Russian 

Von der Recke, p. 29. 

(' (ujlioxfro in Hasten) Fnropc 


Fragments from ( 'agliostro's lectures on Magical Fhdosoph // as written down in 
the gear //'?!> I,g ('. F. /{ . run der Feeke (pp. 1 l(j-IJ(> of her Memoir*, translated). 

Moses, Elijah and Christ are the three chief presiding beings over the 
earthly globe and the most perfect Freemasons that have existed up till now. 
Although after successfully attaining their glorious goal here, they have been 
wafted to higher spheres and there exert their powers and wisdom for the 
happiness of beings of higher kinds, and although they have now already increased 
the immeasurable ocean of the Creation by fresh worlds which they bring forth 
to the glory of the Author of all Things, their influence on this globe and their 
care for us still endure, and each one of them has here His own invisible com- 
munity, which, however, all meet together at one Chief Point and work against 
the Principle of Evil through various channels. 

Freemasonry is the school in which, those are educated who are destined for 
sacred mysticism, but. the lower orders of Freemasons reck nothing of these 
matters, and their attention is diverted into various channels in order that their 
secret xii geriors can watch them t/etfer and can make use of the worthiest amongst 
them for higher purposes. A stricter selection of these members is made by the 
three presiding beings of our globe. These subordinates of Moses, Elijah and 
Christ are the secret superiors of the F ree masons. 

Cagliostro is one of Elijah's subordinates. Tie has already attained the 
third grade. Elijah's disciples never die, unless they become perverts to Black 
Magic, and will, after completing well their earthly career, be translated living 
to Heaven, as was their lofty teacher. But before they reach the number twelve, 
they are sometimes purged by an apparent death, but, so to speak, always rise 
again from their own ashes. Tn this way, the Phoenix represents the allegory 
of these beneficent Magicians ! 

The first secret class of the adherents of Elijah is chosen from the nursery 
of the Freemasons. These disciples number seventy-two and they have a specific 
which rejuvenates and preserves the balance of all the forces of Nature, so that, 
they often attain the age of Methuselah. But they must not impart this specific 
to anyone without the knowledge of their superiors. 

The second degree is gradually selected from these and consists of forty- 
nine members. The latter possess the secret of the red powder, or, to state the 
matter more clearly, they possess the means of bringing all metals to the maturity 
of gold. They also have the power of communicating to their superiors in one 
moment at a distance of more than one hundred miles anything thev may consider 

From these forty-nine the thirty-five are chosen. According to what 
Cagliostro told us, he had already reached this height, and from these the twenty- 
four are choseu. These two degrees are the most dangerous, as all evil spirits 
attack these Members of Magic in order to lure them from the Principle of Good ; 
he who, however, attains the fifth and last grade will grow in perfection to all 

This last earthly degree comprises twelve members only. Now the great 
moment has arrived, as one of these twelve will, like Elijah, be wafted to higher 
regions to work in other worlds, and, therefore, the most deserving members of 
the four grades are to be advanced. Should we hear some time after that he is 
dead and then again that he is still alive, we can be assured that he has withstood 
the temptations of all evil spirits and has ascended to the fourth degree. 

He amongst us who is the most faithful and righteous and whose soul is 
devoted to magic only for good aims — be it man or woman — has the prospect of 
being raised to the seventy-two as soon as the first vacancy occurs. 

The Queen of Sheba, whose story in the Old Testament is completely veiled 
in magical pictures and is only partially represented, would have attained the 
highest grade of magic which a female soul has ever reached. But at the end 

72 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Loi/ye. 

she became too weak to withstand the temptations of the evil spirits, and, there- 
fore, her story, which is on/// intel/i</i/>le to true mar/icia/i*, has been related in 
the story of Calypso. 

The divine doctrines of the Greeks, the Zendavesta, the Eddas and the 
Bible are all books sacred to magic. 

The circle and the triangle are sacred magical ciphers. Three and nine, 
two and seven are holy numbers. He who grasps the power of these numbers 
and ciphers is near to the source of virtue. The word Jehovah contains three in 
•it twice over and posesses immeasurable power. 

Just as there are sacred numbers so there are holy letters. The letters 
I.H.S. should never be contemplated without the deepest awe, as they contain all 
wisdom and the fount of all bliss. He who grasps the true value of these letters 
is near to the eternal source of all Good. 

There are three chapters missing in the Bible, and these are only in the 
hands of the magicians. He who possesses one of these chapters can command 
supernatural powers. 

He who does not venerate I.H.S. , the sun, the circle and the triangle, 
two and seven, three and nine and the word Jehovah, and has not attained true 
knowledge of these letters, numbers and words, will not possess the missing 
chapters from the Bible. These contain the highest wisdom by which the world 
is governed. 

Extracts from a lecture, given- by Carj/iostro to our Society in Alt-A ir: 

(pp. 1:26- ISo). 

There has been more than one Flood ; this can be proved by naturalists 
by the strata of the earth. The age of the earth transcends man's knowledge 
by far. Moses cannot be blamed for having given an incorrect calculation of 
time in respect to the age of the earth; this is comprehensible to magicians. If 
curiosity is not founded on virtue and a bent towards perfection, it is injurious. 
Lot's wife is a proof of this. Moses, Elijah and Christ sometimes visit our globe 
in these consecrated circles. In secret mystical Societies there are several wiio 
number centuries in age. 

The Holy Writ is full of images of deep magic. Judith freed Bethuha 
by killing Holofernes ! True wisdom was her possession, for she had already 
reached full psychic maturity in that she knew. The commands of her superiors 
were most sacred for her, as they could never command anything which did not 
promote more speedily the good Designs of the Great Architect of the Universe, 
and thus this weak woman had the strength to kill one, who by living longer 
would have given the Principle of Evil the upper hand. 

In that age secret mystical wisdom could be found in men and women, 
but they were neither given to vain trifles nor to fleshy lusts as at the present 
time, and, therefore, whilst still in their mortal garb, they were able to rise to 
community with higher spirits. 

Even now all the miracles of which the Scriptures speak can be worked, 
if only we free ourselves from all worldly things and strive with noble impulse 
towards perfection, and possess the same tent towards the promotion of the 
general well-being, as Curtius, who voluntarily sought death.. 

Strength of soul is the first means towards attaining longevity and the 
foremost virtue of a genuine Mason. Through this men ripen to higher powers, 
but there are also physical means by which life can be lengthened to centuries. 

Alexander the Great still lives in Egypt and forms a peculiar sect of 
magicians, who only watch over heroes and warriors and in accordance with the 
plans of the Great Architect of the Universe protect and guide those in whose 
hands the apparent power of the world has been placed. Frederick the Great 
is protected and watched over by Alexander's ministering spirits. The power 
of monarchs and princes has only apparently been given to them; in reality they 
are subject to magicians, good ones or necromancers, and, therefore, thev either 
rule well and happily or with harshness and tyranny. 

Cai/lioxt r<> in Eastern Europe. i ,i 

The science of bringing every metal to t lie maturity of gold is one which 
will never be possessed by him who only desires to make use of gold for gold's 
sake and for furthering vanity, and not for beneficent ends. 

lie said he would acquaint some of our members with the red powder, or, 
to put it more plainly, the raw material by means of which they could bring 
metals to maturity, in order to see how they would use this to the best advantage. 
But at a distance of a hundred or more miles he can check the power of this 
powder and punish every unworthy member of our Society. 

Solomon, the building of whose temple is an allegorical picture in certain 
Societies, strayed from the path of virtue in his magical career, but was again 
saved and snatched from the Principle of Evil. 

The story of the fall of the angels is only an allegory of the transition 
from white to black masic. 


works roxsrirED 

(in Chronological Order of their Editions). 

1 Caglicstro and Thilorier "Memorial or Brief for the Comte de 

Cagliostro, defendant against the King's 
Attorney General Plaintiff in the cause 
of the Cardinal de Rohan, Comtesse de 
la Motte and others. Translation by 
P. MacMahon from the French original 
published in Paris, February. 1786 
(London, 1786). 

2 Cagliosfro and Thilorier Memoire pour le Comte de Cagliostro 

Demaudeur contre Maitre Chesnon le 
Fils commissaire an ohatelet de Paris et 
le Sieur de Launay, Chevalier de I'Ordre 
Royal JMilitaire de St. Louis, Gouvemeur 
do la Bastille, Defendeurs (Paris and 
Loudon, 1786). 

3 Cagliosfro (and Thilorier ?) Lettre du Comte Cagliostro au peuple 

Anglois pour servir de suite a ses 
me moires (London, 1786) 

4 Anon. (Count Moo^insky) Caglicstro demasquc a Versovie, on 

relation authentique de ses operations 
alchimiques et magiques faites dans 
cette capi tale en 1780. Par un temoin 
oculaire, 1786. 

Anonymous Le charlatan demasquc (Frankfurt am 

Main, 1786). 

6 Anon. (L>e Luchet ?) Memoire autheutiuque pour servir a 

1'histoire du Comte de Cagliostro (Stras- 
burg, 1786). 

7 Catherine TL, Empress of Russia "The Deceiver," a comedy (in Russian, 

St. Petersburg, 1786; in German, Riga. 
1787; Berlin; 1788). 

8 Catherine TT,, Empress of Russia "The Seduced," a comedy (in Russian, 

St. Petersburg. 1786; in German, Riga. 
1787; Berlin, 1788). 

74 Transaction* of the (Jttatuoi- Coronoti Lvthje . 

9 Catherine II., Empress of Russia "The Siberian Wizard," a comedy (in 

Russian, St. Petersburg, 1786; in 
German, Riga, 1787; Berlin, 1788). 

10 Anon. (Lucia '-?) "The Life of the Count Cagliostro," 

Loudon, 1787. 

11 C. E. K. von der Recke " Nachricht von lies beriiehtigten 

Cagliostro Aufenthalte in Mittau im 
Jahre 1779, und von dessen dortigen 
magischen Operationen ("Berlin k Stettin, 

12 Anon. (P. Marcello ?) " The Life of Joseph Balsamo, commonly 

called Count Cagliostro," translated 
from the Italian on the authority of 
Pope Pius VI. (Dublin, 1792). 

13 H. M. Marcard " Zimmermann's Verliaeltnisse mit der 

Kayseriu Catharina IT." (Bremen, 

14 Anonymous " Lives of Alchemistical Philosophers " 

(London, 1815). 

15 Th. Carlyle Critical and Miscellaneous Essays. A r ol 

iv. — Count Cagliostro. Vol. v. — The 
Diamond Necklace (London, 1840). 

16 P. T. B. Clavel " Histoire pittoresque de la Franc^ 

Maconnerie et des societes secretes 
anciennes et modernes " (Paris, 1843). 

17 A. Veidemeier "The Court and remarkable people in 

Russia during the second half of the 
XVIII. century" (in Russian, St. 
Petersburg, 1846). 

18 Georges Bell " Le Miroir de Cagliostro — Ilvpuotisme " 

(Paris, 1860). 

19 M. N". Longinov " Novikov and the Moscow Martinists " 

(in Russian, Moscow, 1867). 

20 A. N. Puipin " Russian Masonry in the XVITT. 

century " (articles in the Vettfiuh 
Evrop>/> in Russian, St. Petersburg, 

21 P. Pekarsky " Supplement to the History of Russian 

Masonry" (in Russian, St. Petersburg, 

22 V. Zotov " Cagliostro, his life and visit to Russia " 

(in the It iisxkai/a Starhia, in Russian, 
St. Petersburg, 1875, vol xii.). 

23 J, W. von Goethe " Italienische Reise " (Berlin, 1885). 

24 Vsevolod Soloviev "The Magicians" (in Russian, St. 

Petersburg, 1890). 

25 I. E. Andreevskv Encyclopaedia, vol. xvi., " Cagliostro " 

(in Russian, St. Petersburg, 1896). 

26 Vsevolod Soloviev "The Great Rosicrucian " (in Russian, 

St. Petersburg, 1898). 

Cayliostro in I'Jaxfeni ICurnpc. (0 

27 Franz Fuiick Erentano "The Diamond Necklace" (London, 


28 Franz Fnnck Brentaiio "Cagliostro and Company" (London, 


29 Dr. Marc Haven " L'Evangile de Cagliostro retrouve, 

traduit du Latin et public avec une 
introduction" (Paris, 1910). 

30 W. R. 11. Trowbridge "Cagliostro, the Splendour and Misery 

of a Master of Magic" (Loudon, 1910). 

31 Dr. Marc Haven " Le Maitre Inconnu, Cagliostro. Etude 

sur la haute magie " (Paris, 1912). 

32 J. L. Barskov "Correspondence of Russian Masons in 

the second half of the XVIII. century " 
(in Russian, St. Petersburg, 1915). 

33 A. N. Puipin " Russian Matonry, XVTIT". and the first 

part of the XIX. century " (in Russian, 
St. Petersburg, 1916). 

34 V. Bogolubov " Novikov and his Time " (in Russian, 

Moscow, 1916). 

35 ,1. von Gnenter " Der Erzzauberer Cagliostro. Die 

Dokumeute iiber ihn nebst zwolf Bild- 
beigaben " (Munchen, 1919). 

36 A. E. Waite A new Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry 

(London, 1921). 

37 B. Telepnef " Freemasonry in Russia " (in the 

J /'* Qttatitor ('oroiHitonaii, vol. xxxv., 
Loudon, 1922). 

38 Jacques Casanova The Memoirs (Navarre Society Edition, 

Loudon, 1922). 

39 B. Telepnef " Russian Masons " (in the Masonic 

Ih'.cord, November-December, 1924, and 
January-February, 1925). 

40 J. Lukash "Count Cagliostro" (in Russian, Berlin, 


A cordial vote of thanks was unanimously passed to Bro. lvanon", on the 
])i'opositioii of Bio. Vibert, seconded by Bio. do Lal'ontaine. 

Bro. II. C. be Lafontaink said: — 

Bro. Tvanoff says that the proofs of Cagliostro and Balsamo being one and 
the same person seem to be so convincing that they were accepted practically 
by everybody, and that some modern authors, in trying to destroy the theory, 
have not put forward any new one to replace it. 

Let us, for the sake of being argumentative, say that as there was a 
Balsamo, so there was also a Cagliostro, and that these were separate identities. 
Possibly, to adopt such an attitude is to present oneself as a target for the most 

7G Tr/i/i-y(irt/u/iK of the (Jitafilor ('ormtati Loilt/i. 

scat lung criticism. But that would not be a new condition in which to find 

Jn advancing this argument, I lay down as a necessary premiss, that 
no one can rightly understand the personality of Cagliostro without 
considering, even if briefly, the personality of another very remarkable figure 
of that period, the Comte de St. -Germain. I have no time to dwell upon his 
various eccentricities, but there is no doubt in my mind that if. as we are told, 
Cagliostro was at one time his valet, the servant learned from his master all 
the tricks of the trade ; also that a great many of the sayings and doings of 
St. -Germain were foisted on to Cagliostro, who was only too glad to have his 
necromantic powers so strengthened. We will assume that Balsamo, a low- 
down scamp (and you could find many like him even hi the Naples of to-day), 
after a sufficiently long career of crime, meets his fate on the gallows, and so 
disappears entirely. 

About the same date an individual, calling himself the Count Cagliostro, 
makes his appearance in London. He is soon found to be a bit of a rogue, 
but withal a man of manners and fit to take a place in genteel society. But 
where has he been all this time, for he is not a youth? His master may have 
been awaiting the time to launch him ; besides it is not every man who wants 
to confess that he has been a valet. Later on Cagliostro makes his triumphant 
entry into Strasburg. In the dense crowd there is a Sicilian called Marano, on 
whom Balsamo in his youth had played a dirty trick. He thinks there is a 
facial resemblance between the princely personage in that splendid carriage and 
the trickster. He asks someone in the crowd, "Who is that in the carriage? 
" Oh, that is the great and celebrated Count Cagliostro." " Well, he may be 
called Cagliostro, but he looks to me uncommonly like that scoundrel, Balsamo." 
Loss of a considerable sum of money sometimes causes people to be obsessed with 
a perfect mania for facial resemblance. 

Well, we have got so far, and we have not found any identification of 
Balsamo with Cagliostro, save for this voice in the crowd at Strasburg, on which 
we cannot lay great stress on either side. Where and when, then, does the 
identification come in 1 The trumpet blast is sounded very late in Cagliostro's 
career by Theveneau de Morande, who, in his journal, the Conner </c I/./£nni/>(\ 
proclaims the identity, and it meets with a ready acceptance by Cagliostro's 
many enemies. But note who the man is who delivers this poisoned thrust '. 
One of the dirtiest skunks that ever crawled on the face of this earth, a human 
hyena, with all that animal's loathsome attributes. That is the evidence that 
Cagliostro is Balsamo. I hold no brief for Cagliostro. He made a fool of 
himself, and lost what prestige he had, by his ridiculous behaviour at the famous 
Diamond Necklace Trial, but there are traits in his remarkable career which 
seem to remove him from connection with Balsamo, and will not allow him to 
be hopelessly blackened by that mercenary hireling, Morande. 

I now turn for a moment to the question of Cagliostro's having been 
initiated in the ' Esperance ' Lodge in London. Trowbridge, in his account of 
Cagliostro's initiation, says that Bro. Hardivilliers, an upholsterer, presided at 
the ceremony. I have carefully examined the registers of early Lodges in the 
Grand Lodge Library, with this result. A Bro. Hardivilliers was admitted 
into the 'Ancient French' Lodge on August 17th, 1781, probably as a joining 
member. Someone has pencilled under his name, in the space devoted to 
professions, the word "jeweller." There is no mention of either Balsamo or 
Cagliostro in the register of this Lodge. But under the date, November 15th, 
1784, there are two names bracketed together, as if the two had been admitted 
at one and the same time. These names are Sibert and Blessono. The latter 
name gives one furiously to think as to whether Blessono was meant by an 
imperfect scribe to represent Balsamo. But, so far as we can learn, Cagliostro 
was in 1784 at Lyons, and Trowbridge gives the date of his initiation in the 
Esperance ' Lodge as April 12th, 1777. No names are registered for the 
Esperance ' Lodge at this date, and it must remain doubtful whether Cagliostro 
was ever initiated in any Lodge in this country; though, as a Mason made 

DttiCUXXluK . I I 

elsewhere, lie may have visited some London Lodges, as indeed is evidenced by 
his visit to the Lodge of Antiquity on his second visit to our metropolis. 

1 have selected a few passages from well-known writers, the first being 
from the Mr f/ioirc* ct Souvenir* d'un /'air tic France. Tome Premier. (Paris. 
1829.) The writer of these Memoirs was present in. the " grande galerie de 
Versailles" when the Cardinal de Rohan was arrested: — 

P. 155 . . . The Necklace Trial leads me naturally to speak of a 
man who was implicated therein, a man who made a great sensation 
at that time. This was the famous, a most extraordinary 
personage, a charlatan according to the opinion of some people, but 
according to others a truly inspired man; he was in turn acclaimed 
as a cheat or a magician . . . He combined with a rare talent for 
phantasmagorical illusions a considerable knowledge of chemistry, as 
also of medicine and natural history. He loved to come to my 
uncle's house, he being one of his principal adepts. I saw him there 
many times, and I still recall with pleasure his fine countenance, the 
nobility of his manners, his solemn and measured style. He spoke 
with earnestness; his conversation, though tinged with pompousness, 
frequently reached a point of sublimity; he frequently employed 
metaphors, comparisons, and oriental phrasmgs. 

This man actually possessed some precious secrets; I have seen 
him by means of a few drops of a deep-red liquid give to a ' carafe 
of water the tarte and perfume of an excellent Tokay. 1 assisted 
one evening at a mysterious seance, when the proceedings astonished 
us beyond measure. Tie threw into a chafing-dish full of lighted 
spirit some grains of a strong-smelling substance that filled with 
smoke that part of the salon where we were assembled. Soon, in the 
middle of a cloud, we saw appear the spectre of Voltaire bearing the 
same appearance that we all remembered him to have had during the 
last months of his life. The illusion could not have been more 
complete; it inspired us with a movement of involuntary terror: 
this magic spectacle lasted for about two minutes. 

Cagliostro inspired the upper ten with a real interest in his 

We will now turn to the following passage in the Mcmoircx <lc la Haronnc 
(/' ' Ohcrkirvh . Tome premier. (Paris. 1853.): — 

P. 128 . . . Madame O.. being on a visit of ceremony to the 
Cardinal de Rohan, during a conversation the doors were suddenly 
flung wide, and an attendant announced, " His Excellency the Count 
Cagliostro." '' I turned my head quickly. I had heard toll of this 
adventurer since my arrival at Strasbourg, but I had not yet met 
him. I was thunderstruck to see him enter thus the Cardinal's 
palace, to hear him announced with this pomp, and 1 was even more 
astounded with, the reception he received, . . . He was not 
absolutely handsome, but a more remarkable physiognomy has never 
been offered to my observation. He had a depth of look that was 
supernatural: 1 really cannot describe the expression of his eyes; 
they were at one time all aflame, and at another glazed like ice ; 
he attracted and yet. he repelled ; he inspired fear and yet excited 
an insurmountable curiosity . . . He had in his shirt, on his 
watch-chain, and on his finger;', diamonds of great size and of fine 
water; if these were not paste, they were worth a king's ransom. 
He pretended to manufacture diamonds ... ft is certain that 
if I had not dominated the desire which drew me towards the 
marvellous. I should myself, possibly, have become the dupe of this 
intriguer. You see, the unknown is always so seductive ! What [ 
cannot disguise is that there was in Cagliostro an almost devilish 

78 Transactions of the (Jitatuur ('oronatt Lad ye. 

power ; he fascinated the mind, and he took possession of the 
intellect.' ' 

The last passage I will quote is found in the Sou return <U Charlm-H cnn. 
Baron tie Gleirheti. (Paris, 1868.): — 

P. 135 . . . Enough that is bad has been said of Cagliostro; 5 
will say some good of him. I think it is always better to do s'o 
when one can, and at least it avoids the necessity of repeating what 
others have said. 

Cagliostro was a short man, but he had a very fine head ; 
it could have served as a model to represent the face of an inspired 
poet. It is true that his manner, his gestures, and his posturings 
w T ere those of a charlatan full of boastfulness, of pretention, and of 
impertinence; but it- must be remembered that he was Italian, a 
perambulating doctor, a self-styled Grand Master of Freemasons, a 
professor of occult sciences. To one who knew him, his ordinary 
conversation was agreeable and instructive, his actions noble and 
charitable, and his curative treatment never a failure and generally 
admirable. He never took a sou from his patients. 

These varying accounts of Cagliostro, given from different standpoints, 
may help us to form some mental picture of the man. 

As a concluding reference I would say that in the account given by 
Mdnie. van der Recke of Cagliostro' s seances, he is said to have very frequently 
pronounced the words Helion, Mellon, Tetragrammaton. I notice that 
Trowbridge says: ' ; Helios, Mene, Tetragrammaton are often employed in 
Masonry, and signify the Sun, the Moon and the four letters by which God is 
designated in Hebrew." Possibly Cagliostro preferred using a somewhat 
alliterative form. 

Though to some extent I may appear to have traversed some of Bro. 
Ivanoff's statements, I can say unhesitatingly that I am filled with admiration 
for his labours, and consider his paper a valuable addition to Cagliostro 

Pro. B. Telepneff said: — 

Bro. Ivanoff's paper is a valuable record of the activities in Eastern 
Europe of the renowned Cagliostro, — not that they differed to any great extent 
from his adventures elsewhere ! It is also a vivid illustration of the strange 
credulity displayed in those days by many a prominent Mason, in Russia as 
well as in other countries. 

In my opinion, Cagiostro's notoriety w T as due not so much to any extra- 
ordinary hypnotic or other powers as to his generally knavish and scandalous 
behaviour. His appearance, wherever he went, was usually accompanied by 
that advertisement which is much more easily achieved by crime and scandal than 
by any other means. There were several distinguished Masons m Cagliostro 's 
time, also reputed ' adepts of occult sciences,' and also wanderers round Europe, 
but apparently with other missions than extracting by hook or crook profit and 
pleasure for themselves ; sometimes they influenced deeply the Masonry of their 
days, yet the names of these Brethren were hardly known ; the glamour of 
scandalous affairs was not theirs ! 

Bro. Ivanoff's conjecture that " Moscow Rosicrucians and Masons must 
have heard of Cagliostro's presence in Russia" is obviously right. How could 
it be otherwise since Cagliostro even visited Moscow ? ' 

A Masonic document ascribed to the pen of a leader of Moscow Rosicrucians 
of the eighteenth century, Posdeef, contains a very illuminating remark con- 
cerning Cagliostro's visit to Russia 2 : — ■ 

1 Puipin, n\2. 
- ib., 380. 

D/x<:uxxio/t. i ■> 

"Having arrived at. Petersburg, Cagliostro addressed himself to those 
who love to learn about Man, well knowing that through them he 
could make the greatest number of proselytes. Most of them 
discovered his deceptions very soon, whereas others, being deceived, 
believed in him greatly, but later all discovered what sort of man 
he was." 

Concerning Catherine the Great I should like to emphasize that she was 
too shrewd a person to id ait if;/ Cuyliustro with the whole of F rceiiutxottr;/ ' ; she 
considered the latter to be a danger for much move weighty reasons, such as the 
unfortunate, though accidental, association of Russian Masonic leaders with her 
antagonists in Russia (the entourage of the Grand-Duke Paul) and abroad (in 
Prussia and Sweden). Probably, it only suited her to say so sometimes, in order 
to ridicule Masonic Lodges — a weapon she generally liked. 

Cagliostro's pretensions when in Russia are very well reflected in two 
allegorical poems by a contemporary Russian author, Ivan Khemnitzer (1745- 
1784), friend of several Russian Masons and perhaps a Mason himself, which 
somehow escaped Pro. Ivanoff's vigilant eye. 

In one of these poems, entitled "A Liar," Khemnitzer speaks of " very 
curious recent experiments, to show if diamonds could stand fire," and, referring 
to Cagliostro, he thus finishes his ether poem, ''A crafty Deceiver": — 

" In my time a similar man 1 knew 

Who said he could pass spirits in review ; 

Who also could cure with the greatest ease 

With one medicine every disease. 

People came to him — to see spirits or ghost, 

Saw nothing sure, some illusions at most ; 

Put the Medicine put his patients brave 

On the nil re and quickest, way — to the grave." 

Pro. B. Tvanoff write*, in reply: — 

I am much indebted to Pro. de Lafontaine and to Pro. Telepneff for their 
interesting comments and the additional information on the subject of my paper. 

I appreciate Pro. Lafontaine' s effort to soften somewhat the rather 
unfavourable impression Cagliostro must produce by his activities in Eastern 
Europe. I tried to be impartial, but the most trustworthy records T have 
studied offered me no opportunity of giving a more attractive picture of 
Cagliostro's personality. 

Concerning the question as to who Cagliostro really was, I did not go 
into it very thoroughly in my paper because it would have led me too far from 
my main subject. I only pointed out that the theory of Cagliostro and Palsamo 
having been one and the same man has at least some slight foundation, while 
the theory that Cagliostro w T as a former valet of Count de St. Germain, which 
Pro. de Lafontaine refers to, appears to me to be as much of a groundless 
speculation as the assurances by other w r riters that he was the only surviving 
son of the Prince Comenes of Trabisond. an illegitimate son of the Grand 
Master of Malta, named Pinto, the son of the alchemist Gracci, known as the 
Cosmopolite, an Italian dancer Pelmonte, or the son of a poor Neapolitan named 
Ticho, and formerly a hairdresser himself. With an equal wealth of imagination 
and lack of evidence, he was also supposed by some to have been the Cosmopolite 
himself, Pergrini, Count de Saint Germain in disguise, Simon the Magician, and 
even one of Christ's apostles enjoying perpetual life on the earth. 

1 An opinion expressed originally (and not very convincingly) by Longinov and 
accordingly transcribed by Puipin, who. however, contradicted himself on that point. 


T raiixactioiix of flit- Qnnfuor ( 'oruixtt i Luf?t/e. 

Except the Balsamo theory, 1 know only of one which is based on some- 
thing more than imagination, namely, the theory that Cagliostro was the man 
known as Count Grabianka, or otherwise Count Sutkowski — the well-known 
leader of the Avignon Society of God's People or the New Israel (see Xute* on 
the Rditixford J'ttper* in the Jirit hli ,\J ukcidh , by Bro. Gordon P. G. Hills, in 
the Transaction* of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, vol. xxvi., 1918, pp. 93-130). 
Hut this theory is entirely destroyed by the well-established fact that Count 
Grabianka, having failed in other countries, arrived in Russia and opened a 
Branch of the Avignon Society at St. Petersburg in 1805, i.e., ten years after 
Cagiostro's death. (See A. 1ST. Puipin, Ritxsiait Mnxonn/ in the .rviii. mituri/, 
p. 369.) 

As regards Cagliostro's initiation at the ' Esperance ' Lodge in London, 
I pointed out in my paper that 1 could not find any direct proofs confirming 
this allegation, and I am glad that the results of Bro. de Lafcntaine's diligent 
research tend to contradict this supposed connection of Cagliostro with. English 

Concerning Bro. Telepneff's comments, L doubt whether Cagliostro ever 
visited Moscow. Except quite a casual remark in Puipm's book, which Bro. 
Telepneff refers to, T could not find any evidence whatever that Cagliostro went 
to the old capital of Russia. On the contrary, there are several statements to 
the effect that the only Russian town he visited was St. Petersburg. 

In conclusion, I wish to express my very hearty thanks to Bro. Songhurst 
and Bro. Telepneff for their invaluable advice and assistance in the course of 
my work and to all the Brethren who came to listen to my reading of the 
paper and received it so kindly. 

Tt'tttixnrtioiix of I lie Q if (if nor Coro/uift Lodijr, 81 



1 London. 1926.1 

HE members of No. 194 must surely be grateful to Bro. 
Leslie S. Mills, who, during liis Mastership in 1925-6, 
presented to them a sumptuous Volume recording particulars 
of its History. 

This History is arranged under such various headings 

as Name, Number and Meeting Places ; Dissensions ; Finances : 

Furniture; Jewels; etc., and each Chapter contains much 

interesting and valuable information, although the method of 

presenting the facts makes it difficult at times to follow the proper sequence of 


The Lodge was warranted as No. 261. on 31 August 1790, by the Grand 
Lodge of the A atie/it*, to meet at the Duke William on Horseback, in Quaker 
Street, Spitalfields ; a house that is generally described as the Duke of Cumber- 
land. Unfortunately the Author has gone astray in an attempt to make a 
connexion with a Lodge No, 261 founded by the Grand Lodge of the Modern*, 
in 1761, at Whitehaven, Cumberland. Needless to say, the Lists of the rival 
Grand Lodges of the Antients and the Moderns were always quite distinct until 
their amalgamation in 1813, when No. 261 of the Antients became No. 329 of 
the United Grand Lodge. For the same reason this No. 261 of the Antients 
had no connexion whatever with No. 329 of the Moderns, which at one time 
had been held by a Lodge in Norfolk. 

Probably the most interesting period in the History of the Lodge was 
that from 1 December 1814 to 13 February 1821, but for that period no 
Minutes are in existence. For some years prior to the former date the meetings 
had been held at the Green Dragon, Poplar, and at the latter date the Lodge 
met there for the last time. At this meeting only four members of the Lodge, 
were present (we are not told if their names appear in the earlier records), with 
two Visitors. These Visitors with three other Brethren were at once elected as 
joining Members. it was decided that the Lodge should meet in future at the 
Crown Tavern, Stationers' Hall Court, close to St. Paul's Cathedral; and then 
the four old Members agreed to resign. The joining Members came from the- 
pressnt Bank of England Lodge No. 263, the Globe Lodge No. 23, the Lodge 
of Peace and Harmony No. 60, and the Castle Lodge of Harmony No. 26, all 
originally ' Modern ' Lodges, and all then meeting in the City or still farther 
west. The inference to be drawn seems to bs that the new Members found a 
derelict Warrant, and endeavoured to revive it. Apparently their efforts were 
crowned with success. In 1890 the Brethren obtained a Warrant empowering 
them to wear a jewel in token of ' uninterrupted existence ' of the Lodge for 
one hundred years. W T ho am I that T should doubt whether such " uninterrupted 
existence ' was in fact proved ? 

It may be noted that while at Poplar, the Lodge was named the Ephraim 
Lodge, a fact not. recorded elsewhere ; and immediately the removal took place 
to the shadow of St, Paul's, the present more appropriate name was adopted, 

82 Tr(tn-<actiotix of flic Qi/atuor ('oroiutfi Lndi/c, 

It is not made at all clear what other Minutes of the, Lodge are missing. 
The Author gives a full list of the Brethren present at the Constitution of the 
Lodge in 1790, and yet he says "If the original members of St. Paul's Lodge 
kept any records of their earliest proceedings these have not survived to us. 
Minutes of a number of Meetings in 1796 and 1797 are either referred to or 
quoted in full, but in the List of Masters which forms an Appendix, no names 
are givau between 1790 and 1813, and there is a gap also between 1890 and 
1897. With Minutes certainly missing from 1814 to 1821, how has it been 
ascertained that Tho s . Liddiard was Master in 1817? From other sources of 
information 1 can add that Thomas Farrell was Master in 1802, and Barry in 

The Union of the two Grand Lodges is foreshadowed by the receipt on 
25 November 1813, of an Official Communication announcing that the Duke of 
Kent had been elected Grand Master in place of the Duke of Atholl, but 
apparently nothing more is mentioned. We know, however, that between 1814 
and 1816 some Members of the Lodge attended at the Lodge of Reconciliation 
(A.Q.C,. xxiii., 299), and the following names may help to bridge the gap 
before the ' revival ' in 1821 : — 

Tho s . Hunt W.3VI. 

J. Flanagan S.W. 

T. Liddiard J.W. 

J. Huss P.M. 

J , L am pson J . W . 

It appears to have been the recognized custom in the early days of the 
Lodge, to confer the first two degrees on one night and the third a month later, 
but frequent departures from the rule were made for the benefit of sea-faring 
Members. The Royal Arch is not mentioned until 1801, but the Brethren 
continued to work the degrees of Excellent and High Excellent down to 
September 1813, sometimes taking their Candidates from other ' Antient ' Lodges 
in their vicinity. 

Tt is to be presumed that the Members brought nothing with them from 
Poplar except their Warrant and Minute Books, leaving all else with their 
Landlord-Treasurer in settlement of his claims. As, however, the Lodge now 
possesses one silver Collar Jewel with the Hall-mark of 1790, it is possible that 
the absence of other old properties may be attributed to periodical pilferings 
by dishonest Tylers. Several of such thefts are recorded. At all events, some 
time after the Lodge was moved to the City, the Members found it necessary 
to buy new Collars and Jewels, though they seem to have used the furniture 
provided by the Landlords at their new Meeting-places until eventually they 
acquired by purchase and gift the complete furnishing which is in use to-day. 
By the way, why should a pair of Compasses be described as "nautical 
instruments ' ' 'I 

In 1802 the Members were warned against the Royal Naval Lodge of 
Independence at Wapping, which was being run by Francis Columbine Daniel, 
who duped the King; while in 1846 reference is made to the expulsion from the 
Craft of the self-styled ' Major General ' George Cooke, who had duped the 
Grand Master. 

In 1826 there was trouble over applications from some of the old Members 
who wished to obtain relief from the Grand Lodge Fund of Benevolence. 
Naturally these Brethren were quite unknown to those who took over the Lodge 
in 1821. The trouble eventually caused the suspension of the Master for three 
months ; and the indignant Secretary managed to record the details of the 
matter in a single sentence of over 500 words. Squabbles of earlier date were 
set out at considerably less length, but in more forcible language. 

Altogether the Book makes very pleasant reading. It was worthy of an 
Index, and the Masonic student would have been grateful for some heavier 
matter such as lists of Members and Visitors. 

July, 1928. W. J. SoxfiHUKST. 

Transact ion* of flit- Quatuor Coroit'tti Lodyt. 



ccme access the following entries in the Buhl in ll>c/.7// Journal 
for 30th July, 1728, which may be of some interest to you — 
even if you already have them: — 

"Loudon, July 16. From York, that, on the 24th of last 
Month, being the Feast of St. John the Baptist, a Grand 
Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons was held in this 
City; Sir William Milner, Bart., was chosen Grand 
Master of all England for Year ensuing, Mr. Drake, 
Deputy Grand Master, Mr. John Wilmer. and Mr. John 
Marsden, Grand Warden?. They observe, that the 
present Right Worshipful Grand Master is the 798th 
Successor to Edwin the Great." 

Truly 798 is a wonderful Roll of Grand Masters ! But from the two 
paragraphs which follow immediately after the foregoing (as under) we can see 
that the London Correspondent has indulged in a little mild satire at the expense 
of the York Brethren : — 

"From Maidstone in Kent, that a large Swarm of Bees settled on the 
Flap or Button of a Man's Coat, and continued there several Hours, 
and were afterwards hived without any Detriment to his Person or 
Pocket. He would not have escaped so well from a bevey of Spring 
Garden Butterflies. The Remark made of this Accident is, that the 
Countryman will be very Prosperous, and thrive honester than some 
Chancellors or Lord Chancellors. '' 

" By other Advices we understand, that the Plague rages in Turkey, 
a Fever in Antegoa, Poverty increases in Ireland and Scotland, Bank- 
rupts and Corruption in ; Bullying is in Fashion about 

St. James's Park, and fair Speeches at Soissons." 

One may well ask why so innocent looking an announcement, that, a hive 
of Bees had swarmed in England, should be considered as an item of news for 
an Irish newspaper. But one has only to search the Journals of the Irish House 
of Commons about this very time, where it will be found that the Dublin 
Printers were frequently in trouble with the Government for printing unauthorised 
news. So that this innocent looking report about a swarm of Bees may have 
conveyed soma hidden meaning to those who knew what was meant to tell them. 
It cannot have been merely a coincidence that ten days previously a similar 
announcement came from London, but in a different Dublin newspaper. The 
following is from the Dublin I ntclHtjnicc for 13th July, 1728 : — 

" London, July 6th. Thursday last there came and settled upon an 
outer Brick Wall in the Middle-Court-Yard of the Royal-Palace at 
St. James's, near the King's State-Bed-Chamber, a very Large Swarm 
of Bees, which drew the Curiosity of great Numbers of People to see 
them; an Accident, so Uncommon, Causes (at this Present Juncture) 
Various Speculations amongst the pretended Interpreters of Signs and 
Presages.' ' 

84. T raitxdctioits. of the Q utii nor I'oronati Lad ye. 

From the London news about this time 1 have taken extracts from the 
same paper, the Di/hli// I iitcUiycnec, as follows: — 

" London, 2 July, 1728. A bill of indictment for High Treason 
presented against the Duke of Wharton." 

"Bologna, loth June, 1728. The Bailiff Giraldin, Grand Trior of 
England made his vows there, and received the Habit from the hands 
of the Bailiff Feretti, Grand Prior of Cremona." 

London, 6th July, 1728. Long paragraphs about the sequestration of the 
Duke of Wharton's estate — how he fought against the English garrison at the 
recent seige of Gibraltar by the Spaniards — and that he is at present in Paris, 
where he abjured the Romish religion and is coming to England. 

Then in the following September there came on the sensation raised by 
IMift's Journal published in August preceding; and Wharton's implication with it. 

Philip Cross lk. 

The Seven Liberal Arts and Sciences.— In John Weever's A»r>r>,i 

Funeral Monument*, fob, London, 1631, at p. 583, the following appears:—- 
The fou iidatiotix of Sopteetl, St. Julian's ami Samt Mart/ Free. 

About this Town of St. Albons the Abbots of the Monastery in 
pious and devout intent erected a little nunnery at Sopwell valued 
but at Three score and eight pounds eight shillings per annum : 
St. Julian's Spittle for Lepers and another named Saint Mary de 
Pree, or St. Mary in the Medow, for diseased women; near unto 
which they had a great Manour named Gorombery where Sir Nicholas 
Bacon, knight, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England, lately 
deceased, one that might justly challenge as his due all the best 
tributes of learning, built a house beseeming his place and calling and 
over the entrance into the hall caused these verses to be engraven : 

LTaec cum <kc. [Five lines of Latin verse not here 
transcribed, j 

Upon the frontispiece of a gate entering into an orchard with 
a garden and wilderness, over a statue of Orpheus these verses are 
depicted : 

Horrid a nuper (fee. | Eight lines of Latin verse not here 

In the said Orchard is a little banquetting house most curiously 
adorned about which the liberal arts are deciphered with the pictures 
of some of those men which have been excellent in every particular 
Art. And first he begins with the Art of GRAMMER thus: 

Lex sum sermonis linguarum regula certa Qui me non didicit caetera 

nulla petat. 
The pictures of Donatus, Lily, Servius, and Priscian. 


Ingenium exacuo, numerorum arcana recludo Qui memores didicit 

quid difficile nequit. Stifelius, Budeus. Pythagoras. 


Divido multipliees, res explanoque latentes, Vera exquiro, falsa arguo, 

cuncta probo. Aristoteles, Rodulphus. Porphirius, Setonus. 


Mitigo marores, et acerbas lenio curas Gestiat ut placidas mens 

hilerata sonio. Arion, Tarpander, Orpheus. 

Sotes and (J tie it ex. 80 


Me duce splendescit gratis prudentia verbis, Iamque ornata nitet qua 
fuit ante rudis. Cicero, Isocrates, Demostiues, Quintilian. 


Corpora desoribo rerum et quo singula pacto Apte sunt form is 
appropriata suis. Archimides, Euclydes, Strabo, Apollinius. 


Astro nun lustrans cursus viresque potentes Elicio miris fata futura 
modis. Regiomontanus, Haly, Copernicus, Ptolomeus. 

From the Victoria Count;/ I/tstor?/ of 'Herts., vol. ii., p. 394, etc., it would 
appear tliat Gorhambury House was built by Sir Nicholas Bacon between 1563 
and 1538 and that only small portions of it are now remaining. " The walls and 
porch of the hall and part of the West wing of the main Courtyard remain." 
A plan preserved in IMS. history of Gcrhambury, written by the Hon. Charlotte 
Grimstcn in 1821, is (with conjectural emendations) reproduced in the said County 

While on the subject of the Liberal Arts and Sciences it may be worth 
noting in A .Q J' . that the Seven were formerly divided into a tririttm and a 
ijiioaI rivnit)) ; just as the virtues were divided into three Theological virtues: 
Faith, Hope and Charity; and four Cardinal virtues: Prudence, Fortitude, 
Temperance and Justice. 

This statement is confirmed by: J'Jue;/. Brit., 9th Edn., under (' iiivermt tea, 
p. 833 (note): — "The arts course of study was that represented by the ancient 
" tririmii (i.e., grammar, logic and rhetoric) and the i/iiiui 'r/viiim (i.e., arithmetic, 
" geometry, music and astronomy) as handed down from the schools of the Roman 
" Empire. See J. H. Mullinger, History of the Ciiiversity of Cambridge, i., 

Webster's Dictionary under Qundrivnun lias this: — 

In Medieval times the four "liberal arts" Arithmetic, Music, 
Geometry and Astronomy: so called by the Schoolmen, The idea of 
a trieium and a (/itarfriviii in is said to date from the 6th Century. 
The </ mid ri r in in constituted the higher division of the seven " liberal 
arts" and formed the course for the three years study between the 
B.A. and M,A. degrees. 

And under 'Frit'luin : — 

1. The three " liberal arts" Grammar, Jogic, and rhetoric; so 
classified by the medieval schools. 

3rd March, 1926. W. J. Williams. 

Thomas Dunckerley. — Bro. Sadler's book on the above subject contains 
a copy of the Will of Thomas Dunckerley and particulars as to the grant of 
Probate on 19th December, 1795. 

Nothing, however, is said as to the amount of the Estate left by t he- 

1 have recently referred to the Probate Act registered at Somerset House 
and find that the gross estate was sworn as sub £300. 

This is but another indication of the good work done for Freemasonry by 
Brethren who were by no means over- weigh ted with the burden of worldly goods. 

18th Sept., 1928. W.J.W. 


Tra/i--(irf/fiHs of the (Juattior ('uroiiitti Lodiji, 


T is with regret that we have 
following Brethren: — 

to record the deatli 


1926. Bro. Brown 
oui- Correspondence 

Albert Lee Anthony, of Providence, R.I., on 28tli 
December, 1925, Our Brother was a member of Lodge No. 1, 
and had attained the rank of Past Grand High Priest. He 
was Representative in his Grand Chapter for Connecticut and 
Illinois, and he joined our Correspondence Circle in .June, 1915. 

Stewart Melville Banker, of London, on 16th January, 1927, at the 
age of 82 years. Bro. Banker held the rank of P.Pr.G.D., Herts., and had 
been a member of our Correspondence Circle since June, 1894, 

John H. B lizard, of Southampton, on 22nd March, 1927. Our Brother 
was P.M. of Southampton Lodge No. 394, and was admitted to membership 
of our Correspondence Circle in May, 1904. 

Thomas Brown, of Middlesborough, in November, 
was a member of North York Lodge No. 602. He joined 
Circle in January, 1901. 

George Ramsay Cleghorn, of Cape Town, in 1926. Our Brother was 
P.M. of Lodge No. 398 (S,C.), and P.Z. of Chapter No. 96 (S.C.). He was 
elected to membership of our Correspondence Circle in May, 1922. 

Thomas DarringtOn, of Enfield, on 15th January, 1927. He was a 
member of United Wards Lodge No. 2987, and he was admitted to membership 
of our Correspondence Circle in October, 1908. 

Edward Harry Day, of Assiout, Egypt, in 1926. Bro. Day was a 
member of Greenwood Lodge No. 1982, and had been a member of out- 
Correspondence Circle since October, 1898. 

Alfred Draper, of Sheffield, in 1927. Our Brother was a member of 
Weutworth Lodge No. 1239, and of the R.A. Chapt?r attached thereto. He 
joined our Correspondence Circle in March, 1911. 

Ernest Fiander Etchells, of London, on 5th January, 1927. Bro. 

Etchells was a member of the Chartered Architects Lodge No. 3244, and of 

the R.A. Chapter attached thereto. He was elected to membership of our 
Correspondence Circle in 1925. 

Rev. Thomas Cranmer Ewbank, of Grantham, in July, 1926. lie 
had attained the rank of P.Pr.G.Cli.. and was a member of Temple Chapter 
No. 1094. Bro. Ewbank had been a member of our Correspondence Circle 
since January, 1901. 

Dr. Donald McCullOCh Gedge, of San Francisco, on 5th November, 1925. 
Our Brother was a member of Lodge No. 260, and was admitted to membership 
of our Correspondence Circle in May, 1904. 

The Right Hon. Sir Thomas Frederick Halsey, Bart., P.C., of Hemel 
Hempstead, on 12th February, 1927. Our Brother was for many years Deputy 
Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England, and Second Grand Principal in 

Oh it uar// . 87 

Grand Chapter, fie also held office as Provincial Grand blaster and Grand 
Superintendent of Hertfordshire. He joined our Correspondence Circle in May, 

Gert Joel Hoffman, of Cape Town, in 1926. Bro. Hoffman was a P.M. 
of Oranje Lodge (D.C.), and a P.Z. of Chapter No. 103. He had been a member 
of our Correspondence Circle since January, 1899. 

Ernest C. R- Holloway, of Cambridge, on 2nd February, 1927. Our 
Brother was a member of Calculus Lodge No, 3575, and of the Chapter attached 
thereto. He was admitted to membership of our Correspondence Circle in March, 

John William Houlden, of Purnley, Lanes., on 10th February, 1926. 
Bro. Houlden had attained the rank of P.Pr.G.T)., and he joined our Cor- 
respondence Circle in March, 1918. 

Harold NiCOlS Johnson, of Stirling, 111., in 1927. Our Brother was a 
member of Lodge No. 144, and P. A. Chapter No. 52. He was elected to 
membership of our Correspondence Circle in 1935. 

Hugh Frederick Parker Knight, of London, Ontario, in 1926. Bro. 
Knight was a member of Lodge No. 209, and P. A. Chapter No. 5. He was 
admitted to membership of our Correspondence Circle in 1925. 

Ernest le Neve Foster, of Denver, Colo., en 21st September, 1925. 
Our Brother bad held office as Grand Master, and was P.H.P. of Chapter No. 29. 
He had been a member of our Correspondence Circle since November, 1906. 

Herbert Young Mayell, of London, on 22nd March, 1927. Pro. Mayell 
was P.M. and Secretary of Tonic Lodge No. 227, and a member of London 
Rank. He was P.Z, of Jordan Chapter No. 201, and had been a member of 
our Correspondence Circle since January, 1904, 

Harry Martin Middleton, of Cardiff, in June, 1925. He was a P.M. 
of Bute Lodge No. 960, and a member of the R.A. Chapter attached thereto. 
He joined our Correspondence Circle in January, 1913. 

Charles Curt Newark, of Croydon, in January, 1927. He was elected 
to membership of our Correspondence Circle in January, 1909. 

George H. Packer, of Carlyle, Sask., on 6th March, 1927. Fie was 
admitted to membership of our Correspondence Circle in 1926. 

Joseph Pollard, of London, on 21st March, 1927. Bro. Pollard had 
attained the rank of P.Pr.G.W., Surrey, and had been a member of our 
Correspondence Circle since October, 1889. 

William Rogers, of London, on 18th September, 192C. Our Brother 
had attained the rank of P.Pr.G.D.C. , and P.Pr.G.So., for Surrey. lie was 
elected to membership of our Correspondence Circle in March, 1896. 

Rev. William Henry Rowlands, of London, on 6th February, 1927. 
Bro. Rowlands was a member of Hogarth T^odge No. 3396, and be joined our 
Correspondence Circle in November, 1920. 

Theophilus John Salwey, of Loudon, on 30th March, 1927. Our 
Brother had attained the rank of P.Pr.G.W. for Salop. He had been a member 
of our Correspondence Circle since November, 1891. 

Walter Scott, of London, on 19th November, 1926. Bro. Scott was 
P.M. of Home County Lodge No. 3451, and Sec. of Blackfriars Lodge No. 3722. 
He was admitted to membership of our Correspondence Circle in November 


Tranxarfions of the (Juatuor (.'fj/'onoti Lodge. 

Alfred James Thomas, of London, on 11th March, 1927. Our Brother 
had attained the rank of Past Grand Deacon in Grand Lodge, and Past Grand 
Sojourner in Grand Chapter, and had been a member cf our Correspondence 
Circle since March, 1900. 

William Kingdom Thomas, of Bristol, on 12th February, 1927. Pro. 
Thomas had been appointed Past Assistant Grand Director of Ceremonies, and 
Past Grand Standard Bearer, R.A. He was elected to membership of our 
Correspondence Circle in June, 1891. 

Charles George Vernon Inkpen, F.S.I. , of Southsea, in 1926. Our 

Brother had attained the rank of P.Pr.G.Sup.W. for Sussex, and P.Pr.G.D.C. 
(R.A.) for Hants, and I.W. lie joined our Correspondence Circle m October. 

John George Walton, of Norwich, on loth December, 1926. Bro. 
Walton was J.W. of Sufneld Lodge No. 1808, and was admitted to membership 
of our Correspondence Circle in October, 1922. 

Lieut.-Gen. Sir Charles Warren, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., of Weston-super- 
Mare, on 22nd January- 1927. Our Brother was a Past Grand Deacon of 
Grand Lodge, and Past District Grand Master of the Eastern Archipelago, as 
well as Past Grand Sojourner in Grand Chapter. He was a Founder and first 
Master of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Ragnar Wieselgren, of Karlstad, Sweden, in 1926. A member of 
Warmlandska Provinsial-Logen. He was elected to membership of our Cor- 
respondence Circle in May, 1914. 

Albert Foster Williams, of Holywell, Flints., on 4th March, 1927. 
Bro. Williams had been appointed to the rank of P.Pr.G.D.C. for N. Wales, 
and was a member of Grosvenor Chapter No. 721. He joined our Correspondence 
Circle in March, 1916. 


*2&MA*x. 3 

<§£uatuor (Loronati Xo&ge, 

NO. 2076, LONDON* 


CIRCA. 1500 *.n. 






* c MkT% =>M- 

aatuor Sorcnatorum 

being the TRANSACTIONS of the 



OIROA. 100O A.D. 



PART 2. 


Proceedings, 6th May, 1927 
Exhibits ... 

Some Mid-Eighteenth Century French 

Masonic Personalia, 1723-39 

Proceedings, 24th June, 1927 





The Travelling Masons and Cathedral 

Reviews ... 
Notes and Queries 
Obituary ... 



i was warranted on the 28th November, 1884, in order 

1.— To provide a eentre and bond of union for Masonic Students. 

2. — To attract intelligent Masons to its meetings, in order to imbue them with a love for Masonic research. 

3. — To submit the discoveries or conclusions of students to the judgment and criticism of their fellows by 
means of papers read in Lodge. 

4. — To submit these communications and the discussions arising therefrom to the general body of the Craft by 
publishing, at proper intervals, the Transactions of the Lodge in their entirety. 

5.— To tabulate concisely, in the printed Transactions of the Lodge, the progress of the Craft throughout the 

6. — To make the English-speaking Craft acquainted with the progress of Masonic study abroad, by translations 
|in whole or part) of foreign works. 

7. — To reprint scarce and valuable works on. Freemasonry, and to publish Manuscripts, &c. 

8. — To form a Masonic Library and Museum. ; . 

9. — To acquire permanent London premises, and open a reading-room for the members. 

The membership is limited to forty, in order to prevent the Lodge from becoming unwieldy. 

No members are admitted without a high literary, artistic, or scientific qualification. 

The annual subscription is one guinea, and the fees for initiation and joining are twenty guineas and five 
guineas respectively. 

The funds are wholly devoted to Lodge and literary purposes, and no portion is spent in refreshment. The 
members usually dine together after the meetings, but at their own individual cost. Visitors, who are cordially 
welcome, enjoy the option of partaking—on the same terms — of a meal at the common table. 

The stated meetings are the first Friday in January, March, May, and October, St. John's Day (in Harvest), 
and the 8th November (Feast of the Quatuor Coronati). 

At every meeting an original paper is read, which is followed by a discussion. 

The Transactions of the Lodge, Ars ■ Quatuor Goronatorum, are published towards the end of April, July, 
and December in each year. They contain a summary of the business of the Lodge, the full text of the papers read 
in Lodge together with the discussions, many essays communicated by the brethren but for which no time can be 
found at the meetings, biographies, historical notes, reviews of Masonic publications, notes and queries, obituary, 
and other matter. They are profusely illustrated and handsomely printed. 

The Antiquarian Reprints of the Lodge, Quatuor Goronatprurn, Antigrapha, appear at undefined intervals, 
and consist of facsimiles of documents of Masonic interest with commentaries or introductions by brothers well informed 
on the subjects treated of. 

The Library, has now been arranged at No. 27, Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, where Members 
of both Circles may consult the books on application to the Secretary. . 

To the Lodge is attached an outer or 


This was inaugurated in January, 1887, and now numbers about 3500 members, comprising many of the most 
distinguished brethren of the Craft, such as Masonic Students and Writers, Grand Masters, Grand Secretaries, and 
nearly 300 Grand Lodges, Supreme Councils, Private Lodges, Libraries and other corporate bodies. 
The members of our Correspondence Circle are placed on the following footing: — 

1. — The summonses convoking the meeting -are posted to them regularly. They are entitled to attend all the 
meetings of the Lodge whenever convenient' to themselves, but, unlike the members of the Inner Circle, their attendance 
is not even morally obligatory. When present they are entitled to take part in the discussions on the papers read before 
the Lodge, and to introduce their personal friends. . They are not visitors at our Lodge meetings, but rather associates 
of the Lodge. 

2. — The printed Transactions of the Lodge are posted to them as issued. 

3. — They are, equally with the full members, entitled to subscribe for the other publications of the Lodge, such 
as those mentioned under No. 7 above. 

4. — Papers from Correspondence Members are gratefully accepted, and as far as possible, recorded in the 

5. — They are accorded free admittance to our Library and Reading Rooms. 

A Candidate for Membership in the Correspondence Circle is subject to no literary, artistic, or scientific 
qualification. His election takes place at the Lodge-meeting following the receipt of his application. 

Brethren elected to the Correspondence Circle pay a joining fee of twenty-one shillings, which includes the 
subscription to the following 30th November. 

The annual subscription is only half-a-guinea (10s. 6d.), aud is renewable each December for the following year. 
Brethren joining us late in the year suffer no disadvantage, as they receive all the Transactions previously issued in 
the same year. 

It will thus be seen that for only half the annual subscription, the members of the Correspondence Circle, 
enjoy all the advantage's of the full members, except the right of voting in Lodge matters and holding office. 

Members of both Circles are requested to favour the Secretary with communications to be read in Lodge and 
subsequently printed. Members of foreign jurisdictions will, we trust, keep us posted from time to time in the current 
Masonic history of their districts. Foreign members can render still further assistance by furnishing us at intervals 
with the names of new Masonic Works published abroad, together with any printed reviews of such publications. 

Members should also bear in mind that every additional member increases our power of doing good by 
publishing matter of interest to them. Those, therefore, who have already experienced the advantage of association 
with us, are urged to advocate our cause to their personal friends, and to induce them to join us. Were each 
member annually to send us one new member, we should soon be in a position to offer them many more advantages 
than we already provide. Those who can help us in no other way, can do so in this. 

Every Master Mason in good standing throughout the Universe, and all Lodges, Chapers, and Masonic 
Libraries or other corporate bodies are eligible as Members of the Correspondence Circle. 

LIFE MEMBERSHIP. — By the payment in one" sum of Twelve years' Subscription in advafiCe, i.e., six guineas, 
individual Brethren may qualify as Life Members of the Correspondence Circle. Corporate Bodies may qualify as 
Life Members by. a -similar- payment of Twenty-fi've years' Subscription. Expulsion from the. Graft naturally entails 
a forfeiture of Membership in the Correspondence Circle, and the Lodge also reserves to itself the full power; of 
excluding any Correspondence Member whom "tt may deem to be Masonically (or otherwise) unworthy of continued 

FRIDAY, 6th MAY, 1927, 

HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall at o p.m. Present : Uro>. 
Rev. W. AY. Covey-Crump. AY.M. ; John Stokes, P.G.I).. 1.1*31.; 
J. Walter Hobbs, P.A.G.D.C, as S.W. ; Thus. Al. Carter. 
P.Pr.CSt.B.,' Bristol, as J. AY. ; AY. J. Songlmrst, P.O. J)., Secretary; 
Gordon P. (L Hills, P.A.CSvip.AY.. P.M., D.C : AY. J. AYilliams, as 
I.G.; and J. Heron Lepper, P. Pi - . Ins., Antrim. P.M. 

Also the following members of the Correspondence Circle: 
Urns. J. Cli as. Me('nlIa K h. Col. P. M. Biekard, P.G.S.B.. V. L. 
Coldwell-Smiib. Walter .Delves, Ed. M. Phillips, F. Jnskipp, Ceo. A. Hoskins, G. E. W. 
Bridge. A ALagoff, Major N. S. H. Sitwell, E. Bare, AY, Francis, E. K. Jewsmi, 
C AY. South. AY. T. J. Gun, F. J. Ashuiy, P.A.G.D.C., C. K. James. H. F. \Yhyman. 
P.A.CSt.B., A. R. Bonlt, A. E. Ford, S. A. Bnrton, A. Begnauld. AY. Digby Ovens. 
P.A.G.St.B., AY. H. Tiffany. Geo. T. Bullock, L. G. AYearing, B. TelepnelL A. C. 
McCalhim. Dep.CAI.. W. Australia, AY. Davie, H. Bladon, P. G.St. B.. H. G. Gold. 
IS. Ivanoff, Al. Bisenbaum, P. H. Horley, G. S. 0. Young. A E. Guruey. H. Johnson, 
T. J. Price, Wm. Lewis. A. I). Bowl, John i. Moar, AY. K J. Peake. R. AYheatiey, 
IT. A. Matheson, AY. Stubbing. AY. Brinkworth, W. Emerson, and L. A. Margetts. 

Also the following Visitors: -Bros. Sand. W. Cormvell, Undine Lodge Xo. .*5.'W4 ; 
P. T. Carey. International Lodge. Peking; T. AY. Denny, Erin Ledge No, 2W>o ; 
G. E. IT. Letts. A'ietoria Nyanza Lodge Xo. :14V2 ; J. J. Fox, Stanhope Lodge Xo. 12(59; 
Leslie Maelnn. St. Paul's Ledge No. 194; B. AY. Mills, Tied wood Lodge No. :>,4\[; and 
F. F. Vincent. P.AL. Alfred Lodge No. :Ul). 

Letters ol' apology For absence \\(. j iq reported from Bios. Sir Alfred Bobbins. 
P.G.W., Prcs.B.G.P., P.M.; H. C. de Lalontaine. P. CD., S.D.; E. Conder, L.R.. 
P.M.; S. T. Klein, L.R., P.M.; G. Norman. P.A.G.D.C.. S.AY. - L YiUert. P.M.; 
J. T. Thorp, P.G.T)., P.M.; Rev. H. Poole, J. AY. ; Gilbert AY. Daynes, J.J).; Rodk. H. 
Baxter. P.A.G.D.C P.M.;. Cecil Powell. P.G.D., P.M.; F. J. AY. Crowe. P. A. (J. B.C.. 
P..A1. ; and Ed. Armitago, P. (LI).. P.M., Treasurer. 

The Congratulations ol' the Lodge were offered to the following Members of the 
Lodge and Corres]>ondence Circle, who had been honoured with appointments and 
promotions at the recent Festival of Grand Lodge:—- 

Rev. Canon F. J. C. Gilhnor. M.A., Past (Land Chaplain; Admiral J. IL 
Eustace, J. 1L Boxburgh, J. Herbert Bankes. and Francis C. AYntkinson. (Land Deacons: 
Col. (L P. Symes. J. E. (L Pietersen, Major J. J. Drought, Henry Gervis, AY. J. 
(Ll)bons, ami Ernest E. limes, Past Grand Deacons; Bev. A. F. Gardiner and Rev. 
AY. E. R. Morrow. AT. A.. Past Assistant Grand Chaplains; AYilliam S. Hitchins. 
Assistant (Land Begistrar; B. Acheson AVebb, Assistant Grand Superintendent of 
AYoi'ks ; H. A. Caslon, Assistant Grand Director of Ceremonies; Edwin J. Evans, W. 
Fisk, J. Walter Hobbs, K. Landers Thomas. James E. G. Lawrence, diaries Bninsford, 
and E. G. AYhittall. Past Assistant Grand Directors of Ceremonies; Lieut. -Col. A. R. 
A leggy, Assistant Grand Sword Bearer; A. T. Penman, Grand Standard Bearer: 
Guy M. Campbell and Percy G. Edwards. Past Grand Standard Bearers; Alfred Allen. 
Assistant Grand Standard Rearer ; H. Evan Smith. Past Assistant Grand Standard 
Bearer; (L H. Kitchener, Assistant Grand Pursuivant; and James |). Anderson. 
Grand Steward. 

Thirty-three Brethren were elected to membership of the Correspondence Circle. 

The Sechktaky drew attention to the following 

JO Trdii-sttctionx of the (Jtmtxor Coruiniti Lodye. 

By Bro. X. S. H. Sttwell. 

1. 'Explication do la Croix Philosophique, 1806. 

2. Ckktificatk. Super Excellent Royal Arch, Xewry, Ireland. Issued 18th 

October 181."?, in I'avour ol' John Thompson. 

3. Ckktificatk. Knight Templar, Xewry. Issued to same brotlier on same date. 

4. Certificate. Issued by English Lodge at Bordeaux 27th Nov. 1.801, in I'avour 

of L. Gaudrie, as Scottish Knight ol' St. Andrew. 

5. MS. Copy of Papal Bull: In J'Jininoiti. 

6. Certificate of Lodge Saint Esprit, Bordeaux. Issued 16th October 1770. 

in favour of Antoine Baraste. 

7. Certificate of French Prisoners' Lodge, Loge de la Consolation des Amis 

Renins, held on board St. Ixiilor at Plymouth. Issued 5th day of 
6th month 5801, in i'avour of L. Dupeyrat. 

8. Certificate. Lodge .... Certified by Grand Orient ol' France, in 

favour of J, F. Cahon. dated . . . 5786. 
H. Certificate. Chapter Des Yrais Amis, Gaud, Belgium. Dated 4th day of 
Xisan 5844, in favour of Jean Martin. 

10. Certificate. Lodge L'Uniou Parfaito, La Roehelle. Issued 4th June 1798, 

in favour of Jean Frederic Severian. 

11. Ckktificatk. Lodge L'Etoile 'Flamboyant?, Bordeaux. Tssued 3rd day of 

3rd month 5785, in I'avour of Th. Aquart. 

12. Certificate. Issued by Lodge des Coeurs Beunis, Toulouse, in favour of 

Pierre Verdrei, on 13th August 1813. 

13. Certificate. Grand Lodge of England, 20th April 1811. in favour of 

Christian Frantzen ol' the Lodge of Felicity No. 54 meeting at the 
Cock and Lion Tavern, East Smithfield, London. 

14. Certificate. Boyal Jubilee Lodge No. 158. held at the Clarendon Hotel, 

Old Bond Street, London. Dated 16th March 1809, in favour ol' 
Bernard Ferriere. 

15. Certificate. Grand Lodge of England. To the same brother, dated 24th 

March 1809. 

16. Ckktificatk. Ol same brother, issued by the Caledonian Boyal Arch Chapter 

Xo. 2. on 3rd April 1809. 

17. Certificate. Pose Croix. Issued 3th April 7773. by Chapter at Toulouse. 

in I'avour of Julles Tiegee Desaubry ; the recipient being given 
authority to work degrees from 1 to 6. 

18. Certificate. Boyal Arch, in Lodge of Perseverance at Abrieote, in the 

Island of San Miguel, on the registry of Pensylvania. Issued 1st 
May 1803, in i'avour of Brice Chamau, Jimr, 

19. Certificate. Lodge des Arts at Larch, in Gascony. In favour of Francois 

Delhi oil. 10th day 1.0th month 5783. 

20. Certificate. Lodge Reunion Desiree .... In favour of Jean Joseph 

. . . 2nd April 1802. 

21. Certificate. Pilgrim Lodge London. Dated 14th June 1815, in I'avour ol' 

Daniel Stoekfleth. 

22. Certificate. Blank form. Lodge . . . Bordeaux, 1760, 

23. MS. Ritual of Ordre de la Felieite. 

By Bro. V. T. James. 

Ckktificatk (blank) of Provincial Grand Conclave of Cheshire. 
By Bro. C. W. Napter-Clavkhtnc. . 

Collarette and Jewel of the Degree of Knight Templar Priest. 
By Bro. A. C. Haywood. 

Cowl worn by Conductor in Italian Lodges. 

A cordial vote of thanks was passed to the Brethren who had kindly lent these 
objects for exhibition. 

Bro. Major X. S. H. Sitwki.l read the following paper: — 

T ninxaet ion* of flic (Ji/atuor ( 'uro/uift Lodtjc 



li)' Mil). X. S. 11. S1TWELL. 

HE manuscripts referred to in this paper are connected with 
three Lodges, two of which are, as far as I can trace, 
absolutely unknown. They are of interest because they belong 
to an extremely difficult period in French Freemasonry and 
because, being originals, they give facts and not merely some- 
body's ideas. I. should have liked to take them in chrono- 
logical order, but they are easier to follow 7 if we take them in 
their three natural groups. 

Group I. refers to the known Lodge, J'arfaitc Ciiion, of Saint Pierre in 

Group II. refers to the unknown Lodge of St. Fereol, Marseille. 

Group III. refers to the unknown Lodge, Purfa-itc II an/to/tie, of New 

The Var fa-tir fit ion is the connecting link. Gould ■' says that it was 
founded in 1738; Bord 2 agrees in the year, and says that it was founded by 
the Grande Loge of France and that it disappeared in the Revolution, while 
Oliver 11 says that it was still working in 1800. We will let the J'urffiitr- f.'/i/on 
give its own history in Document No. 1782 M. of the Grand Lodge of Ukraine: — 

(( An Grand Orient de France. 

Supplie la Loge La Parfaite Union Seante a L'O. de St. Pierre 
martinique, en vertu de sa deliberation du 6me du 5e mois de Fan 
maconnique 5775, noramant pour son depute an grand orient de 
France Le F.'. Savalete de Lange. Disant qu'elle est la plus anciene 
loge de l'anierique du vent; elle fut constituee en 1738 par le grand 
orient de France, en 1752 rincendie consuma tons les papiers de ses 
archives, notammant ses constitutions ; elle ecrivit aussitot an 
G'. O.'. pour en demander de uouvelles mais on lui repondit que le 
G-'. O.'. ne s'assembloit plus & Qu'il falloit s'adresser a uue des 
loges des provinces de France bien & duement constitutes; ce qu'elle 
fit en 1753 a la loge Ecossaise de marseille, Les travaux de la 
parfaite union n'ont Jamais ete interrompus depuis 1738 jusqti'a 
present; elle a regarde depuis 1753 la loge Ecossaise de marseille 
comme sa mere Loge; mais apprenant que le grand orient de France 
est retabli avec toute la solidite &■ la regularite maconique elle 
s'empresse de se soumettre a ses reglements. 

A ces causes vu le renouvellement des constitutions de la loge 
la parfaite union de la M' que par celle de marseille en datte du 
premier 8re 1753 rapporte en original, ainsi que celui d'autres 

J II i si or ij, vol. iii.. pa«;e 'MJ6. 

2 La Moroiiitcrif. en Fmnca, 1908. page 447. 

3 Landmarks, vol. ii., 1846, page 91, Note 72. 

92 T /■<{//*«<•/ ioiix of the Qtiuluor CuroiKiti Ltnlt/v. 

constitutions Finances de la Loge des St. Fereol de marseille en datte 
du 2 aout 1750 aux quelles on substiua celles de 1753, doutant de la 
legitimite des autres ; vii aussi les quatres tableaux de ses membres 
et ceux en menie nonibre des leges avec les quelles elle est en 
eorrespondaiice et par les quelles ' elle peut prouver une suitte non 
interrompue de ses traveaux depuis 1738 Vu enfin son zele pour l'art 
Royal & la propagation qu'elle a doimee en ees isles a la veritable 
Lumiere en constituant plusieurs loges a la guadeloupe, a la 
dominique, a la Grenade, a la Louisianne, a Caienne & dans les 
quartiers de eet.te isle Le Fort Royal & Le Marin. 

II plaise au grand orient de Renouveller ses constitutions dans 
la Forme requiese, en lui conservant son droit d'anoiennete a la 
datte de 1738. & preuant en consideration la regularity de ses 
traveaux depuis un aussi grand nombres d'annees sans aueune 
interruption, il plaise au g.'. o.'. lui conferer les titre de mere Loge 
on loge inspectrice de toutes les loges Francaises des isles du vent, 
titre dont elle a joui a la satisfaction des loges qu'elle a constitutes 
en vertu de ses pouvoirs .'. .'. .'. a I/O.", de la martinique le 12 du 
6me niois de L'an macounique 5775 on 12 decembre 1774 Ere 
Vulgaire. " 

I do not propose to worry about the signatures except to note that two 
sign as Yenn-ahh, viz., R. G. Erunetra and E. IMallespine, a thing which 
happens in another document, and we have the signature of Duihambourq, which 
occurs in many of the papers under consideration. 

We get some interesting information from this manuscript. For instance, 
the Parfaite V/iio/i commenced its Masonic year on June 1st instead of the usual 
French practice of March 1st, hence the 6th of the 5th month 5775 is really 
November 6th, 1774. The claim is made for the original foundation by the 
Grand Orient, which did not exist at that period, and the next document 
corrects this to Grande Loge, which can only be the Grande Loge ' Anglaise ' under 
the Due d'Antin, which consisted of the irremovable Masters of the Paris Lodges 
plus such provincial Lodges as chose to adhere to them. There is also the 
statement that the Grande Loge was not functioning in 1752. This is interesting, 
for we have the bans by Louis XV. of 1737, 1738, 1744 and 1745, and also the 
" sommeil " from February 5th, 1767, to June 24th, 1771, with the permission 
from Louis XV. to Clermont in 1747 to act as G.M. 1 The only possible 
inference from this, combined with paper 1781, to which we come later on, is 
that Clermont acted as an autocrat with a few personal friends whom he called 
Grand Officers, The paper also shows how limited was the power of Louis in 
his own country ; the civil records of Dunkerque show this very plainly. 

Although all the archives were supposed to have been burnt, they saved 
the warrant from St. Fereol of August 2nd, 1750. There is nothing to show 
what they wanted this warrant for if they really had been warranted by the 
Grande Loge in 1738, or why they suddenly decided in 1753 that St. Fereol 
might be irregular. (It is not. quite impossible that we have here an echo of 
the Antients and Moderns.) If the Minutes on this ever come' to light: they 
should be very interesting. The contemporary translation of "Mere Loge" is 
valuable, and throws light on the phrase "Nous, Venerable. Tnspecteurs, etc.," 
that is common about this period, though we have no case yet of anyone 
signing as Inspector. Could it have been an honorary rank ? 

The document 1783 M. of the Grand Lodge of Ukraine is the office note 
on the foregoing petition, and is interesting as an example of their administrative 
method. It bears the signatures of Savalette de Lange, G, maitre des 
Ceremonies, the well known Joseph Alphonse Daubertin, the G.3.W., and De La 
Lande, the G. Orator (the spellings are taken from the printed G.O. circulars), 

1 There was another ban in 1742. The. Lo<^e Anglaise at Bordeaux was ordered 
to close on. 21 August ol' that year. (Minute Book Xo. 1.) 

Some Mid-Kiyiiteenth Century French Manuscripts, 03 

and the report was drawn up by Francois La Marque, the Vlllth expert in 
the Chamber of the Provinces, who signs with his nickname of Fatneneam . 
It fixes the date of the St. Pierre fire as October 1st, 1753, and La Marque 
makes the remark that the Lodge was founded by the G. Loge in 1738 in 
confirmation of the primitive documents which it owned. This rather adds to 
the fog that hangs over the origin of the Parfaite Union. He also states 
that the title of Mere Loye or Loye J nspectrice had been abolished by G.L. in 
such a way as to show it to have been a fairly recent decision, though T have 
not yet found it in the G.O. circulars. 1 The Tend re Fratermte at Martinique. 
who were to give the Par f (Fit e Union the new warrant, granted on May 11th, 
1775, was founded by the G. Loge on 19/12/1765 and fused with the Parfaite 
Union, in 1776. 

I shall take next the two other documents that refer to the Farfaite 
Union only. Bordeaux has requested the I'arfaite Union to grant them a 
charter for an Atelier of Architecture and these are the letter agreeing and 
the Warrant. The 7i\ <(• V. L. d'Uco <(• Atelier IF Architect are dan* la 
Venerable Loye de In Farfaite Union authorises Jean Francois Pechagut and /or 
Pierre Thouron, Maitres Architectes, to found an Atelier d'A rcliiteet are in the 
Tri* Respectable <(■ '/'arfaitc Loye <F Ecoxxe at. Bordeaux. The design of the 
warrant is the flamboyant triangle. The date is " L'an de la grande Lumiere 
5753 le vingt et im du sept mois apres celui de Jar." This date is difficult 
to determine. Jiard, according to the Croix Philosophique, began on -May !2nd, 
which would bring us to November, but we have seen that the Farfaite U nam 
began the year on June 1st, in which case we could get two other dates, either 
January or March, 1773. Without knowing the Rite, it is impossible to be sure 1 . 
This Order of Architecture at this date is puzzling. It is usually agreed that it 
started in France in 1758 only, and where did the Farfaite Union get it from? 
It seems hardly likely that Bordeaux should go to the Windward Isles for what 
they ought to have been able to get from one or other of the Mere Loges of the 
Parfaite Union at Marseille. The letter is perfectly definite that the request 
came from Bordeaux through Thouron, who signed one of the papers we shall 
see in the next group. The flamboyant triangle is very common on French 
certificates after the R.C., and I had hitherto supposed it to refer to a degree 
above the 18th, but its use in Architecture rather goes against this idea. 

Altogether these two documents are a problem to which I can at present 
see no solution. 


St. Fereol (other varieties are St. Ferol and St. Ferreol) is a quarter of 
of Marseille and, according to the librarian there, is named after Tonastius 
Ferreolus, brother-in-law of the Emperor Avilus, prefect of the Gauls in 453, 
who saved Aries from destruction, during an invasion, by his diplomacy. He is 
supposed to have become a hermit in later life and to have been martyred. ft 
is much more likely that the prefect has been, mixed in the popular mind with 
the martyred bishop of Vieune. His church stood from the eleventh century 
to the Revolution on the present rue and place St. Fereol, but the church in 
the Vieux Port is really the old Augustinian church to which the cult was 
transferred early in the nineteenth century. Of the Lodge, nothing seems to 
be known beyond the documents here referred to. 

N°. 1780 M. of the Grand Lodge of Ukraine is an affiliation of the 
Lodge St. Jean of Toulon (not ( SV. Jean d'Ecoftac, the later emanation of the 
Mire Loye J'Jcoaxnine de Marseille) by St. Fereol, as a grand-daughter of 
Clermont. The only record of this ,SV. Jean appears to be that of Bold, 2 that 
it was founded by an unknown power on March 12th, 1750. reconstituted by 

1 I have now found the Circular. It is dated 14 August 1766. 
- l,o Miieonncrie en Fiance, ItiOH, \>;\go 480. 

94 Transactions of the Qnatnor f'oronati Loelr/c. 

the G.L. on August 29th, 1772, that its Master in 1778 was La Voute, a 
merchant, and that it finally disappeared in the Revolution. This document is 
a pure affiliation, hence if Bord is correct, St. Jcim must have been running 
under two obediences. St. Fereol recognises Rigaud as Yenfrahlc, Remy as 
S.W. and Barry as J.W. But the second half of this same 1780 M. is a 
constitution of this same St. Jean by " Nous, Chevaliers Tres Libres de L-Orient 
princes et Souverains de la Macoimerie " at Paris on April 7th, 1755, with 
Rigaud as Venerable, Remy as S.W. and Jonville as J.W. The subscription 
" par mandement de la loge de la marenne pour la titre de la parfaite 
harmoni© " is inexplicable as there seem to be no lor/e de la marenne on record 
and no Par f ait e Harmonic at Toulon. The Paris body ignores St. Fereol, and 
its title is worth noting; the Paris signatures of Robinot, Devaloir, Demorand, 
Nuby, Beliste, G. Rudolph, Hetter, Delait, Famyr and Benfrer de la Lourie 
may give a clue to what it really was. 

N°. 1781 M. from the same collection is the affiliation of the Parfaite 
Union of St. Pierre, Martinique, by St. Fereol, and it is an exact duplicate 
in design of the Varfaite Harmonic Charter exhibited and which we come to 
later. Among the signatures we find " Kepeller, G.M. des Chevaliers de 
L'Orient General." General might be the military rank, but what is the 
"G.M. des Chevaliers de L'Orient" and what relation has it to the Paris 

Someone has tried to scratch out the names of the 1* enerable and 
Surveillantx of the Varfaite Union, but we can still make out the names of 
Pelouse as V encrahlc and Duihambourq as J.W. St. Fereol describes itself as 
" Fille de Clermont constitute par le Grand Maitre et les Grands Officiers du 
Tres Anciens et Tres lllustre Ordre des francs Macons dans la Royaume de 
France." There are two points here. What was the constituting body? 
Hardly the Grande Loge, for we have already seen that it was not functioning. 
What was the Clermont ? Hardly likely to be the Toulouse Lodge founded by 
Samuel Lockhart and Viscount Kingston on 14/4/1745 (when Kingston was 
nineteen), for that will not fit in with the " Grand Maitre et les Grands 
Officiers and the Royaume de la France." The only other explanation would 
seem to be that Clermont was acting as an autocrat with a few chosen spirits 
as honorary grand officers. This is not a very satisfactory explanation, T admit. 

I regret that I cannot, exhibit these Ukrainian manuscripts as Bro. 
Choumitzky has engaged himrelf not to part with them, but he will be pleased 
to show them to accredited visitors in Paris. The tradition is that they left 
France during the Terror ; just over a century later, another Terror sent them 
back to their own country. 


These are all from the collection of Bro. Sharp, of Bordeaux, and are 
mainly concerned with a Lodge which, if not the first in Louisiana, must rank 
very high in the order of seniority in the Masonic history of that State. 

The first is the warrant given by the Parfaite Union of St. Pierre to 
some brethren from New Orleans who were working under the title of the 
Varfaite Harmonic . This is an exact copy of the St. Fereol-St. Pierre charter 
as far as design is concerned, and the only variations in wording are the names 
and one or two trifling instances. It is hand-painted in sepia and water colours 
on parchment. You will note that the B. column is on the right, and this will, 
I hope, prove to be an indication as to the real origin of St. Fereol. In present 
Grande Loge practice, this column would be on the left, while in the Grand 
Orient and the Rite Ecossais Rectifie it would be on the right. I do not know- 
when the change was made in France, but T do know that a 1784 foundation, 
the Lo(/e Sincerite at Bordeaux, changed its certificate in 1841 and transposed 
J. & B. 

Some M id-Fif/hteentlt Century French Manuscript*. 95 

A distinctly unusual feature in the design is the maul surmounting the 
Royal Arms of France, supported by two candles all in glory, but in combination 
with the word " prince ' ' it seems fairly clear what meaning St. Fereol gave to 
Clermont. "A la Gloire du Grand Architects de L'Univers " is missing, and 
the arrangement of the three columns and the G.M.'s insignia is, as far as I 
have seen, unique. 

The body of the document contains one or two points of interest. Who 
the Inspectors were I do not know; nobody signs as such. The term " ouvriers ' 
here employed is not common, even in documents of this date, and it disappears 
entirely a few years later. The scribe (could it be Duihambourq, who is in so 
many of the papers in these three groups ?) has made a mistake in the date 
April instead of August. The age in this and in 1781 M. is given as twenty-one, 
showing a foreign influence, for the French legal and military age at this epoch 
should be twenty-five. The latitude of St. Pierre is correctly given as 14.44, 
and not 14.30 as in 1781 M. The limitation of the raising of serving brethren 
without a dispensation is common to both documents. Usually only the senior 
could attain this rank, and the Convent de L//on laid down regulations for this 
ceremony, which is not the same as for an ordinary M.M. ; the F runes J/aeon* 
Ecrassfa is correct in principle on this subject of serving brethren though 
incorrect in detail. 

The first Monday in the month of March, 1752, is, I believe, the earliest 
reference to the Craft in New Orleans, or in Louisiana. Mackey, quoted by 
A enirniff'a F 'tie i/clopen m , says that Freemasonry was introduced into this town 
by an indigenous American Lodge in 1798. This we see to be doubly wrong, 
for we have not only this document, but also the warranting of a Lodge ( ha 
conxtante Muronue) there on July 16th, 1765, by the hot/e Au</tui.<e No. 204, of 
Bordeaux, St. John in Harvest is definitely fixed as the day of Installation and 

There is a curious point in the signatures which it does not seem possible 
to explain. Blancard signs as Y enerahle, and Delonze signs as " Grand Maitre, 
faisaut fonction du Venerable." We have the same thing in 1782 i\i,, where 
R. G. Brunetra signs first as Y enerahle and then lower down in the middle of 
the signatures we find E. Mallespine Y enerahle . One explanation might be 
that one of the brethren was only an F.C. and W.M. of the whole Lodge, which 
incidentally would not be contrary to the Bye-Laws and Constitutions, and the 
other was the W.M. of the hoy de* Maitre*. I give this suggestion for what 
it is worth, but it does not explain the G'r-and Maitre of Delonze. 

Attached to this are two documents of extraordinary interest. The 
brethren went home to New Orleans via St. Eustatius, and not content with 
their Charter from the Farfaite Ionian, obtained a confirmatory Charter and a 
certificate of good behaviour from the English Lod'f/e of St. John of Eustatius 
in the Province of the Leeward Isles. Both are dated the 14th of August, 
1752. Both Lodge and Province have disappeared, and I cannot trace the 
Lodge in Gould, unless it is the New Lodge under another name. Yet it was 
perfectly regular, and we find them recognising a rite which could hardly have 
been the same as theirs, if the description given of the petitioners is any 
criterion. One phrase goes directly against the St. Pierre ideas: " Particularly 
we do strictly recommend to our Brethren of the Parfait Harmony to Continue 
in the Use of giving the two Degrees of Entered Apprentice and fellow Craft 
Imeditly the One after the Other without any Delay as is the Practice of Most 
of the Best Lodges, and as we do Ourselves for severall Reasons that cannot be 
Exprest here, has convinced of the Necessity of this the which we have Com- 
municated to our Brethren Fooks and Carresse." 

The other paper from St. John of Eustatius nrust be nearly unique, 
and it is so short that 1 give it in full: — 

"We, the Officers and Brethren of the Holy Lodge of St. John of 
Eustatius in the Lattitude of 17 D. 30 M. N. Do by these presents 
Certifie that the present Deputation has been Communicated to us 
by our Worthy and well Beloved Brethren Mr, Paul Fooks and Mr, 

96 T ' ra n miction x of the Quatnor Coroiirtti Lodi/e. 

Peter Carresse and in Consequence have agreed of their Constitutions, 
Certifying further that During their stay among Us we do approve of 
their good Conduct and Behaviour, In Consideration of which we 
have given this Our Certificate. 

Given under the seal of our Lodge at St. Eustatius this 
14th day of August in the year of Masonry 5752." 
There are eleven signatures to this, of which six only have signed the Charter 
of Confirmation. 

Then there are the original By-Laws given by the I'arfaite I'iiiou to the 
Farfaite 11 armonie. A complete French set of the date is not common, and 
although I only refer to points in them which are of special interest, the whole 
are reproduced in Appendix H. There is a strong flavour of Anderson in them. 
They commence correctly " An nom du Grand Architect de L'univers," and are 
dated the third Sunday, the 16th day of July, 1752. Fooks is called Fcxpcctatih 
and Parfait f/'AYaw, and Carre:-:se Mail re Sinih(o/i</)ic). 

Art. 1 limits the number of members to 50, which is unusual in French 
Craft of the period, though the possibility of the introduction of the practice 
appears in some early manuscript Constitutions; the practice of the Craft in 
France and its political situation are clearly against such limitation. It orders 
a unanimous ballot of ALL members of the Lodge without which the person 
can only be a visitor. Possibly the word present has. been left out, or is to 
be understood, but it is not easy to reconcile the order with Art. 10 which 
allows one black ball for a profane. 

Art. 2 fixes the day of meeting as the first Monday in each month, 
but authorises the Venerable to summon the Loge des Maitres whenever he 
likes. This is the first definite reference T know to this Lodge in French 

Art. 3 is quite clear that in the absence of the W.1M. the I. P.M., the 
S.W. and the J.W. will rule the Lodge without any restriction; i.e. a warden 
may give a degree. This is not contrary to some manuscript French Constitu- 
tions of apparently even date. 

Art. 4 is important for it completes Art. 3 by providing for the 
summoning of the Lodge in the Master's absence by the three as above, thus 
emphasising the ruling of the Lodge. 

Art. 5 fines all absentees without a valid excuse in favour of the 
Charitable fund. 

Art. 6 has a translation difficulty in the phrase " Aucun membre de 
cette Loge ne pourra y estre deguise ny retombera dans ce cas pendant la 
tenure de la Loge." As far as T can ascertain, the French word "Deguise" 
has never meant anything else but fancy dress: our use of the words ' disguised 
in drink ' must, therefore, be ruled out, and " ny retombera dans ce cas" 
presents a real difficulty. " Demande la parole de la facon requise " wants a 
little explanation. According to the Convent de Li/on, 1778, you had to stand 
up and clap your hands once; the Warden of your Column then obtained per- 
mission for you to cpeak. 

Art. 7 deals with fees. The initiate had to pay 400 something to 
cover the cost of the Lodge, the gloves, the meal and the passing and raising 
to be conferred when they deemed him fit. The abbreviation may stand for 
" livres," which were the value of one pound weight of silver legally, but when 
we compare this with Art. 23, which fixes the monthly subscription at five 
livres and the joining fee at the end of this para, of 100 livres, to include 
passing and raising if required, this makes the fees too high. Dollars are out 
of the question owing to the date, so we are forced back to the Livre Turnois, 
or the 80/81 parts of the franc of the period. 

Ait. 8 orders the proposal to be made one month before the ballot, so that 
members may have time to satisfy themselves about the candidate, who must be 
of pure race, free in will and unfettered by anything which might be harmful to 
the purity of the Society. 

Some Mid-Eif/hfcciith Centnr// French Maniiscriprs. 97 

Art. 9 makes the proposer responsible for the payment of the fees and 
the presence of the candidate at the meeting. 

Art. 10 lays down the ballotting rules for initiates. One objection 
necessitates a new ballot at the next meeting. Should this show one objection, 
another ballot is to be taken at the next meeting. If the same objection rises 
at the third ballot, the objector is bound to communicate his reasons to the 
WAI. " de la facon mysterieuse requise." Tf the WA1. concurs, the candidate 
is refused, but if he thinks it frivolous he repeats it aloud in open Lodge, 
without naming the objector, and a fourth ballot is taken forthwith; two 
black balls are then necessary to reject, as on the first ballot. 

Art. 11 gives the Secretary's duties, in which there is nothing very 
remarkable, but the obligation to complete and confirm the Minutes "seance 
tenante," though still obligatory in France, is more often honoured in the 
breach, and it is only in committee that all present now sign. 

Art. 12 deals with the Treasurer, who was not to be trusted too far. 
He had a box with two locks and keys for the cash, and one of the keys was 
kept by the W.M. He was responsible for the preparation of the Lodge, kept 
the jewels, placed a box in. the Lodge for fines and alms which he also 
circulated during the meeting, and had to submit his accounts once a quarter 
or oftener if called upon. 

Art, 13 deals with relief. A distressed brother appealed to one of the 
three officers (i.e., the blaster and Wardens). In minor cases these three 
together gave him. an order on the Treasurer to be countersigned by the 
Secretary; grave cases were reported to the Lodge so that greater relief might 
be afforded. 

Art, 14 prohibits banquets except on the feast of St. Jean Bapt. our 
patron (this leaves no doubt as to what the .Pdrfaitr ('//ion thought on this 
point) and St. John the Evangelist and at the reception of a candidate. Other 
banquets might be held if necessary. Decency and sobriety are inculcated on 
the grounds both of expense to the Lodge and decorum. The cost of the usual 
obligatory toasts are to be met by the individual so as to save the Lodge funds. 
T take this to refer to toasts in the Lodge before closing. As a sample of what 
it might mean I give the following translation of a part of a letter written on 
28/2/1774 by a Frenchman, Degueiyille. in London to d? Toussainct, the 
Secretary of the new Grand Orient:—- 

''You can judge, my very dear Brother from what follows, how they 
work here. The grand Lodge which I visited takes its name from 
the different sorts of work carried out. The last was called the 
Committee of Charity; it is well named and never have I seen help 
given to the unfortunate; with greater humiliation. Those brothers 
who are in need present a request (this new procedure has been 
established since the retirement of Bro, I)e Vignole) addressed to the 
Secretary, who reads it with the name of the Brother in distress; 
the custom is never to give to the same brother more than ,£50 in 
several donations. After the reading of the request they vote on 
the sum to be granted, which is generally £5, £.8, or £10 sterling. 
The unfortunate brother is made to enter and is given his money on 
his receipt. Tt often happens, and I myself have seen it, that at the 
moment of receiving the money, the unfortunate has to go without 
getting anything, for several opponents arise, who after giving their 
reasons with English freedom, manage to make the others change 
their minds, so that the suppliant has had the disagreeable experience 
of having appeared and received nothing. These different readings 
of requests are frequently interrupted by toasts, first to the Prince, 
then to the last GALs, the reigning G.iM. and the Grand Officers of 
the order." 

98 Transactions of tlie (Juatnor ('oronaft Lodije. 

Art. 15 enacts that a visitor must produce his certificate and then either 
be examined by two brethren deputed for that purpose by the blaster or else 
be vouched for in writing by a member ; after that he may be introduced but 
must renew his obligation. 

Art. 16 forbids law suits between members of the Lodge unless the Master 
and Wardens are unable to settle the dispute by their intervention, which must 
be accepted. Should they fail " ils pourront con tinner leur proces non avec 
indignation 1'un contre 1' autre sans colers et sans rancune ne disant ny ne 
faisant rien qui puisse empecher L' amour fraternelle et continuant de se rendre 
des bons offices afm de pouvoir s'appliquer avec plus de succes et de zelle aux 
sacres travaux de la maconnerie. " 

It is difficult not to admire the optimism of this article, but one must 
remember that at this epoch no French Mason was allowed to resign from a 
Lodge without the permission of the Grand Master, that if he left a station 
he was bound to report himself at all Lodges he came across and have his 
certificate endorsed, and to join another Lodge as soon as he possibly could do 
so; but compare Charge 7 of A nderzon , 1738 edition. 

Art. 17 enacts that any brother who makes himself obnoxious by his 
behaviour either in or out of the Lodge shall be admonished by the W.M. or 
an officer deputed by him to this effect, an admirable precaution in a small 
community. If he does not put a brake on his folly he is to be reprimanded 
in open Lodge, and if this does not suffice (" sy alors il ne se soumet avec 
obeissance et se ne refforme pas ce qui a offance & scandalise ses Freres," runs 
the phrase) he is to be compelled to appear before a Lodge summoned ad lioc, 
where he may be fined or excluded permanently or temporarily. If lie refuses 
to attend this Lodge, he is to be exiled for ever, and the sentence will be 
promulgated in the usual manner. Unfortunately we are not told what this 

Art. 18 is peculiar because it provides for the censure in the Lodge and 
by the Lodge of the Master or his Wardens. This is entirely new to me and T 
should be grateful if someone could quote me a similar Bye-Law. It has to be 
done " d'une facon decente sans aigreur ny animosite personnele," and after 
having obtained permission to speak in the usual manner. One rather wonders 
what happened when the Master refused permission to someone to criticise himself. 

Art. 19 describes the elections which are to take place on St. John's Day 
in Harvest, and it has several features of interest. Nothing is said about 
attending the Mass, but the rule of the period was that that was to be done ; 
also there is no mention of the Requiem Mass the next day for members of the 
Lodge, but it is most unlikely that either of these ceremonies would be omitted. 
Immediately after Mass they opened the Lodge and cleared up the year's work 
as far as possible. They then went to dinner, and after that opened the T.ot/e 
de Tabic when they finished off anything left over from the morning. This 
Toge de Table still exists, and it is a very interesting bit of Ritual. They then 
opened the special Lodge of Election. The outgoing Master delivered a speech, 
and then each brother went separately to a table in the middle of the room 
where he wrote out his vote (en. liberie) and put it in the ballot box. The 
Master opens the box, counts the votes, and the brother who receives the most 
is immediately proclaimed, saluted and congratulated in the usual manner, and 
is immediately installed " selon L 'usage ancient Etably." One would like full 
details of this, but they are not given. The new Master then nominates three 
brethren for the office of S.W., and they proceed as above, and then go through 
the same process for the J.W. This combination of nomination and election 
does not appear in any authority that I have come across. All other officers 
are nominated by the Master, and the Lodge accepts or rejects the proposal by 
show of hands. No instructions are given as to what is to happen should the 
Lodge disapprove of the nomination, and it is perhaps for this reason that the 
( 1 on vent de Li/on laid down the present French system. The Master had a 
casting vote only for the election of the Master and Wardens. 

Some M id-Eif/liteeitth Century French M 'mwiacri }it*. ttfl 

Art. 24 is the next of interest and provides for two Experts who are to 
be M.M.s Their duty was to visit all strangers who came to the town, to 
report to the W.M. , or in his absence, the Wardens, on their character and 
morals; to visit sick brethren and also the hospitals and to report to the Lodge 
what ought to be done in the way of relief for the poor and needy. In some 
papers I have got this is expanded by the recommendation that the experts 
ought always to include a doctor, and that he should receive his degrees out 
of turn and free of all fees as a reward for his important services. 

Art. 26 " Les aprentifs & compagnons seront attantifs a L' execution qui 
leur seront ordonnes par levtr maitre aux qu'elles ils s'emploiront avec Zele & 
Soumission " would seem to be a reference to the Intendants cr Intenders. 
The same thing exists in principle with the present-day Ptirrfti/ix. 

Art. 27 lays down the duties of the Orator. He was a very important 
officer in those days of imprinted Constitutions, and he had to give a considered 
opinion on all points of Masonic law, as well as to voice the feelings of the 
Lodge on all big occasions; also he had to make a speech at most meetings for 
the instruction of the brethren. These speeches were to be written out and 
deposited with the Secretary, who loaned them to the brethren for their perusal 
and instruction ; in fact, they formed a sort of Lodge Library. Other brethren 
were to be invited to speak, but they had first of all to make a " politesse 
to the Orator. They spoke standing and bareheaded, whereas the Orator spoke 
seated and covered by right. This is the only reference 1 have to anyone but 
the Master wearing a hat in anything but an M.M. Lodge. The interesting 
phrase ' L f aire part de ses lumieres " is archaic, and though it is still used, it 
is not easy to give an exact translation of it. 

Art. 28 prescribes that every brother, before the Lodge is closed, must 
undergo aii examination in Masonic knowledge at the hands of the Master, 
This would perhaps not be very popular nowadays, but I am told that a Lodge 
at Manchester keeps up the custom. 

Art. 31 is the close and consists mainly in good wishes and a general 
warning to the Parfaite Harmon ie to obey these Bye-Laws and to ask the Parfaite 
Union for dispensations, etc. In this we have Pierre Carresse called Maitre 
Simbolique in full. Blancard, the Venerable, did not sign it, but Pelonze, 
"Grand Maitre d'E faisant fonct du Ven." does, and Duihambourq signs as 

The last three documents are short and are certificates issued by the 
Parfaite Harmonie to oue Francois Roussillon. 

The first of these is a travelling certificate and states that he has been 
regularly put through the three degrees and has served as Secretary and J.W. 
It was signed in Lodge on 11/4/1756. The vtntrahle signs as "Pt.M.E. & 
Pt. d'Ecosse." Tiphaine, perhaps the same as is mentioned as the first 
rcuh'/iblc. in the Parfaite V nioii-I'arfa'ite II firm ante charter, signs as " p de J. 
Chevallier de L 'Orient," but as the ink is the same as that of the latest 
endorsement, one must neglect the date in this case. The visas are by the 
Lof/c Frfinro/H, at Bordeaux (?) on 2/8/5756, Loi/e AiujUthe, Bf>rt/eaii.r (No. 
204) on either the 2nd or 10th of August, 5760, the Etroif Observance at 
Rochefort on Sunday, June 27th, " 5.'. 7 .'. 5-'- 6 et de Lre Vre 1756 " (an 
unusual way of writing it), and the H.L. fr'tncahr Elne Eeosmhe, Bordeaux 
27-11-1789. This certificate is issued by " Nous le Maitre. les Inspecteurs et 
les ouvriers," and is not in the name of the G.A. 

The second is headed " Que le G.A. Maintienne L'Edifice auquel nous 
travaillons, " and was issued on 13/4/5756 by "Nous Grand Maitre et Grands 
Officiers de la Parfaite Loge d'Ecosse " (I forgot to mention that in the Bye- 
Laws given to this Lodge they had authority to give higher degrees to any officer 
who they thought had deserved such a reward) and Roussillon is described as 
" 111 Maitre, Mtre Eleu & parfait d'Ecosse." Tiphaine again signs. The real 
is a " croix de Malte a defaut du sceaux misterieuse dont la R,L. n'est pas 
pourvue." There are no visas. 

100 Transactions uf the Quatiior t'oronati Lodt/c. 

The third Is issued by the "G.1Y1. & G. Officiers de la Grande & Magn. 
L. d'EI Parfte d'Eco " at Bordeaux on 17/11/1756. The important state- 
ment is that he " a ete bien & legitimt admis dans le Magn Grade d'Elu, Part 
d'Eco. Qu'il nous a ayde a mantenir l'usage de travailler a la perfon de 
1'ordre Respble ensevely sous les mines des Gotiq." I cannot make this 
certificate out; it seems to cover the same grades as the one just mentioned, 
and it may be only a sort of G.L. certificate. There are no visas to help us. 

These are the salient points in this collection, and they raise some very 
real difficulties. Leaving out St. John of Eustatius we find that they were 
working between 1750 and 1753 the three craft degrees, the Partake d'Ecosse. 
the Maitre Simbolique, the Maitre Ehi, Architecte (perhaps of more than one 
grade), a Grand Maitre D'Ecosse, a Chevalier de 1' Orient and in 1756 the 111 
Maitre. I cannot fit these into any Rite of the period. The Maitre f'arfait 
is well known from 1758 on as the third of the El us of that date; we get the 
'Petit El it, the El it de Xeuf or Per'ujnan and the El u den Quinze in the Lyon 
1743, but not the Purfait, Of course, they had an annoying trick of renaming 
the grades, but there is usually some clue about the change which I have not 
been able to find in this case. According to Ragon, 1 the Strict Observance 
did not begin in France till 1768, so we are reduced to the following Rites: — 
Primitive of Three Degrees of 1731, the Ramsay or Rite de Bouillon of 1728 (?), 
the Lyon Rites (Tschoudy) 1743-1747, the V telle Jiru or Fid el ex Ecoxxai* of 
1747 or 1748, the 18 degrees of the Mire Lo</e Eeossf/ise at Marseille 1751, and 
the Souverain Conseil Sublime Mire Pcxje des Excellent* da (4 rand Globe 
Francais of 1752. Into none of these can I fix the degrees worked unless they 
worked a mixture of Rites. The Maitre Snnbo/iqiie is only, as far as 1 can trace, 
mentioned by Tschoudy 2 in the Etoile Flawhoj/ante without any explanation, 
and by Oliver :! who probably lifted Tschoudy's footnote in its entirety. 1 

I had hoped that these documents would have helped to clear away the 
fog that lies over French Masonry at this early period, but I fear that they have 
only increased It. Perhaps, however, the more expert and zealous Brethren of 
Q.C may find them useful in their labours, and in this hope I introduce- them 
to their notice. 

The nearest thing I can find is Oliver's so-called Scotch Rite of 70 degrees, 
mentioned In his Orif/in of the Eni/lixh Fo//al Arch, 1867 edition, note on pp. 4 
and 5. 

As very little information about the Grand Lodge of Ukraine 
appears to have reached England, it will perhaps be useful if T mention 
that according to Bro. Choumitzky the " S/jnibo/iijtic " Craft in the 
Ukraine dates from about the end of the eighteenth century, and was 
preceded in that country by many brotherhoods of a purely national 
and philanthropic tendency. The first Ukrainian Lodge was the " Immortallte 
founded at Kiev in 1784, which worked under the Grand Orient of Poland. 
Others followed, among them the " Trois Colonnes (1796), and the 

"Slaves Reunis " (1818) at Kiev; the " Tenebres Dispersees" (1810) at 
Zitomir ; " Osiris a l'Etoile Flamboyante " (1818) at Kamenez ; " Amour de la 
Verite" (1818) at Poltava; "Pont Euxin " (1803) and "Trois Royaumes 
de la Nature " at Odessa and others. Most of these worked under the Russian 
Grand Lodge Astrea. About 1821 the Grand Orient of Poland ceased to work, 
and in 1822 the Astrea did the same; about 1823 the "Amour de la Verite" 
at Poltava began again in secret, and soon afterwards the " Immortalite " at 
Kiev, the " Tenebres Dispersees " at Zitomir, the " Osiris " at Kamenez, and 
the "Pont Euxln " at Odessa did the same thing. Although these Lodges 
worked Independently until the close of the nineteenth century, they had always 
kept up fraternal relationships, and in 1900 was held the first Ukrainian 
Masonic Congress, which founded and proclaimed the Grand Lodge of Ukraine 

1 (h'tlaxhr.rii' Maron nitric, 1.8o3, pa«;e 219. 

2 L'Etoile Flamhojiante, ti 77 Orient , Chez h' Silence (nil.). 
a Hcvrlations of a Sqtuete, 18.;"W, page 116. 

' Tlie .Maitre Simbolique may very possibly be the ordinary MM, 

Some Mtd-Etyhiventh Cr/itur// French Mfiiuincn-pfs. 101 

on 17/1/1900. In 1919, on the foundation of the independent Ukrainian 
Republic, the Grand Lodge of Ukraine officially declared its existence, and at 
that time comprised seven principal Lodges, corresponding to the seven Govern- 
ments of Ukraine, with 83 Triangles, making a membership of some 6,000 in 
all. The Grand Lodge of Ukraine profited by the short period of peace to 
enter into fraternal relations with the Grand Orient of Italy, and to send 
delegates to other countries, but, unfortunately, the Bolshevist military 
occupation has again forced them into retirement, but they still work in the 
N.O.G.A.O.T.U. " 

Bro. Choumitzky is one of the delegates and is a member of the " G.L.I. 
& R. pour La France et les Colonies Francaises." In the French Terror of 
the eighteenth century, Roettiers de Montaleau saved as many of the archives 
of the Grand Orient of France as he could, and as the bulk was great he divided 
them up among friends he could trust, and some of these fled from the Terror 
to the Ukraine, where they became naturalised and affiliated to the Ukrainian 
Lodges. In 1863, two Ukrainian brethren in Paris managed to buy a part of 
the Thory Papers which were sold at his death. The Rule in Ukrainia, and it 
is a matter of obligation, is that all Masonic papers and other Masonic relics 
must be returned by will to the Lodge to which the late owner or custodian 
belonged. Hence the archives in the Ukrainian Lodges are voluminous. To 
save them as far as possible at the time of the Bolshevist occupation, these 
archives were again divided up and entrusted to various selected brethren who 
remain their custodians, even in exile, until time or circumstances enable them 
to be restored to their legitimate owners. Hence, as I have said before, many 
of the documents I have been dealing with left France under one Terror, and 
have returned to their country of origin under another. 


COVEE of 1783 M. 


Demande de Reconstitution pour 
la L. de la Parfaite Union 
a l'O. de la Martinique. 

presentee par le f Savalette de Lange 
Registree N°. 299 Le 24 Avril 1775 
Renvoyee a la eh. des Provinces. 

(Dauvertin de la Lande) 

Accorde les Constitutions le 4 Mai 1775 

'I 'I ? 

Corrige le 11 Mai le 1 1 '!■ et accorde des 


Expedies les 15 Mai 1775. 


Demande en Constitution de la L : . La Parfaite Union a 1'Orient du Fort 
St. Pierre Isle Martinique consistant dans une Constitution a elle delivree 
par la L ; . de St. Ferreol Fille de Clermont de 1'Orient de Marseille a la date 
du 2 Aofit 1750 en Certificat dafiliation de cette meme L:. qui eu approuvant 
ses anciens travaux fait aussi mention de ses titres brides Tor de 1'incendie du 
Fort St. Pierre, a la date du ler. 8bre 1753. Le tableau des freres qui la 
composent, toute leurs signatures mains Propres et en fin sa suplique. Cette 
L:. fut etablie par la Grande L:. de France en 1738 en. confirmation des 
titres primitives dont elle jouisoit : en 1752. L'incendie arrivee au Fort 
St. Pierre qui fut considerable, consomma egalement leur temple et majeure 
partir de ses archives notamment ses constitutions elle donna sur le champs 

102 TrutiHurtioitx of f/ic Qitafuor Coronati Ludi/r. 

avis de ce desastre a la Grande L:. qui lui fit repondre que ne s'asseniblant 
plus elle ne voit que s'adresser a vue des loges des Provinces de France bien 
et d'huement constitutes ce quelle fit sur le champ en ecrivant a la L : . Ecossaise 
de Marseille qui lui envoya en 1753. Le certificat dafiliation dont j'ai fait 
mention plus haut et c'est sur cette piece quelle a ton jours depuis et constam- 
merit travaille et depuis constitue provisoirement diverses Loges dans les Orients 
du Fort Royal et de la Guadeloupe. 

L'anciennete de cette L:. sa bonne composition, la bonne renommee quelle a 
La porte Vraisseniblablemeiit a desirer, La qualite et le titre de Mere et 
inspectrice de toutes les Loges des rites durent ignorant sans doute Les arrange- 
ments que le Grand Orient a pris a ce sujet. 

Surtout quoi mon avis est quatendu 1'cxistance notoire de cette L: ; taut dans 
le orient du France que ceux de l'Amerique, la bonne composition de ses 
in ombres, la remise de ses deux anciens titres en originaux, les constitutions lui 
soyent accordees en rappellant ses travaux a sa date primitive de 1738, comme 
etant constates, que la dite L : . soit installee par la L : . la tendre Fraternite 
du menie orient quelle en recoive L'oblig 011 . d'usage X qu'en consequence toutes 
les pieces lui soient envoyees a cet efet et attend fl que le Grand Orient s'est 
determine d'abolir la qualite d'inspecteur des Loges qu'il soye envoye a ses deux 
Loges le modelle detablissements concernant les meres Loges Provincialles et qui 
Leur soit ecrit a cette ocassion. 

a Latelier des Provinces le 4 may 1775 

Lamarque I'americaiii. 






De Lorient 

ou Resident Les 

Vertus qui distinguent 

les I architectes pour 

les faire Marcher dans le 

Sentier I de la Lumiere cle la 

Sagesse et de la Verite 


Tons Les freres que ces presentes 

S. F. V. 

L'attelier D' architecture Etably dans le 

Bourg Saint-Pierre Isle Martinique, dans la 

Venerable Loge de la | Parfaite Union Scittuee par 

les 14 D. 44 M.N. En vertu de son authority, et en Taut | 

quil est en son Pouvoir pour Temoigner Son Zele pour la 

Propagation du Ciment | & Son attachement pour la Vraye Macon 10 

ACCORDONS, par ces presentes a ' nos chers freres Jean Franyois 

Pechagut, et Pierre Thouron iMaitres architectes Le pouvoir I de Constituer 

un attelier D'architecture dans la Tres Respectable et Parfaite Loge d'Ecosse J 

de la ville de Bordeaux et non ailleurs. A cr.v cauxex et pour autres bonnes 

Considerations Nous avons fait Expedier ces presentes, Remises a Notre cher 

frere Thouron pour Conjointement avec notre dit cher > frere Pechagut, ou sans 

Some Al itf-h'/i/f/tci't/t/i Cciitiirfi French Alan it. scripts. 10M 

luy, Constituer et Etablir un attelier D' architecture dont nous 1' avons nomine 
Maitre a cet Effet jusques I a ce que le d. attelier soit forme, Laissant la Liberie 
a ntre d.c.f. Thouron de nommer deux Surve ts protempore a la charge par le 
d. attelier de se Conformer aux neufs premiers I articles de Regle ts . que nous 
luy enuoyons quil ni sera recu architects que des P ts . d'E c . e/ijoif/tio/tx a notre 
d.c.f. Thouron m e du d. attelier et a ses Successeurs de Nous j Informer des 
Mutations des Mtes et Surv ts . que le d. attelier trouvera bon de faire dans la 
Suitte a peine de indite des presentes sera en outre tenu ntre d.c.f. Thouron [ 
de nous rendre Compte de ses operations Sous telle peine quil appartiendra. 
Donne dans L' attelier Tous les F vc . presents, L'an de la Grande Lumiere Cinq | 
1\J ille sept cents Cinquante Trois Le Vingt-un du Sept'', mois apres celui de Jar. 
Sous le Sceau de la R. et P !l \ L. d'E c . & le Contre Seing de notre Secretaire. 

Par mandement de L' attelier 
de la Martinique. 

De Lorient d'un lieu Eclaire on | Regnent le Mistere, la descence, L'amitie Le 
21e du 7e Mois apres cellui de Jar 5753. 

Que Le G. A. Maintienne notre Edifice. 

Le Me. Les officiers et ouvriers de 1 'attelier | T) 'architecture Scitue en L'Isle 
Martinique par | les 14 D. 44 M.N. annexe a la Rble. Loge de la \ parfaitte 
Union du Eourg St. Pierre. 


Respectable G.Me G. S\irv' s . et ouvriers de la j Parfaite L. d'El. de Bordeaux, 
Scituee par les 

S. F. V. 

Nos tres Chers & Respectables freres. 

Notre cher. f . Thouron nous a demande de votre part et j en votre noni le Grade 
D 'architecture, et lepouvoir necessaire de former chez Vous un attelier. Nous y 
avons Consenty avec d'autant plus deplaisir, que Votre Tres R. et P.L. nous 
fournit ] par la L'occation de faire un acte de reconnoissence ; tous [ nos M os . 
architectes Etant Pt, d'E C0 . quoi que tous nos maitres Pt. d'E c . ne soient pas 

Nous avons done remis a notre cher f. Thouron le Brevet [ necessaire a cet 
effet, il est adresse a notre cher f . Jean Francois j Pechagut, ainsy qu'a notre 
cher f. Thouron pour Conjointement ou Separement par empechement de l'un 
on l'autre j Etablir un attelier D 'architecture dans votre R.L. Seulement [ et nou 
ailleurs, Suivant les memoires et Instructions que ! Nous luy avons remis ; nous 
1'avons charge de vous Lire J en Loge cjuelques observations particulieres apres 
que Ton aura fait Lecture de cette depeche. 

Nous faisons des Voeux Sinceres pour que le G.A. 1 repende Sur votre 
attelier Ses dons les plus precieux et les } plus abondants. Nous faisons de 
tout notre Coeur les memes ' Souhaits pour Votre R. & P.L. et nous vous prions 
d'etre [ persuades des sentiments d'estime, de veneration & | d'amitie avec lesquels 
nous sommes par Trois fois. 

Nos tres chers et Respectables freres. 



CLERMONS, de La ville de Marseille, Constituee par Le Grand Maitre et les 
grands Officiers du tres ancien et tres Illustre Ordre Des francs Macons dans Le 
Royaume de France, Le premier Octobre mil sept cent quarante neuf, 
ACCORDONS, Aujourdhui par les presentes, L ' affiliation a nos chers et Dignes 

104 I'ratix'iettoiix of flic (JiHttitor {' oronut i Lo</;/( . 

freres cle La respectable Loge St. Jean de Jerusalem & La Parfaite Union au 
bourg St. Pierre de La Martinique Seitnee Sous Le 14 Degre 30 M.N. en 
qualite de petite fille de Clermons et L'authorisant par Le pouvoir qui nous a 
ete Donne a Jouir de tons Les Privileges d'une Loge Reguliere & constituee, 
CONFIRMONS, Notre Cher Frere Maitre, notre cher frere premier 

Surveillant et notre cher frere F-s Doitsamboure Second Surveillant de La dile 
Loge St. Jean. 

Nous enjoignons par ces presentes a uotre Cher frere 

et a ses Successeurs d 'observer, et faire observer Exact ement Les 
Regies Generates et partieulieres cle la Maconnerie de ne recevoir aucun candidat 
au dessus de l'age de vingt un ans, ni aucun Profane dont La Probite n'est 
pas tout a fait Reconnue, de ne recevoir maitre aucun frere servant sans une 
permission Expresse de La respectable Loge St. Ferreol, Ordonnons, aussi a La 
dite Loge St. Jean de nous faire informer cle chaque mutation quelle jugera 
a propos de faire, des maitres & des Surveillants, le tout sous peine de nullite 
de la presente affiliation, en foi de quoi nous lui donnons, et avons fait expedier 
les presentes, scelees du sceau de 1 'arcliitecture de La Loge St. Ferreol fille de 
Clermont, A Marseille le deuxieme Aoust mil sept cent cinquante. 

E. Moulinneuf venerable 


1780 M. G.L:. d'UKRAlNE. 

A MARSEILLE AVONS ACCORDE par ces presentes a notre et digne 
Frere RTCAUD, Negotiant de la ville de Toulon. L'Eff'et de sa requette 
a nous pressntee, En consequence Nous authorisons La loge a Toulon 
Comme nous etant affiliee En qualite de petite fille de Clermont a jouir 
de tous les privileges dune Loge reguliere, En eonfirmaut par nos deputes. 
Le Frere RTCAI'D Maitre. Le frere REMY, premier surveillant, et le 
frere BARRY, second surveillant de la ditte loge. Nous enjoignons par 
Ces presentes a notre dit frere Ricaud Et a ses Successeurs d'observer, 
et faire observer exacfement les regies Generates et partieulieres de la 
maconnerie, Conformement aux usages de la Tres respectable loge de 
Clermont des quels Nous aurons soins de leur faire part, de ne recevo>r 
aucun Candidat au-des-ous de l'age de vingt un ans. de ne recevoir 
maitre, aucun frere Servant sans une permission de notre tres respectable 
Grand-Maitre ou de Son depute ; ORDONNONS a La ditte Loge S.t 
Jean de Toulon (de nous faire informer de chaque mutation quelle jugera 
a propos de faire cle maitre Et Surveillans, pour en instruire notre Mere 
La Tres Respectable Loge de Clermont, Le Tout Sous peiiis de nullite de 
La presente affiliation et Constitution de petite fille de Clermont. EN 
FOY DE QUOY, Nous luy donnons et avons fait Kxpedier Ces presentes. 
Scellees du Sceau de notre ditte loge S.te Ferreol. fille de Clermont, a 
Marseille Ce douzieme Mars mil sept cent cinquante, CABASSE Venerable, 
GRCESTE Ex-ble POUCET premier Surveillant, CHOOSON SE-d Surveil- 
orateur, G. GAY SERGUE Tresorier TRICON secretaire. 

NOUS CHEVALIERS Tres libres de L'orient princes et Souverains de 
la maconnerie sur le raport qui nous a ete fait par le Chevalier DEVALOIS 
Grand Garde des Sceaux de la Souveraine loge de la requette a nous 
presentee par un nombre eompetans de freres macons assembles en la 
ville de Toulon Sous le nom de Loge de St Jean de Toulon : VU LA 
DITTE Requette et le proces verbal de leur ditte loge 1 en datte du vingt 
quatrieme Juin de I'amiee derniere mil sept cens Cinquante (juatre 
AVONS CONST1TUF & CONSTITUONS par ces 1 >resentes en loge 

Some M ' i(l-fci(/hl i "i 'lit h Ciiittirt/ Frciu-h SI an uxen pi ■■< . 10;) 

n'guliere les dits Freres de la Loge de St. Jean de Toulon Et agreons le 
Choix qu'ils out fait dn Frere R1GAUD pour maitre de la ditte Loge; du 
frei e REMY pour premier Surveillaut et du frere JONVILLE pour second 
Surveiliant aux Conditions ioute fois par les dits frere et Ceux qui leur 
Sucoederont de Ti'availler avec decence et Regularite de Se Conformer aux 
Statuts et reglemens et a tout <:e qui leur Sera present par nous et nos 
Suecesseurs. En foy de quoy et pour rendre cette constitution notoire a 
tons les freres MACONS repandus Sur terre et Sur mer. Nous 
avons appose Notre Sceau donne an Conseil de uotre Souveraine Grande 
Loge de L' orient Tenue a Paris Ce septieme jour d'avril Mil Sept cent 
Approuvev la presents constitution conmie etant conformee a rorigiual 
cjuo j'ai vu. Benfrer de la Lourie. 

par maiidement de la Loge de la marenne pom' le title de ia parfaite 

| Bord, La Maeounerie en France, Vol. 1. Paris 1908. Page 480: — 
Cet atelier fut fonde ]>ar nne puissance ineonnue le 12 Mars 1750, puis 
recoustitue par la G.L. le '29 Aoiit 1772. Tout ce qu'on sait de cette 
Loge e'est qu'en 1788-9, elle etait prosidee par La Youte, negociant. 
Elle disparut defmitivement pendant la Revolution.] 

N°. 3. 




CLERMONT, DE La ville de Marseille. Constituee par le Grand Maitre et les 
grands Officiers du tres ancien &. tres illustre Ordve Hes Francs-Masons dans le 
Royaume de France, Le premier Octobre mil sept cent quarante neuf, 
ACCORDONS, Aujour d'hui par les presentes. L'Affiliation a nos ehers et 
Digues freres de La respectable Loge St. Jean de Jerusalem & La Parfaite 
Union an bourg S-t Pierre de La .Martinique Seituee Sous le 14 Degre 30 M.N. 
en qualite de petite fille de Clermont en L'authorisant par le pouvoir qui nous 
a etc donne a Jouir de tons Les Privileges d'une Loge Eeguliere & constituee. 
CONFIRMONS Notre Cher Frere ? (1) maitre, notre cher Frere (2) premier 
Sureveilant et notre cher frere S-s Doihamboure, Second Surveiliant de la dite 
Loge S-t Jean. 

Nous enjoiguons par ces presentes a notre cher frere Pelouse et a ses 
Successeurs d 'observer et faire observer Exact ement Les Regies Generales et 
partieulieres de la Maeounerie de ne recevoir aucun Candid at au-dessous de Page 
de vingt tin aus, ni aucun profane dont la Probite n'est pas Tout a fait 
Beconnue. de ne recevoir maitre aucun frere servant sans une pennissiou 
Expres.e de la respectable Loge St. Ferreol ORDONNONS aussy a La dite 
Loge S-T Jean de nous faire hi former de chaque Mutation quelle jugera a propos 
de faire. des maitres & des Surveillants, le tout sous peine de Nullite de La 
presente affiliation, En foi de quoy nous Luy dounons, et avons fait expedier les 
presentes, Scelees du Sceau do L' Architecture de La Loge S-t Ferreol fille de 
Clermont. A. Marseille le deuxieme Aoust mil Sept cent cinquante. 

E. Moulinneuf, venerable Malvisin hrem. Surv. Cabasse Ex ven. 

Demeste Ex Ven. R. C. Nicolas 2nd. Surv. Rouquit Orateur, 

J. Pet Delmas Kapeller G.M. des Chevaliers de l'Orient General J. B. U. FOY, 
Peije, Allemand V.M.E.: J. II. Conttix, Seguin, Ronifaizy (?) Treas., Pelhan. 
Tricon, Billion, Pousel, Fruilhard Gallier Secretaire. 

(Par Mandement de La Tres respectable Loge St. Ferreol fille de Clermont.) 

106 '/' 'ntitxact iouk of the Quaiuor Coronal i Lothjt. 


I)e Lorient D'uu Lieu Eclaire on reigne La paix Le silence et La parfaitte Union 
a Labri des yeux. i Prophanes &a L 'ombre de La Vertu | 

V | L | de st Jean de Jerusalem soub titre de la parfaitte Union petite fille de 
Clermcnt prince Establie a st Pierre Isle Martinique Situe par Les 14 d 44N \ 
Constitue par La venerable Loge de st Ferol de Marseille fille de Clermont 
Suivant Les Lettres et patentes quils nous cut Expediez datte du 2 avvil 1750 ! 
Et soub le bon plaisir du V G M et Grand Officiers du tres eminent et tres 
Tllustre Ordre des Francs Macons du Royaume de France j ACCORDONS 
aujourdhuy par ces presentes L AFFILIATION" a nos chers et digues freres de 
La V Loge de st Jean de Jerusalem establie dans | La Ville de La Nouevelle 
Orleans provaiuce de La Lonissiane situe par Les 30 d N soub Le titre de La 
parfaitte harmonie en qualite de notre Fille I Lauthorison par Le pouvoir 
qui nous a este doiine a Jouir de tous Les privileges dune loge regulierement 
constituee, & apres avoir ouy Le | Raport fair par Les V freres Duihamboure 
Frs Thouron et Desbaras Membres du Comitee Nommes le II du 12 mois a 
Leffet dexaminer I extrait des Minutes des traveauxfaitte dans La susdite V Loge 
La parfaitte harmonie depuis son Etablissenient (Lesquelles minutes nous | Out 
estes remises par le V frere paul foobs & Les Frs Carrese & Patard deputes a eel. 
effet suivant Leur Commission authantique quils Nous j ons Exhibe datte du Ier 
Lundy du Mois du Mars 5752) Lesquelles Minutes & Ouvrages ont ese par 
eux declares bons & faitte suivant j Les Regies de Lart Royal & en consequence 
de leur Rapport NOUS Leurs avons aceorde & Expedier Les presents 
CONSTITUTIONS j CONFIRME & CONFIRMONS Nos tres chers freres Louis 
Francois Tiphaine Venerable, Alexie phillipe Cartier premier Surveillant: | Et 
Joneph Villere second surveillant de La ditte Loge on Ceux qui auront pu est re 
elu on Confirmes Le jour de La St Jean derniere. | 

NOUS Enjoignons ]iar ces presentes a notre tres cher frere Tiphaine et 
a ses successeurs dobserver & faire observer Exatement Les | Regies Generalles & 
particulieres de La Maconnerie et Notament Celles Contenues aux Reglements 
que nous Luy envoyons de ne recevoir ( aucuii Candidal au dessoub de Lage de 
21 ans ny aucun prophane dont Ija probite Les bonnes Moeurs ne soit })as tout 
affait Reconnus | De ne recevoir Maitre aucun frere servant sans notre permission 
Expresse ORDONNONS aussy a La ditte V L de La parfaitte harmonie de nous 
faire I informer de chaque Mutation quelle jugera a propos de faire des Vbles 
et des Survs Le tout soub penne de Nullitte de La pressente affiliation en foy | 
de quoy nous Luy avons Fait Expedier ces presentes Scelles du Sceau de 
Larchitecture de Cette Vbe Loge, fait en Loge Le 16 Juillet 5752 | 

DELONZE Grand Mtre D'E fais folic de Vble ; T Thouron ; Rev 
LASSALLE S S V Ex ; DEBARRAS J W P Ora ; Cavezes f tuilleiir"; 
Delagrange ; Larnao I Sur ; Jaussane; Jacques Rlaniery Vble; Ijiiine tresorier 
? ? Par mandemenf de la R.L. La parfaite union Doihanibouic Seer. 

Translation of Appendix F. 

From the Headquarters of an enlightened place, where peace, silence and perfect 
union reign sheltered from the eyes of the profane, and shaded by virtue. 

WE, Worshipful Master, Inspector, officers and workmen of the Worshipful 
Lodge of St. John of Jerusalem named the Perfect Union, emanating from the 
Prince of Clermont, established at St. Pierre in the Island of Martinique 
Lat. 14. 44 N., and warranted by the Wor. Lodge of St. Ferol at Marseille, a 
daughter Lodge of Clermont, by virtue of the letters and patent dated April 2nd, 
1750, which have been sent to us, and under the benevolence of the M.W.G.M. 
and grand officers of the very eminent and very illustrious order of Free Masons 
in the Kingdom of France, do this day, by these presents affiliate to ourselves 
our dear and worthy brethren of the Wor. Lodge of St. John of Jerusalem 

Some M nl-FiijItl centli Cent tin/ French M 'an ttxen pit. 1^' 

established in the city of New Orleans in the Province of Louisiana Latitude 
30 N. under the title of the Perfect Harmony as our daughter Lodge, and grant 
them by virtue of the powers in us vested, authority to enjoy all privileges of a 
regularly constituted Lodge, and after having heard the report made by Bro. 
Duihambourc, Thouron. and Debarras appointed on the 11th day of the 12th 
month to examine the extract of the minutes of the work done by the above- 
mentioned Wor. Lodge La Parffaite harmonie since its inception (which minutes 
have been handed to us by Wor. Bro. Paul Fooks, and Bros. Carresse and 
Batard, appointed to this end as a deputation by a regular commission dated 
the 1st Monday in March 1752 which has been shewn to us) and which minutes 
and work done have been declared by them to be well and truly in accordance 
with the rules of the Royal Art : in consequence of which report we have granted 
and delivered to them this present Charter of Confirmation, and we confirm as 
Wor. Master our very dear Brother Louis Francois Tiphaine, Alexie Phillippe 
Cartier as S.W. and Joseph Villere as J.W. of the said Lodge or such others 
as may have been elected or confirmed as such on the Feast of St. John last. 

By these presents we enjoin our very dear Bro. Tiphaine and all his 
successors to strictly observe and cause to be observed the laws and regulations 
of Freemasonry and especially those that we are sending to him ; to receive no 
candidate under the age of 21 years, or any profane of whose probity and sound 
morals there is no possible doubt; to raise no serving brother to the rank of 
M.M. without our special permission. We also command the said Wor. Lodge 
the Parffaite harmonie to inform us of every change they may find it desirable 
to effect in Worshipful IVI asters and Wardens, all the above under penalty of 
the annulling of the present affiliation. In token of which we have despatched 
these presents sealed with the seal of architecture of this worshipful Lodge. 
Lone in Lodge this 16th day of July 5752. 

Signatures and seal. 


We Master Officers and Brethren of the Holy Lodge of St. John of St. Eustachian 
Lying in the ude of 17 I). 30 N. having a Regular Dispensation from 
his Excellency William Mathew Captain General and Commander in Chief of 
(His Majesty of Great Britain's) Leeward Charribee Islands in America and 
Provincial Grand Master of the Most Ancient and Honourable Society of Free 
& Accepted Masons in the said Leeward Islands Do hereby Certifie that our 
Worthy and Beloved Brethren Paul Fooks and Peter Carresse has presented to 
this Worshipful Lodge a Deputation from the Worshipful Lodge of the perfect 
Harmony of New Orleans and an exact Coppy of the Minutes of their Lodge 
since Its foundation signed by all Its Members as also a Constitution Granted 
to them by the Worshipful Lodge of the Perfect Union in St. Pierre in the 
island of Martinico Dated the 16th Day of July 5752 and as they have Desired 
of this Worshipful Lodge to acknowledge their Lodge as Duly and Regularly 
Constituted and well founded we have Maturly Examined their Works which we 
have found Regular According to the Use and practice of good Masonry as 
Fxecuted in all Regular Lodges, Particularly we do strictly Recommend to our 
Brethren of the Perfect Harmony to Continue in the Use of giving the two 
Degrees of Entered Apprentice and fellow Craft Imeditly the One After the 
Other without any Delay as is the Practice of Most of the Best Lodges, and 
as we do ourselves for sverall Reasons that Cannot be Exprest here, has 
Coiivinced of the Necessity of this the which we have Communicated to our 
Brethren Fooks and Carresse, We do also Confirm and Approve the Above 
Mentioned Constitution Granted to them by the Worshipful "Lodge of the 
Perfect Union of St. Pierre of the Island of Martinico and we Acknowledge 
them to have full and sufficient Authority and power to Enjoy all Privileges 
and Benefits whatsoever belonging to a Regular Constituted Lodge and we do 
desire all true Brethren to regard them as such, We wishing you Worshipful 

108 7' ft, uisurt ioiix of the (J wit nor t'oruwttt Lodt/r. 

blaster and Beloved Brethren all Joy and Prosperit Greeting you thrice hoping 
your only Contention will be a Laudable Emulation in Cultivating the Royal 
Art and the Social Virtues belonging to our Honourable Society. 

Given under the Seal of our Lodge at St. Eustachius this 1 4th day of 
August in the Year of iMasoiiry 5752. Sgd Ralph Sampson Treasurer; E. 
Gillard P.M.; Allier ; And. Kavene VL ; John Jiiffernan S.W. : Nicolas 
Il.iyliger J.W. 


Au Nom du grand Architects de L'Univers 
L'An de la grande L'umiere cinq 
Alille Sept cents cinquante deux et Le 
troisieme dimanche 16''. du mois de Juillet 

Reglements &, Loix particulieres I que la Venerable Loge la Parfl'aite Union de la 
^Martinique! petite fille de Clermont envoit a la Venerable Loge de ! parfl'aite 
harmonie tie la nouvelle Orleans province de la Louisiane aux quels elle doit 
se confornier au desir ties j Constitutions qu'elle Luy a octroye sur la demande 
qui luy | en a este faite par sa deputation envers cette Venerable ; en la personne 
du Respectable Frere Looks Parffait d'Ecosse Pierre Carresse Maitre Simb Et 
F. Louis j Batard M"'. et tons membres de la dite Venerable ' Loge la parfl'aite 

Article Premier. 

Cette Loge ne pourra estre compose de plus de cinquante | Membres qui ue 
seront reconnus pour tels qu'apres auvoir | este serutines et recus par consente- 
ment unanime de tous les i 

PAGE 11. 

Membres de la Loge a faute de quoy lis ne seront recus j que comme visiteurs. 

Article 2me, 

Que cette Venerable Loge de St. Jean sera recormue par le titre j de la Loge 
La PARFFAITE HARMONIE et sera tenue tons | les premiers Luudis du mois, 
et que cependant Le Venerable \ pourra assembler La Loge de maitre Lorsque 
le cas L'Exigera. 

Article 3me. 

Que aux Loges de travail le Vbie l'ouvrira a Six heures j du soir et en Este 
a 8 heures on en son absence l'Ex \ r euer. j cu le Pe on le S Surveillant Sans 
aucune restriction mais dans quelque cas (jue ce soit lorsque le Vble en 
fonction j entrera celluy qui tiendra le Siege Le Luy remetra sur le Champ et 
on L liistruira des ciivrages qui se j seront fails pendant son absence. 

Article 4m e. 

Le Venerable a le droit de faire assembler la Loge pour cles affaires Extra- 
ordinaires quand 11 le jugera propos j et cas quil soit absent ou Malade L'Ex 
Vble ou le pe ou ! Le Secon Survt, le pourront aussy faire come cy dessus. 

Article Sine. 
Tous les membres doivent se ti'ouver a la Loge et a L'heure ' 


prescite Sans Quoy lis Seront obliges avec tout Soumission ': d'en donner leur 
raison par Ecrit ou de vive voix a la ])i:emiere j Loge Suivaute, mais s'il estoit 
proline que ce fut par manque | de Zelle il seroit condanne a L'amande envers 
la caisse des aumones. 

Article 6me. 

Aucun membre de cette Loge ne pourra y estre deguise j ny retombera dans ce 
cas pendant la tenue de la Loge ny ne : se comporfera en paroles ny esstt j dans 

Souk M ' i(/-f'Ji(/lit(-riith Caifur// F)-< nth Muintxrnptx. 100 

une facon indeeente il ne sera non plus permis a aucun masson pendant la 
fenue i de la Loge de tenir aucune conversation particuliers ny se parler ', a voix 
Basse : aucun membre ne parlera snr aucun debat plus j d'ime fois. Kt ce, 
de-bout apres avoir demande la parole de la ; facon require : il ne sera non pins 
permis a aucun Visiteurs | de dormer son avis sur aucun debat sans y est requis. 

Article 7me. 

Chaque propliane qui aura Le bonheur d'estre admis j a La Lumiero payera 
400 ou autre somme que vous | Jugerez plus con ven able dans la quelle sera 
oompris La I contribution pour les Fraiss de la Loge les gans et Le repas ce 
qui est une fois paye pour les grades de Compagnon i Et de Maitre qui Luy 
i'sront en suite con ff ere Lorsque La Vble. Loge len jugera suffisament digne. I 
Et Chaque Visiteur qui voudra devenir membre de cette | Venerable Loge apres 
L'auoir visitee 3 fois doit demauder | 

PAGE 4. 

son agregation la quelle Luy eoutera cent Livres an ' moyen de quoy il ne sera 
plus tenu a aucune contribution I particuliere pour sa reception de compagnon 
et de Maitre I sil ne L'Estoit pas. 

Article 8me, 

he iMembre qui propcssra un prcphane rendra comte | a La Le de ses qualites, 
age, moeurs, sa profession, et le lieu I cle sa naissance, et repondera de Luy 
apres quoy II ne pourra | estre Serutine que la Loge Orde tuivante ; affin que 
le:-' membres puissent auoir Le temps de s' in [former de ses moeurs ! et de sou 
oaractere et qu'ils ne soient point Exposes a admettre j dans La Resphle 
fraternite, un sujet qui ne possederoit pas | toutes les qualites requises par les 
reglements et constitutions j de toutes les Loges en general, et par Les Loix 
particulieres de | cette Loge qui ue permetent a Aucun sous quel pretexte que | 
ce puisse estre, dEstre admis sans estre ne d'un sang pur, Libre j de Ses 
Volontes, et sans avoir contracte aucune alliance qui ' puisse deshonorer La 
purete de la Societe, 

Article 9 me. 

Des qu'un propbane sera duement Elu ; Le membre qui : L'aura propose 
deposera entres Les mains du tresorier ; Les j Sommes fixees par 1'Article "me 
de ces reglemeut:--, et fe chargera de la presenter le jour qui sera Fixe pour sa 
reception a moms qu'il ne puisse en donner des raisons valables 

PAGE 5. 

Article lOme. 

Lorsqu'un prophane sera propose et que 1'on aura passe an | Scrutin s'il se 
tronve une objection, on le repa.-sera an Scrutin. j La Loge ordre suivanto. 
Sy la meme objection sy rencontre | la premiere Loge ordinaire on le reserutinera 
pour la 3me fois j Et la meme objection sy trouuant ce luy qui l'aura mise sera ! 
oblige d'en donner ses raisons au Vble la Facon misterieuse | et et sy 
la raison est trouue suffisante, il sera declare | rejete, mais sy le Ven ne trouue 
pas L 'objection bien f on dee j il la communiquera a haute voix a La Le sans 
nommer celuy qui la formee, et pour Lorr on Le repassera a L' Scrutin et s'il 
ne se trouue qu'une objection il sera declare duement elu, mais | sil s'en trouuoit 
deux il seroit rejete sans pouvoir estre I d'avantage propose. Mais sy de la pe. 
Scrutin lis se trouvoit | deux objections il sera rejete sans apel. 

Article lime. 

Le Secretaire aura un registre qui sera fourny par j La L cotte & parraffe des 
Venerables & Surveillants dans J Lequel Tl tiendra une Liste de chaque frere, 
du temps de leur ■ reception et leur demeure, il ecrira aussy une minute exacte 
de touted les transactions de La L qui se peuvent ecrirc ; les quelles il sera 
oblige de finir avant La Cloture de La j Loge et Les faira signer par tons Les 

110 Transactions of the Q wit it or Coroirif/ Loihjc. 

mambres presents i II aura aussy soin denregistrer toute les Letres que la ! Loge 
pourra recevoir, qui buy seront remises a cet effet et y ' faire Les reponses de 
la facon que le Veil Luy iudiquera 

PAGE 6. 

ainsi que de dresser les certificates qui pourront estre delivres \ sur la requisition 
de quelqu'un des membres ; ainsi que de | faire Les Letres de convocation (pie 
Von adresse a tons les ■ membres de la Loge et de les delivrer 11 faira aussy 
toutes i les Lectures qui pourront estre requise en Lg II sera fourny j par La Le 
un coffre pour pouvoir serrer les papiers de la L. 

Article 12me. 

Le Tresorier sera Charge des deniers de La L et tiendra un | registre exact de 
ses debourses et Frais particuliers, et des deniers quil payera par mandats 
tires sur Luy qui seront signes par | Le Ye <k Les Surv et contve signe par le 
Secretaire pour cet I efl'et il sera fourny par La Le un registre <fc un cofl're 
dans leqeul II pourra serrer Les fonds de la Le ses papiers | et ses Bijoux. II 
luy ssra aussy fourny un tronc on il ! y aura deux clefs et 2 serrures une des 
quelles il aura en sa garde, et Lautre sera remise an Ye Lequel tronc sera 
pose a la I temie dans un endroit con ven able pour que cbaque ' frere puisse y 
mettre l'aumone qu'il jugera apropos, ainsy quel Les amandes pecuniaires 
dependant le f. Tresorier auant la j Cloture de La Le presentera Le tronc a tons 
les freres assistans | Louverture sen faira tons les 3 mois auquels temps le 
Tresorier sera oblige de rendre ses comptes, lesquels apres auoir ' este examine 
& troirae justes seront signe par le Vble Les 2 | Surv & contresignc par le 
Secretaire. Cependant il sera tenu \ de randre ses plus souvent s'il en 
est requis ; il aura soin ! de se randre au Lieu de la Temie de la Le avant 
l'lieure preserite ! affin dy pouvoir tout preparer avec decence. 

PAGE 7. 

I'n frere persecute de la fortune s'adressera a un des trois officiers ' a qui il 
pourra faire part de sa triste situation. Le cas estant i grave sera communique 
a tout La Le affin que le Secours I puisse estre plus abondant. Dans un moindre 
cas le Yen, en ' confferera avec ses Surv et alors ils pouvroiit tirer un m and at | 
sur le tresorier qui payera au f. indigent ce qui aura este ' ordonnc. LES 
SALCTA1RES ouvrages des | aumones poui' ^culager ses f indigents estant un 
des plus heureux I effets de 1'amour fraternelle, et de L'amitie inviolable des 
legitimes , macons, nous ne deuons rieu negliger pour secourir les f oprimes 
c.'est une bonne oeuvre qui sera benie abondament par Le grand ' Arcliitecte 
de L'univers. 

Article 14me. 

II ne sera fait aucun repas dans La L a moins cjuo une soit [ aux reception, 
on aux testes de St. Jean Bapt notre patron et de I St. Jean L'Evangelistc 
Lesquels seront indispensables cependt | Sy par quelque (.'as indispensable il seroit 
trouue necessaire on j pourroit Le faire aux depens de la Loge, observant La 
decence et la Sobviete qu'il concient au bon menagement. et aux fonds ' de la 
Loge. Les depenses aux quelles nous serous obliges pour les saints 
indispensables sera paye par un [ chacun des membres sans toucher aux fonds 
de la Loge. 

Article lome. 
Aucuns freres Yisiteur ne seront recu en cette qualite a 

PAGE 8. 

moins qu'ils ne produisent des Certifficats en forme, et qu'ils n'avent este 
Examines par deux des membres que Le Yen hiy | deputera a ce sujet, on (pie 
au moins un membre de la Loge : n' affirm e sur sa parole de Macon | le connoitre 
pour vray j et Legitime frere auquel cas il sera recu selon son grade '. ce qui no 
pourra cependant. le dispenser de renouuele dans La forme requise Les Sactvs 

Some Mirl-E/c/Jifecnt/i (.'rutin'!/ French Manuscripts. Ill 

lUisteres comius de tons Les Freres I Et JM aeons apres quoy sera Salue k prendre 
sa place. 

Article 16me. 

Sy quelqu'un frere Membre do cette Loge auoit dispute | d' Interest ou d'autre 
facon avec un de leur frere aussy JMembre de | La Loge ils en donneront 
connoissance a cette Veil. Loge on Le Vble ] on les surveillants offiriront leur 
mediation a laquelle ils I doivent se soumettre, ce pendant sy le cas estoit de 
nature a ne j pouvoir estre terniinee par arbitrage ; ils pourront | container leur 
proces non avec indignation l'un contre l'autre | sans colore et sans rancune. 
ne disant ny ne faisant rien qui puisse empecher L 'amour fraternello et 
continuant a se [randre des bons offices affin de pouvoir s'apliquer avec plus de ! 
succes &. de zelle aux sacres travaux de la maconerie. 

Article 17me. 

Sy un se eomporte sy mal qu'il se randre incommode a j la Le soit par la 
mauvaise regie de sa conduite dans La Le | on dans le Public il sera admoneste 
par le Vble on par celuy | des officiers a cpii Le Vble donnera pouvoir. & sil ne 
met pas 

PAGE 9. 

frein a ses Imprudanccs il sera roprimande par le Vble en ploine Loge, et sy 
alors il ne se souniet pas avec obeissance, et ne se refforme | pas co que a offance 
& Scandalise ses F 11 sera apele et oblige I de comparoitre a une Loge qui sera 
eonvoque a ce sujet affin de | Le juger suivant Les reglements & Loix do la Vide 
Loge & | fraternite, soit par amande, Exclusion Limitee, ou Entiere : ' mais s'il 
manquoit a comparoitre apres auoir este averty par la < lettre de convocation 
qui luy sera remise du sujet pour lequel il | est cite il sera exille a perpetuiie 
et La procedure luy sera signifies de la facon usitee. 

Article 18me. 

Toute cette Loge assemblee en corps a le droit de faire des j representations aux 
Vble & surs au cas quils ayent manque en ! quelque chose qu soit contre La 
purite & le deuoir du Legitime j Macon pourvu toute fois que cette remonstrance 
se fasse d'une | facon decente sans aigreur ny animosite personelle. et que ce 
soit toujours un I\Ire M. qui porte La parole apres | P auoir obtenue, affin (pie 
le respect qui est du aux chefs de la I Loge dans leur dignites soit ohservee avec 

Article 19me. 

L'Ellection des officiers de la Loge se faira regulierement ; tons les ans au jour 
de la St. Jean Bt.e on commancera a I s' assembler le matin apres la messe, et 
auaiit le repas on tiendra | une Logo dans laquelle on fmira toutes affaires 
domestiqucs ! on dinera ensuite et sur la fin du repas on ouvrira La Loge . de 
table pendant laquelle on achevera de regler les affaires j 

PAGE 10. 

domestiques sil en trouue.l 

Apres le repas on ouvrira La Loge a la quelle on I procedera a L'ellection des 
Officiers de la Loge. Le Ven auant y proceder prononcei-a un discours taut 
a ce sujet qu'a celuy de : la feste du jour | L 'Election du Ven se faira a la 
pluralite des sousfra I et par scrutin, cest a dire que chaque frere chacun a son 
tour ira : au lieu propose ou on aura mis une table un Ecritoire et du ' papier 
et la boete de L 'scrutin La il metra en Liberte Le I noni du Frere pour lequel 
il vote sur une Billet quil metra j dans la Boette qui sera remise au Vble qui 
en faira Pouverture ! et le Frere pour qui on trouvera le plus de voix sera 
legitimement | elu, et a 1 'instant sera proclame, salue, &c congratule de la j 
maniere accoutumee et sera installe immediatement selon I L 'usage ancienmt 
Etably. ' Le Nouveau Vene procedera aussitot a 1 'Election des officiers en 
nomant I] freres pr remjdir la place du pr Survcil I sur lescaiels on faira Le 

112 Tr/ii/*'irf/f)t)s of th< ( ( ) lint nor (/oratnh L<»!</<'. 

ehoix d'un par l'scrutin en la maniero cy dossus ; ainsy do memo pr le second 
Surveiliant ; Quant aux autres offieiers le Veil chcisira 1111 Irere suivant la. 
( onnaissance cjuil aura de ses talens pour remplir la place qui luy sera eon- 
veuable quil proposera a La Loge aqui Ion laisse toute Liberie pour 1'aoceptei 
ou reffuser en Notant j par LVsage ordinaire de la Main, j 

En cas d'Egalite de suffrages pour le Ven & les Suvvs La voix du venerable 
sera eoiuptee pour deux. ' 

PAGE 11. 

Article 20me. 
Ee jour de St. Jean Hapt apres Linstallation du Nan ! Veue on faira Lecture 
publiquo de toutes Les Loix & Statuts I generaux & part ieuliors ainsy ([lie de 
tons Les Evenements ! remarquables qui pourront pu arriver dans le cour de 
E'annee. j Ee F. Tresorier presentera an Nau Ven un etat de sa caisse j et tout 
ee qui pent, eoneeruer sa charge, Le F. Secretaire en faira de meme par la 
communication de tout ordre. Letres, ou autres ! ])a])iers cjiie cette V. Loge aura 
pu reeevoir ainsy que des ' resolutions particulieres que eette Vble Loge aura 
pu auoir i prise sous la direction de son predecesseur. ; 

Article 2 lme. 

Les F. Secretaire et tresorier fairont Egalement remise de ! tons Ecs Fonds, 
Bijoux, nieubles. papiers et autres effets (jui se trouueront en Leur pouvoir 
apartenant a la Ven. Loge a leur \ Successeurs, et en fairont inventaire sus 
Leur registres qu'ils fairons ■ signer par- Les nouveaux dignitaires moyennant 
(pioy lis I seront duenient deeharges. 

Article 22me. 

Les respe f. dignitaires membres de cette Le ])ourront aooorder \ aux anciens 
officiers qui se seront dignement acquite de leur charges '' les recompenses quils 
jugeront apropos pr. reconnoitre les services qu'ils out rendus a cette Ee par 
peur atantion en leur acordant quelques ' grades an dessus du Leur & par oe 
moyen les faire parvenir aux i ])erfection qui paroit est re Ee Put de Leur desirs. 

PAGE 12. 

Article 2Hme. 

Tons les membres de cette E payeront entre les mains du tresorier : la somme 
de cinq Livers par ehaque mois, Les quelles seront mises ; dans le tresor, allin 
de pouvoir augmenter les fonds de la Societe J Eaquelle somme sera payable tons 
les prs Lundy du iNTois. 

Article 24me. 

11 sera nommes deux Ms et Experts dans Eart royal | en qualite de commissaires. 
afnn de ])ouvoir Examiner Les Etrangers \ qui arriveront dans cette ville, Et 
prendre conncissance de leurs ' : moeurs * earactere & en avertir Le Yen ou en 
son absence Les : Surveillants. lis seront obliges egalement de rendre compt? a 
la | Loge assemblee des deccuverts quils anront pu faire. Us seront aussy Fres 
visiteurs des frs Malades en particulier et de tons Les i pauvres en general. 
Particulierement Us iront a L'hopital des ' pauvres Etably dans cette ville et 
representeront ce qu'ils • pourront. \ remarquer necessaire au Soulagement des 
pauvres Malades et j necessiteux, et commuuiqueront a la Loge Les movens quils 
trouveront Les plus propres a leur soulagement. Sy ces mouvements leur 
occasionent quelques petites depanses j Tls en fairont Leur representation a La 
Loge qui ne manquera ! pas dy faire toute Atantion necessaire. 

Article 2fjme. 

Aucun oertiflfioat ne sera delivre au F (pii pourra le < requerir (pie prelablemenl 
il ne soit signe du F tresorier ! 

So/nr M h!- Fit/lit mil Ii Crnfu/-// F r( n<h Man >/.<(■/■/ pi x. 1 1 3 

PAGH 13. 
qui ne le signera point qu'il n'ait este pave de ce qui pourroit ; est re du a La 
Loge ]")ar le frere en faveur de qui Le Certifficat ; sera fait. 

Article 26me. 
Les aprantifs et eompagnons seront attautifs a ; L'Exeeution des travaux qui 
Leur serous ordonnos par leur Alaitres aux quels lis s'Emploiront avee Zelle t ir 
Soimiission J et seront des premiers a s? randre an Lieu indiqtu' sui'tout Lorsquil 
aura des Loges de reception. 

Article 27me. 
Le f. Orateur au jour de St. Jean et ST. Jean L'Fvan j et a toutes Les receptions 
gen: ralement faira un diseours : aplieable au sujet a rOeeuranee aussy hien 
que dans tons Les autres temps requis faira usage de Ses Lumieres ; ailin j de 
nous represanter la grandeur & L'Kxcelance de la maconerie | et aps ce nioven 
nous Engager comme bon macon a i'uir Le vice et pratiquer La, vertue : ce qui 
neni])ecliera pas tons les freres | qui le jitgeront apropos de nous favoriser de 
Lours Lumieres j apres toutes fois en auoir obtenu La permission du Vble el 
auoir fait une politesse au f. Orateur niais ils ne pourront Le faire ' que debout 
et derouvert; au lieu que le F. Orateur a le droit ! de se prononcer Assis et 
convert. La Ven aura L'atantion j de faire aeeorder un plaudite a L'orateur 
on au frere qui aura prononce un discours qui tendra au bieu et a la tdorie de : 
Lart Royal; et tons ces discerns seront depose dans Les 

PACK 14. 

archives eomme des monuments autantiques du Zelle des bons I Massons on tons 
Les freres qui voudront s'instruire dans L'art ^ royal ])ourront aler cultiver leur 
talens en demandant a La Le la permission de faire Lectures des dtes ouvrages 
qui Luy seront toujours communiques en Loge on dies Le "Frere Secretaire 
qui doit en estre Le depositaitv 

Article 28me. 
Le Ven sera oblige avant La Cloture de La Loge de passer j les f. presents par 
L'Examen oonvenable aux temps & aux; Lieux tour a tour et sans Exception. 

Article 29me. 
Aucun F. ne sortira de La Loge sans en auoir obtenu la \ permission de la facoti 
requise. 11 ne prendra jamais sa place ! sans estre revet u de la manier? 
acoutumee et se coniportera j avec toute defence et harmonie se nommant frere 
sans faire | des accusations triviales L'uu contre L'autre a peine de sounrir i la 
punition que cette acusation aura pu meriter. 

Article 30m e. 

Le Maitre des ceremonies aura soin de faire placer les '■ .Membres suivani Leur 
rang d* d ignite. 

Article 31 me. 
Ces Loix partieulieres seront indispensablement Lues : 

PAGE 15. 
a tons Les nouveaux rents Immediatemenl apres Leur ' Reception 
Les quels reglements et Loix particuliers nous Enjoignons a La Venerable Loue 
La Parffaite harmonic de i La nouvelle Orleans NOTRE FiLLE d'executer 
et faire j executer dans tout Leur contenu. Leur Laissant en outre la ' Liberie 
d y en joindre de nouveles que nous ne scaurions j prevoir esti'e necessaires. en se 
reglant sur Les Temps et ; oceitranees on elle porroit se trouuer. Sans pourtant 
(pie | Les nouveaux arrangements quelle porroil prendre puissent porte aleinte 
ny derroger en aucune facon queleonque j aux present es Loix & reglements que 
nous Luy Etablissons j comme Inimitable. Que Cependani Ladite Venerable 

114 TruHsactin/iN of the Qitafuor Coronati Lodge, 

Loge La Parffaite harmonie NOTRE FTLLE nous en [ communiquera tou jours, 
et a tout temps Les nouveaux I reglements cest adire additins au presantes 
Quelle faira pour le bieir I L'avantage & La gloire de La Loge a qui nous 
souhaitons I toute prosperite, Paix, concorde, & Union, Priant Le Grand 
Architects de la maintenir toujour sous Sa Sainte | Garde &l protection. Fait 
Et Expediee a St, Pierre J de La Martinique Lan et Jour cy dessus en presence 
des ] freres Deputes de la surd. Loge La Parffaite harmonie [ 

PAGE 16. 

en La personne du tres digue Frere Paul fooks Parffait | d'Ecosse, du f Pierre 
Caresse Maitre simbolique et f Louis [ Batard maitre auxquels nous auons reniis 
les presantes I Ensemble nos patants de Constitution & nos Letre pour j La Ven 
Loge La Parffaite harmonie de la nouvelle Orleans | NOTRE FILLE leur 
souhaitant bon voyage Sante | et Prosperite, 


Translation of Appendix H. 

In. the Name of T.G.A.O.T.U., the year of great Light 5752 the third Sunday, 
the 16th day of July. 

Rules and Bye Laws sent by the Wor. Lodge, Parffait Union of 
Martinique, emanating from Clermont to the Wor. Lodge Parffaite Harmonie at 
New Orleans in the province of Louisiana : to which they must conform in terms 
of the Charter which has been granted to them at the request of their deputation 
consisting of Wor. Bro. Paul Fooks, P.d'Eco, Pierre Caresse, Maitre Simbolique, 
and Bro. Louis Batard, Master Mason, all members of the said Lodge, the 
Parffaite Harmonie. 

Article 1. 

The Lodge is restricted to 50 members, who shall be recognised as such 
only after they have been ballotted for and accepted by the unanimous vote of 
all the members of the Lodge. All others can only be considered as visitors. 

Article 2. 

This worshipful Lodge of St. Jean shall be called the Perfect Harmony : 
it shall meet on the first Monday of every month. The W.!M. can however 
summon the Lodge of Master Masons whenever necessary. 

Article 3. 

All Lodges for the transaction of business will be opened by the W.M. 
at 6 p.m., or in the summer at 8 p.m. In his absence it will be opened by 
the T.P.M. or the S.W. or the J.W. without any restrictions. But in all cases 
when the reigning Master enters the Lodge whoever is occupying the chair will 
immediately vacate it and will instruct the W.M. as to what has taken place in 
his absence. 

Article 4. 

The W.M. has the right to summon the Lodge for urgent business 
whenever he deems it necessary; in his absence, or if he be ill, the I. P.M. or 
the S.W. or the J.W. can act as above mentioned. 

Article 5 . 

Every member must attend Lodge at the hour fixed, or else give his 
reasons either in writing or verbally at the next Lodge meeting ; but if it 
proved that his non-compliance with this rule was due to want of zeal, lie shall 
he fined for the benefit of the Poor Box. 

Article 6. 

No member may be disguised in the Lodge nor become so during the 
meeting, nor conduct himself in word or act indecently, neither may any Mason 
hold any private conversation nor talk in a low tone during a meeting ; no 

Some Mn]-lt if/I) teen tJ> f'c/ift/r// Vrcndi Mammm jit*. 11;) 

member may speak in any debate more than once, and that standing after having 
obtained permission in the usual manner: * further, no visitor may express an 
opinion in any debate without being invited to do so. 

Article 7. 

Every profane who shall have the happiness to be admitted to Light shall 
pay the sum of 400 ( 'I ) or such other sum as you may deem fit, in which shall 
be included the contribution for Lodge expenses, the gloves and the repast. 
This payment shall include the fees for the degrees of Companion and Master 
which shall be conferred later when the Lodge shall consider him fit for them. 
And every visitor wishing to become a member of the Lodge after having 
visited it three times shall ask for permission to join which shall cost him 
100 livres, after which he shall be liable for no further fee for the degrees of 
Companion and Master should he not possess them already. 

Article 8. 

The member who proposes a profane shall inform the Lodge about his 
qualities, age, morals, profession and birthplace, and shall guarantee him, after 
which he can not be ballotted for till the next ordinary Lodge meeting so that 
the members may have time to inform themselves about his morals and his 
character, lest they be exposed to admitting to the Worshipful Brotherhood a 
person who does not possess all the qualities required by the Laws and Regula- 
tions of all Lodges and by the Bye Laws of this Lodge which allow of. no person 
whatsoever being admitted unless he is of pure blood, free to carry out his 
desires, and has contracted no engagement which might debase the purity of 
the Society. 

Article 9. 

As soon as a profane is duly elected, his proposer will deposit with the 
Treasurer the sum fixed by Art. 7 of these Bye Laws, and will undertake to 
present him on the day fixed for his reception unless he can produce a valid 

Article 10. 

Should a profane be proposed and ballotted for, and an objection be raised, 
(Mack ball be found ? ?) he shall be reballotted for at the next ordinary Lodge 
meeting. Should the same objection still exist, he shall be reballotted for at 
the next ordinary Lodge meeting for the third time, and should the same 
objection still exist, he who should have entered it shall be obliged to com- 
municate his reason to the W.l\l. by the mysterious method that is obligatory, 
and if the reason be found sufficient, he shall be rejected. Hut if the W.iVI. 
does not find the objection to be well founded, he will communicate the same 
aloud to the Lodge without naming the objector and another ballot shall be 
taken immediately; when, if only one objection be still found, he shall be 
declared duly elected, but if there be two, he shall be rejected and shall not 
be eligible to be proposed again. But if at the first ballot two objections be 
found, he shall be rejected without appeal. 

Article 11. 

The Secretary shall have a register which shall be paged and certified by 
t lie W.2I. and the two Wardens, in which he shall keep a list of each brother, 
the date of his reception and his address. He will also write an exact minute 
of all the transactions of the Lodge which may be written which must be 
completed before the closing of the meeting and signed by all the members 
present. He will also be careful to enter in it all letters received by the Lodge 
which shall be remitted to 'him for the purpose, and shall reply to them in the 
manner indicated by the W.M. lie shall also draw up the certificates which 
may be granted at the request of any of the members, also prepare and deliver 
the summonses to all members. Tie will also read in Lodge such things as mav 
be necessary. He shall be supplied by the Lodge with a box in which to lock- 
up Lodge papers, 

116 T nttix-icl /oils of the (Ju-itnor Coronnti l.fidijr. 

Article 1 2 . 

The Treasurer will take charge of the Lodge funds, and will keep an exact 
account of all disbursements, special expenses and of the funds paid out by him 
on account, of bills drawn on him by the W.J\I. and the two Wardens and 
countersigned by the Secretary. He will be supplied therefor by the Lodge 
with a register and a box in which he can lock up the Lodge funds, papers and 
jewels. He will also be supplied with a collecting box, to which there shall be 
two locks and two keys, one of which shall be in his custody and the other shall 
be handed to the W.M. , which collecting box shall be set at all meetings in a 
convenient place so that every brother may put therein such alms as he may 
consider fit, and also any fines. Nevertheless, before the closing of the Lodge, 
the Treasurer will present the collecting box to every brother present. This 
box will be opened quarterly at which period the Treasurer will submit his 
accounts which having been examined and found correct will be signed by the 
W.M. and the Wardens, and countersigned by the Secretary. Nevertheless the 
Treasurer may be required to render his accounts more often if it is found to 
be necessary . He will be careful to arrive at the place of meeting before the 
hour named so that he may prepare everything decently and in order. 

Article 13. 

A brother who is a victim of fortune will address himself to one of the 
three officers to whom he may communicate his sad case. If the case is a serious 
one, it shall be communicated to the whole Lodge so that increased assistance 
may be given. In a minor case the W.M. will confer with his Wardens and 
they may then draw an order on the Treasurer who will pay to the distressed 
brother the sum ordered. As the salutary work of alms-giving for the relief 
of distressed brethren is one of the most happy effects of the fraternal love 
and inviolable friendship of legitimate Masons, we must neglect no means of 
succouring our distressed brethren. ft is a good work which will be abundantly 
blessed by the G.A.O.T.U. 

Article 14. 

No meal shall be held in the Lodge unless it be at a reception, or at the 
feast of St. John the Baptist our patron, and St. John the Evangelist, which 
shall be obligatory. However should one be found to be absolutely necessary, 
it may be held at Lodge expense, always observing the decency and sobriety 
which accord with the good management and the means of the Lodge. The 
petty expenses entailed on us by the obligatory toasts will be paid for by each 
member without touching on Lodge Funds. 

Article 15. 

No visiting brother shall be received as such unless he produces certificates 
in due form which shall be examined by two members of the Wor. Lodge 
deputed by the W.M. for that purpose, or unless a member of the Lodge affirms 
on his word as a Mason that he recognises him as a true and legitimate brother, 
in which case he will be received in his degree. This however will not dispense 
him from renewing in the required form the sacred mysteries known to every 
brother and legitimate Mason ; after which he shall be saluted and take his 

Article 16. 

Should any brother, a member of this Lodge, have a dispute about money 
or any other matter with another brother also a member of the Lodge, he will 
impart the same to the Wor. Lodge, when the W.M. or the Wardens will offer 
their mediation, to which they ought to submit. Should however the case be 
of such a nature that it cannot be settled by arbitration, they may continue 
their suit, not with indignation one against the other, in anger or with bad 
feeling, but always saying and doing nothing which might hinder fraternal 
affection, continuing to remain in friendly terms so that they may apply them- 
selves with increased success and zeal to the sacred works of Free masonry. 

Smiir M nl-E'ujhttvitlh Cent nr;/ Fniiclt .\/u/nisc/ij>fx. Ill 

Article 17. 
Should any one conduct himself so badly as to make himself objectionable 
to the Lodge by reason of his bad conduct either in the Lodge or in public, he 
shall be admonished by the W.M. or by those officers whom the W.M. shall 
depute to do so, and if lie does not put a brake on his imprudence, he shall be 
reprimanded by the W.M. in open Lodge; and if then he does not submit with 
obedience and does not reform in that which has offended and scandalised his 
brethren he shall be summoned and shall be obliged to appear before a Lodge 
summoned to this purpose in order to try him according the Laws and Regula- 
tions of the W. Lodge and the Fraternity, (and may be punished) either by 
line, or by exclusion either temporary or permanent ; but if he fails to appear 
after having been warned by the letter of convocation which will be sent to him, 
citing the cause for which he is summoned, then he shall be permanently 
expelled, and the proceedings will be communicated to him in the usual manner. 

Article 18. 

The Lodge as a body has the right to make representations to the W.M. 
and bis Wardens, should it consider that they have been wanting in some 
matter contrary to the purity and the duty of a Legitimate Mason. Provided 
always that this remonstrance be couched in a seemly manner and without 
bitterness or personal animosity; further the spokesman must be a Master 
Mason, and permission to speak must be obtained in order that the respect due 
to the heads of the Lodge in virtue of their offices may be strictly maintained. 

Article 19. 

The election of the dicers of the Lodge shall take place annually on 
the Feast of St. John the Baptist. The brethren will assemble in the morning 
after Mass. A Lodge will be held before the repast at which all domestic 
affairs shall be disposed of. The brethren shall then go to dinner, and at the 
end of this a Lodge of the Table shall be held to finish any domestic affairs 
that may be left over. After the dinner, a Lodge shall be opened for the 
election of Officers. Before proceeding with this business the W.M. will deliver 
an oration on either the purpose of the Lodge or on the Festival. The Flection 
of the W.M. will be by the majority of votes and by Ballot, that is to say, every 
brother in turn will go to the place where a table, ink and paper and a ballot 
box will be found; there he will, without being overlooked, write the name of 
the brother for whom he votes on a paper which he will then place in the 
ballot box. The box will be submitted to the W.M". who will open it. The 
brother who receives the greatest number of votes will be duly elected and shall 
forthwith be proclaimed, saluted and congratulated in the usual manner and 
shall be immediately installed according to antient custom. The newly-installed 
W.M. will immediately proceed to the election of officers by nominating three 
brethren for the office of S.W. from whom one will be chosen by ballot as above 
described, and similarly for the J.W. As for the other officers, the W.M. will 
select a brother according to his knowledge of his aptitude for the post and 
will propose him to the Lodge who have complete liberty to accept- or reject 
him, signifying the same in the ordinary manner by show of hands. In the 
case of an equality in the votes for the W.M. or the Wardens, the vote of the 
W.M". shall count double. 

Article 20. 

At the Feast of St. John the Baptist, after the installation of the new 
W.M. the Constitutions and the Bye Laws shall be read out ; also an account 
of any remarkable event, that may have taken place during the year. The 
Treasurer will present a statement of his funds and all else that may concern 
his duties: the Secretary will do the same by communicating all business, 
letters, or other papers thai the Lodge may have received during the year, as 
also all special resolutions that the Lodge may have carried under the direction 
of the preceding W.M. 

118 T l'((ii!if(vti(t))K of fltc (Jiatttior t'oroirit i Lodijr. 

Article 21. 

The Secretary and the Treasurer will also hand over to their successors 
all funds, jewels, furniture and documents and other effects of the Lodge for 
which they are responsible: they will make an inventory of the same the signing 
of which by the new incumbents shall be their discharge. 

Article 22. 

The Worshipful brethren of Higher Grades in the Lodge may grant to 
ex-officers who have worthily discharged their duties such rewards as tliey may 
consider suitable as a recognition of the work done for the Lodge by conferring 
on them degrees superior to those they already hold, and by this means assist 
them to arrive at the perfection which should be the aim of their desires. 

Article 23. 

Every member of the Lodge will pay into the hands of the Treasurer the 
sum of Five livres every month. These sums will be placed in the treasure 
chest in order to swell the funds of the Society. This sum is payable on the 
first Monday of every month. 

Article 24. 

Two Master Masons, expert in the Royal Art. will be nominated as 
commissaries to examine strangers arriving in the town, and take cognisance of 
their morals and behaviour, and impart the same to the W.M. or in his absence 
to the Wardens. They shall also communicate to the open Lodge any discovery 
they make. They shall also be the visitors to all sick brethren in particular 
and to all the poor in general. They will visit the hospital for the poor that 
is established in the town and will make representations as to what they may 
find requisite for the relief of the sick poor and indigent people, and will inform 
the Lodge as to what they consider the best means to secure this relief. If 
through these activities they incur some petty expenses they will communicate 
the same to the Lodge, who will not fail to take the necessary action. 

Article 25. 

No certificate may be handed to a brother who may have demanded one 
until it shall have been previously signed by the Treasurer, and the latter shall 
not sign it unless the brother who has asked for the certificate has paid up all 
that he may owe to the Lodge. 

Article 26. 

Apprentices and Companions will be assiduous in carrying out t lie tasks 
which may be allotted to them by their masters, in which they should be 
zealous and display due submission. They should be the first to arrive at the 
place of meeting, especially when there is to be a reception. 

Article 27. 

On the days of St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist and at 
all receptions the Orator will generally deliver a discourse applicable to the 
occasion, and will at other times when necessary impart his knowledge of the 
Art in such a manner as to shew forth the greatness and the excellency of 
Freemasonry and by such means encourage us. as good Masons to flee from vice 
and practise virtue ; this will not however prevent any brethren who may deem 
fit to do so, from favouring us with their knowledge, which they will do, after 
having obtained the permission of the W.M. and paying a compliment to the 
Orator. They must however speak standing up and bare-headed : the Orator 
has the right to speak sitting and covered, The W.M. will be careful to arrange 
for a vote of thanks to the Orator or to the brother who shall have pronounced 
a discourse tending to the benefit and the glory of the Royal Art; and all these 
discourses shall be deposited in the archives as authentic memorials of the zeal 
of good Masons, so that all brethren who wish to instruct themselves in the 
Royal Art may proceed to cultivate their talents by asking permission from the 
Lodge to read the said discourses which shall always be communicated to them 

Some Mul-Klijhtciuih ('t)iiur;/ Frcticlh Maui(svr> pl$. 119 

in the Lodge or else in the house of the Secretary who ought to have them in 
his safe keeping. 

Article 28. 

Before the closing of the Lodge the W.M. must submit every Brother 
present in turn to an examination suitable to the occasion and his grade. 
(N.B. — There seems to be no modern translation of this expression, but a 
French brother suggests this as a correct equivalent.) 

Article 29. 
No brother may leave the Lodge without having obtained the permission 
in the usual manner. He will never resume his place in the Lodge except after 
reclothing in the usual way. he shall behave himself with decency and peaceably, 
considering himself a brother, without making trivial accusations against anyone 
under the penalty of suffering such punishment as his offence may merit. 

Article 30. 
The Director of Ceremonies will be careful to seat the members according 
to their seniority and degree. 

Article 31. 

These Bye Laws will be read without fail to each initiate immediately 
after his reception. We enjoin the Wor. Lodge, the Parffait Ilarmonie of 
New Orleans, our daughter, to observe and enforce these Regulations and Bye 
Laws in all their details : leaving them however liberty to add any new ones of 
which we have not been able to foresee the necessity, according to the time and 
circumstances in which they may find themselves. Provided always that no 
new arrangement that they may make shall in any way affect or contradict these 
present Laws and Regulations which we impose as unalterable. The said Wor. 
Lodge La Parffaite Harmonie our daughter shall nevertheless always and 
immediately commuuicate to us their new regulations, that is to say any 
additions they may make to the present rules for the good, the advantage, the 
glory of the Lodge to whom we wish prosperity, peace, concord and unity, 
beseeching the G.A. to keep it always under His Holy care and protection. 
Done and delivered at St. Pierre Martinique the day and year above mentioned 
in the presence of the brethren deputed by the above mentioned Lodge La 
Parffaite Harmonie in the persons of very worthy brother Paul Fooks Parfait 
d'Ecosse, of Pierre Caresse, Simbolic blaster and Bro. Louis Batard Master 
Mason to whom we have remitted these presents together with our patent of 
constitution and our letter to the Wor. Lodge of Parffaite Harmonie of New 
Orleans our daughter wishing them a safe voyage health and prosperity. 


D'un lieu Eel aire, on regnent le Secret, le Silence I'l'rjion. 
LAN de la [ Grande lumiere 5756, et dustile ordinaire lie 11 Avril 

Nous Le Maitre, les inspecteurs Et les ouvriers de la tres V. L. de St. Jn de 
Jm de la Nile Orleans, province ' de la Louisianne, sous le titre de la pariah e 
harmonie Seitue par les 30 ds Latt (le . Nord, Certiffions atous j les hommes 
Eclaires repandu sur la surface de la Terre, que le f 1 ' 1 '. francois Roussillon a 
Ete in i tie par nous | dans les degres d'App . . . Comp et Eleve 

aussi ala dignite de Maitre dans lesquels grades il nous a ayde dans j nos travaux 
avec zele et Edification y ayant servi en qualites de Secretaire, Et de second 
Survaillant, a la | satisfaction de cette V. L, priant Et requerant les V. L gos . 
des lieux ou il pourra se trouver de le reconnoitre pour bon Et 1 digue macon 
et de ladmettre a leurs misteres, leur offrant le reciproque, en pareil cas ; et 
que pour le present | Certificat ne puisse servi r qu'a luy seul nous avons fait 
signer le Frere Roussillon au-dessous de l'empreinte | du cachet en marge a fin 

1 30 7r>ntx-rr/tni>s uf fix (Jiriimtr ( 'ormi-ii i I. (,</</> ■ 

que lors qu'il se presentera on puisse avani de ladmettre Kxiger la menu. 1 
signature, Et s'a-sutx'r par la, qu'il n'aura pas passer en main Nuspccte: Kn 
t'uy de (juoy nous 1'avons fail expedier Kt Seelle du Sceau en marge, n'Ktant 
pay encore pourvu du Sceau misterieux de cette V. L. Fait en Lege Ledil jour 
et an qui-dessus. 

.Par Alandement do la 

V 1 ' 1 ''. Lo'\ An desir de 1' article '25''. 

Nos reglements. 

Ven lion de La T.R.L. Aanglaize Le Avril 



Le Grand Arch"'. AI ai nt ieinie L'Kdifice Auquel nous travaillons He 
L'orient D'un Lieu Kelaire, on Regnent la decence, le Seilence Kt .La Parfaite 
harmonie, touiours a Labry des Yeux Profanes, Lan de La grande Lumiere 
5756: le 13: du .Alois D'avril Nous Grand Aiaitre, Kt Grands ofiieiers de La 
Parfaite Loge I D'Kcosse, Seituee A la N llr . Orleans Province de la Louisianne, 
Par Les ,'i0 I) 11 . L N ' CFrlifTions atous Les hommes Kclairos repandus La Surface 
de la terre que le j R. f Pierre Francois Roussillon, ill IMaitre, Me Kin et 
parfait D'Kcosse. nous a ayde ' Dans nos travaux avec Zele et Kdifilcatiou. et 
( [ nil a ssrvy en Qualite de Secretaire) F]t orateur a La Satisfaction de cette 
Respectable Loge, Prions et Requerons Les ire ' Respectables et parfaites Loges 
D'Kcosse des Lieux on 11 pourra Se trouver de Le Reconnoitre I Kn cette Qualite, 
leur offrant Le Reciproque en Pared Cas. et afin que le present ne ! Puisse Sei'vir 
qu'a luy Seul nous avons fait Signer Le d 1 . R f R.oussillon an Dessous ! de 
1/Empreinte du Cachet, afm que lors Quil se present era on puisse Kxiger La 
Aleme ! Signature et S'Assurer par la Quil n'aura pas Passe enniain xuspecte. 
en foy de Quoy ! Nous L'avons fait Expedier et Sceller d'un Cachet d'une Croix 
de Alalthe a Defau | Du Sceau Alistorieux dont la R L. n'est pas ])ourvue. 
Donne en Loge Les jours & Lan (pie dessus. 



Le Grand A"', de L'l'\ 
Maintienne L'Edifnoe au 
quel nous travaillons. 

De L'ori. d'un lieu Kclaire, ou 
regnent la decence, le seilence, et la 
parfaite harmonic ; ton jours a 1'Abry 
des yeux Proph rfi . 1'An de la G' 1 ''. lum".. 
5756 et le 17 c '. jour du IP. Vlois. 

Nous G' ! . M". et G (l s. Ott iV \ de la G"' . et .Alagn. 

L, d'Kl. j Parf 1 . d'Kco. Seituee a Lord''. par les 45 

D. Lt. N.| 
Cert itlions a tons les homines Eclaires Repandus sur la Surface 
de la Terre que le R. f. Pierre Kranyois R.oussillon. etc bien et 
Legit im 1 . admis dans le i\Iag (|1 "'. Grade d'El, Parf 1 . d'Eeo. Qu'il 
nous a ayde a j Alaintsnir I'usage de travailler a la perf"". de L'Ordre 
Resp 1 ' 11 '. ensevely Sous j les mines des Rati 1 '". Gotiq'*., et cpi'il nous a 
donne des ])i v euves non Equivoques | de Son Zele pour le Ciment dont 
nous avons etc Ediffies. Prions et requerons les | Tres R. et Afag is . 
L"\ d'K ( '°. des lieux oil il pourra se trouver de le reconno'". j en cette 
qualite et de 1'admettre a leurs travaux, leur offrant le reeiproque 
en pared cas ' Etaut par Ji.N.S. Donne en L. sous le sceau i\Iisteri x . 
et le J Con tre >'eing du R. Gd Secret"', les jours Alois et An Sus dits. 

Par Alandement de la R. et ALL. 

]Jlx<: 11*8 tun. 121 

A hearty vote of thanks was passed to Bro. Sitwell un the piupusi t ion ot Iho. 
\Y. \Y. Covey-Crump, seconded hy Bro. J. Walter Hobhs ; comments heing offered by 
or on behalf of Bros. J. Heron Lepper. J}. Telepneff, and Geo. AY. Bullamore. 

Bro, W. W. Covey-Crump said: — 

"With much pleasure I rise to propose a hearty vote of thanks to our 
Bro. Major Sitwell for his paper this evening. His subject is unfortunately 
one which does not make a wide appeal to Masons; it will be as ''caviare to 
the general.'' For the documsnts with which he has dealt are written in 
French — eighteenth century French — bristling with archaisms, abbreviations, 
ligatures, and such-like literary difficulties. Their chief concern is with the 
Craft in the French West Indies, in Lodges which havs long ceased to exist, 
and with Degrees about which very little is known. Nevertheless they supply 
evidence original, official, and contemporary, which by being broadcast will assist 
Masonic historians in every part of the world; and we welcome it accordingly. 

The documents, as Major Sitwell has told us, have survived many mis- 
chances. From America to France, from France to Russia and back they have 
passed ; and now, by the medium of the Quatuor Coronati, their purport will 
bo propagated to many places, including the isles of their origin. 

It would be manifestly unfair to criticize Bro. Sitwell's arrangement of 
his material ; yet a chronological sequence is obviously essential if the evidential 
value of the documents is to be appreciated. Whether our Bro. Gould had 
seen these documents in 1884 I do not know; but they certainly confirm his 
statement that British Masonry appears to have been introduced into the island 
of Martinique almost as early as in France itself; and the claim of the I'arfa'ii <■ 
('///on. Lodge to have worked continuously at St. Pierre from 1738, by virtue 
of a charter received from Paris, may be fairly admitted. In 1750 the Lodge 
also obtained a charter (Appendix C.) from a Grand Loge Ecossais at Marseilles, 
authorising it to confer sundry ' Clermont ' grades upon their Past Masters. 
Two years later the Par/aite V it ion claimed to be a Mother Lodge, and as such 
issued the charter (Appendix F.) affiliatiug the Perfect Harmony Lodge at New 
Orleans and authorising it to work these so-called Higher Grades in that city. 
This was followed shortly afterwards by a similar authorization, of Bros. Pechagut 
and Thourou to found an Atelier (/'Architecture at Bordeaux. In what way 
Pechagut and Thouron were both connected with Bordeaux is a curious problem. 
But we must not overlook the bare possibility that the Bordeaux thus referred 
to may be not the famous city in France but some obscure namesake in the 
West Indies. I would also like to ask Bro. Sitwell why, in regard to that same 
Appendix B., the expression " mois apres celui de Jar." may not contain an 
abbreviation of Janvier. The Croix I'luloaophtqur, to which he refers, does not 
say that " jiard began on May 2ud," but that Jiard (i.e., Ayar, the second 
month in the Jewish ecclesiastical calendar) corresponds to M.ay — which, roughly 
speaking, is true. The expression ''sept mois apres celui de Janvier" would 
be quite a natural one, because the style of commencing each year on January 1st 
had then come into vogue. 

However, to return. Appendix G. shows that the deputed Brethren from 
New Orleans who had been to Martinique for the warrant (see A pp. F.) called 
on their voyago home at St. Eustatius, one of the Leeward Islands. There they 
visited an English Craft Lodge of St. John and obtained from it fraternal 
recognition (dated 14th August 1752). They probably preserved a cautious 
reticence about the new extraneous grades for which they had secured permission. 
At all events, the English Brethren acknowledged the regularity of their 
irorkitu/, though I doubt whether they knew or cared an atom about the source 
of the sister Lodge's constitution. They acknowledged that their New Orleans 
brethren possessed " sufficient authority to enjoy all privileges and benefits 
belonging to a regularly constituted Lodge," and they gave them hearty good 
wishes accordingly. 

122 Tmtt*\'irtio/ix of the Quatuor Coronal/ Lod/je. 

Then the New Orleans brethren likewise took home with them a draft set 
of Bye-laws obtained from the St. Pierre Lodge, which Bye-laws constitute 
Appendix II., to which our Bro. Sitwell has kindly added an English translation. 
May I add just two brief comments in regard thereto? 

(1) Concerning the word " deguise," occurring in Art. 6, T think we 
may without hesitation regard it as meaning "disguised in liquor," — a phrase 
frequently found in contemporary English Bye-laws; though whether the French 
Brethren understood the idiom in that sense is quits a different matter. 

(2) My other comment is in reply to the question raised by Bro. Sitwell 
in regard to Art. 18, which (as he rightly says) provides for a remonstrance 
or even a censure in open Lodge upon the Master and Wardens. I suggest 
that this Bye-law was founded on a distorted rendering of Reg. 10 in Anderson's 
Constit tifioiis ; which Regulation provides that the Brethren of any Lodge may 
in open. Lodge ///struct the Master and Wardens as to any opinion which they 
desire to be expressed on their behalf at a Communication of Grand Lodge. 
Time and circumstances, together with translation into French, had so changed 
the Andersonian privilege as to make it mean something very different in the 
Windward Islands. 

The last three Appendices, being certificates referring to various degrees 
conferred by the New Orleans Lodge upon one of its members, Francois 
Roussillon, tell their own story and have been adequately explained by Bro. 
Sitwell. I will merely note that in App. I. the year of the visa by the Loge 
Anglaise at Bordeaux — which is entered as 5760 — refers to 1756, following a 
different Masonic era for anno lac/*. 

I propose that the Lodge accords a very hearty vote of thanks to Bro. 
Major Sitwell for his valuable paper and the historical documents which he has 
laid before us to-night. 

Bro. B. Telepneff said: — 

Bro. Sitwell's short note on the Grand Lodge of Ukraine is interesting. 
The geographical unit, called Ukraine, is, however, so uncertain and differs so 
widely according to the respective conceptions of Russians, Poles and Ukrainians 
themselves, and its history is so chequered that, for fear of producing another 
paper instead of commenting upon Bro. Sitwell's, I must limit myself to some 
particulars concerning Lodges and cities mentioned by him and just a few 
additional remarks. 

It may be noted as of some importance that the actual founder of 
National Russian Masonry, General James Keith, Provincial Grand Master of all 
Russia, in 1740 was appointed by the Russian Empress Anna as Governor of 
Ukraine, then ruined by constant wars. Keith discharged his difficult duties so 
well that, when he had to leave, the Ukrainians complained bitterly, saying that 
" either Keith should never have been appointed as ruler or, if this must have 
happened, should never have been recalled." Somehow it seems to be hardly 
believable that this zealous propagator and organiser of Masonry in the rest of 
Russia did not make a similar attempt in Ukraine. It may be that further 
investigations will bring the date of the beginning of the Symbolic Craft in 
Ukraine to a much earlier period than the one given by Bro. Sitwell. 

The Grand Orient of Poland was organized and officially opened by Count 
Ignatius Potocky, representative of an ancient and influential branch of Polish 
landed nobility, in March, 1784. The Grand Orient of Poland united thirteen 
Lodges, of which four w r ere working under the Grand Orient of Warsaw, four 
under the Grand Orient of Vilna, three under the Grand Orient of Poznau, one 
under the Grand Orient of Dubno, and one under the Grand Orient of Grodno. 
Neither Kiev nor the Lodge of Immortality were at first mentioned in this 

The Lodge of Immortality was founded in Kiev by Russian officers in the 
same year 1784, and it then joined the Grand Orient of Poland. 

Discussion. 1^'J 

The System worked by the Grand Orient of Poland and presumably by 
its dependent Lodges, consisted of seven degrees. Brethren of the three first or 
Symbolic degrees composed St. John's Lodges; Brethren of the fourth degree — 
"Elected Knights" — and of the fifth degree — "Scottish Knights" — composed 
the Scottish Chapter; Brethren of the sixth degree — "Knights of the East" — 
and of the seventh — "Knights of Rcse-Croix " — composed the Capitular Supreme 
Scottish Lodge, Twenty-seven adepts of the seventh degree were members of the 
real power behind the Grand Orient — the Mystical Grand Chapter. 

Thus the good town of Kiev apparently plunged right into some of those 
degrees and rituals, the outlines of which are dimly visible " in the fog that lies 
over early French Masonry." 

The Lodge of Three Columns was established not in 1796, as could be 
assumed from Bro. Sitwell's note, but in 1788.' It was founded by a well-known 
Russian Mason, Dr. Ellisen ; it followed the German Eclectic System, and existed 
only a short time. 

The Lodge of the United Slavs was founded at Kiev on the 12th March, 
1818, and followed the ritual of the Grand Orient of Poland. Tt belonged to 
the Union of the Russian Grand Lodge Astrea, and worked in Russian and 
French. Two members of the celebrated Russian family, Princes Troubetzkoy, 
were on the list of this Lodge. 

The Darkness Dispersed at Gitomer was founded not in 1810, as could be 
gathered from Bro. Sitwell's paper, but on the 31st May, 1787, 2 and followed 
the ritual of the Grand Orient of Poland. In the first quarter of the nineteenth 
century it joined the Russian Grand Lodge Astrea. Worked in Polish and French. 

The Lodge of Osiris of the Flaming Star at Kamenez was established on 
the 26th December, 1818, and belonged to the Union of the Grand Lodge Astrea. 
Worked in Russian, Polish and French. 

The Lodge of the Love of Truth at Poltava was founded on the 30th 
April, 1818, and belonged also the Union of the Grand Lodge Astrea. Worked 
in Russian. 

The Lodge of Pont Euxin at Odessa, founded according to Puipin's 
authority' 5 not in 1803 but in 1817, belonged to the Union of the Provincial 
Grand Lodge, in St. Petersburg. Worked in German. 

The beginning of the Lodge of Three Kingdoms of Nature at Odessa is 
referred to 1818. This was, however, a Scottish Lodge, not St. John's Lodge 
of three Symbolic degrees, and it belonged to the Union of the Provincial Grand 
Lodge, in St. Petersburg. 

The Grand Orient of Poland referred to in Bro. Sitwell's paper was closed 
in 1794; all its archives perished. Polish Masonry of the nineteenth century 
had very little in common with its predecessor, and the nineteenth century Grand 
Orient of Poland was in no sense a continuation of the older organisation. 1 

The Grand Lodge Astrea, together with all other Lodges of the Russian 
Empire, was officially closed by the Imperial Decree of the 1st August, 1822. 

I have no means of verifying Bro. Sitwell's most interesting information 
concerning the restored work of some Lodges after their prohibition. Obviously, 
in view of strict police supervision, this could happen only in great secrecy. 
Some such secret work was certainly going on, although in several instances 
Masonry was only a cloak for secret political activities. According to my 
information a Lodge worked in Kiev in 1909 and another was opened in 1912. 

If members of the young Ukrainian Grand Lodge still work, even under 
present most unfavourable conditions, and adhere to the right Masonic principles, 
their courage and fidelity deserve the highest praise, and Bro. Sitwell our 
gratitude for having brought them to our notice. 

1 See Puipin (Itttx.siaii Jfasoiiru) , 520 ; fhnnJlnich, ii.. K'9. 

- Puipin, 519; Tlandhacli. iii., .">;J8. 

: '' Puipin, 52^ . 

1 See Riabinin's Polish Masonry. 

124 Transactions of the (Juutttur Coronati Luilyc. 

Bro. G. W. Bullamore writes:- — ■ 

The logical method of admitting a speculative or honorary Mason to the 
operative fellowship would be to admit him to an apprenticeship that, qualified 
him immediately for admission as a fellow. It is of interest therefore to find 
that in 1752 the giving of the two degrees " immediately one after the other " 
was stated to be the practice in most of the best Lodges, and that the Lodge 
making the statement was unknown to Gould. 

A modern Mason was less than a fellow and his degree was given by it-self. 
The trade fellowships of London had usually journeymen fraternities attached 
to them and these fraternities admitted members and presented to the fellowship. 
They were governed by a fellow who was sometimes at any rate admitted to the 
fellowship after being chosen as master. The Payne- Anderson regulations suggest 
that the Lodges of 1717 that formed G.L. were really journeymen Lodges, and 
we must look elsewhere for the genuine Freemason tradition embodying higher 
degrees. This insistence on the giving of the two degrees at the same meeting 
suggests that the Leeward Isles Lodge had some knowledge of the direct tradition. 

Bio. Sitwell as follows, in reply: — 

1 should like to thank the Wor. Master and those Brethren who have 
written their remarks either to the Secretary or direct to me, as well as those 
who spoke at the Meeting, for their kind criticisms. 

The Wor. Master put some direct questions which I am now in a position 
to answer. 

Pechagut was a merchant at St. Pierre, but was a member of the Loge 
Franeoise at Bordeaux. He appears twice about this period, as a visitor, in the 
Minute Books of the Loge Anglaise 204 at Bordeaux. Thouron was a native of 
Bordeaux, Gironde, and was a sea captain. I think that this is a proof that 
the Bordeaux referred to is the well-known town in France. 

The month Jar is defined for us in a Martinique document of approximately 
the same date, as being April. As all the Martinique documents are in the same 
handwriting, [ am certain that the word is "Jar" and not "Jan." I have 
also gone through a very large number of Ecossois calendars of various dates and 
find that the first of the month " Jar " varied from March 29th to April 21st. 
which makes it look as if one of my three variants of the Croix Philosophique was 
wrong; the copy I quoted from was that issued by the short-lived Rite d' Orient. 

As regards the word " deguise," I think that the Wor. Master is correct 
in his surmise, though several of my correspondents think otherwise, and French 
opinion is against it. I can find no really satisfactory answer to this point, but 
I do not despair of finding the word in some other document, in a context that 
will enable us to say exactly what it means. 

As regards the censure of the Master and the Wardens in the Lodge and 
by the Lodge, I have now fairly definite proof that it was a custom in early 
French Masonry, i.e., before the Central Body succeeded in establishing its 
authority. One early set of Bye-Laws in my possession gives full details as to 
the procedure to be followed in such a case. That this custom arose out of a 
mis-translation, as so much in French Masonry seems to have done, seems to me 
to be extremely likely. 

I thank Bro. Telepneff for his information about a subject of which I am 
entirely ignorant. I am afraid that I did not make it quite clear that the 
note on the Ukrainian Freemasonry was given to me by Bro. Choumitzky, and 
that I was using it in support of my own statement that a number of the 
documents referred to left France under one Terror and returned to their native 
land under the influence of another. 

In conclusion, may I state that when this paper was written, the collec- 
tion of these West Indian manuscripts was but small. It now (October, 1928) 
consists of over twenty of such documents. I have now the originals showing 



the foundation of some sort of Ecossois In Martinique and New Orleans, and of 
its reorganization in San Domingo. All these documents are prior to 1757. We 
have new records about Cerneau, and new letters and documents about Morin 
and Martin de Pasquallis ; we have found the Statutes of 1763 and 1771, as 
well as part of the still-born revision of 1778. Finally, practically the whole of 
the original papers about the degree of Architect are now in my possession. 
This seems to be an. entirely new degree of a semi-Templar nature, and Bro. 
Heron Lepper is inclined to agree with me that it may be a key degree which 
was afterwards split up and the pieces elaborated. All this new information 
interlinks in a most interesting manner, and not only clears up my difficulties 
about the certificates quoted above, but also throws considerable light on a very 
dark period in the history of French Freemasonry. The eighteenth century 
influence of French Freemasonry on the Craft in general was enormous, 
especially as far as the so-called High Degrees are concerned. So, although the 
subject of this paper is, as the Wor. Master justly remarked, probably " caviare 
to the general," yet, when the whole of the new matter can be made available 
to competent students, I think that many of the ideas that are accepted at 
present about the Rite of Thirty Three Degrees and the Templars will have to 
be modified. This is my only excuse for introducing the subject and for wearying 
the Brethren with some documents about long-forgotten Lodges and Rites. 

128 Trfnix-ietion* of the Qit-itttttr ( 'oron'tt t Lodge. 


[('out 'tinted front page j.~.) 

Heidegger, John James. Q.C.A., x., 69. 
This Brother is only named in the proceedings of Grand Lodge under date 
27th Dec. 1725, whence it appears that he was Grand Steward and with his two 
deputies was thanked for "their handsome and elegant entertainment." 

Heidegger, John James (1659 M749). D.X.B., xxv., 367. He managed 
Italian Opera for the Royal Academy of Music and from 1728-34 in partner- 
ship with Handel. He entertained George II. at Barn Elms and was caricatured 
by Hogarth who, as we shall see later, was himself a Grand Steward, Heidegger 
was Swiss by birth and claimed that his nation was the most ingenious, proving 
it by saying: "I was born a Swiss and came to England without a farthing 
where I found the means of gaining £5,000 a year and to spend it. Now, I 
defy any Englishman to do the same in Switzerland." 

His Portrait, eugraved by J. Faber, Junr., after Vanloo, is in the British 
Museum. The sketch (said to be by Hogarth) of " Heidegger in a Rage," 
portrays him after an elaborate practical joke had been played upon him by the 
Duke of Montagu, of which an account is given in Nichols's Wurl-H of Hogarth, 
ii., 323-5; and in Wheatley's Hogarth's London, pp. 355-6-7. 

Hesketh, Roger. Q.C.A., x.> 158. 
Lodge: Queen's Arms in Newgate Street (1730 List). 

7Iexketh, Roger (1643-1715). D.J.B., xxvi., 297. Roman Catholic 
controversialist; Vice-President of English College, Lisbon, 1678-86. Came to 
England. Wrote a Treatise on Transubstantiation. 

(The dates show that the persons are not the same, but the identity in 
names is noteworthy. Harriet Hesketh was a cousin and friend of the poet 
Cowper, and perhaps the Freemason was by marriage related to the Cowper 
family and the first Grand Secretary, William Cowper.) 

Highmoi"e 3 Joseph. Q.C.A., x., 41, &c. 
Lodge: The Swan in East Street, Greenwich (1725 List). At this time 
important buildings were in progress at Greenwich. Sir James Thornhill was 
the Master of the Lodge. One Edward Strong was also a Member and was 
probably related to the Strongs who worked at St. Paul's Cathedral. John 
James (an Architect) was another Member. Bro. Highmore's name appears 
eighteen times in QA'.A., x. He was appointed Junior Grand Warden on 
27th Dec. 1727 (p. 82) and attended as such cu 17th April 1728 (p. 83), 25th 
June 1728 (p. 85), 26th Nov. 1728 (p. 88), and 27th Dec. 1728 (p. 93). He 
was also present at Grand Lodge on 11th July 1729, 25th Nov. 1729, 21st April 
1730. He acted as G.W. jtro tempore on 28th Aug, 1730, and was also in 
attendance on 15th Dec. 1730, 29th Jan. 1731, 17th March 1731, 3rd Dee. 1731, 
21st Nov. 1732, 29th May 1733, and 24th Feb. 1735. 

High-more, Joseph (1692-1780). D.J.B., xxvi., 377. Born in the Parish 
of St. James, Garlickhithe. He studied in the new Academy of Painting in 
Great Queen Street and resided in Lincoln's Inn Fields for many years. He 
was a Painter of note. He executed portrait drawings for " Installation of 
Knights of the Bath," 1725, which would bring him into touch with John 
Duke of Montagu who was the first Grand Master of that Order. He also 
painted a portrait of Frederic Prince of Wales to whom Dr. Anderson dedicated 
the 1738 (Jonstitutio?ts. 

The well-known portrait of " Anthony Sayer, Gent"., Grand Master of 
the Masons," was painted by him and engraved by another Freemason, vi:.. 
Faber. Highmore was present at Grand Lodge on two occasions (21st April 
1730, and 28th Aug. 1730) when Sayer's petitions were dealt with, and also on 

Mnxonir J'erxoiifiJift, 172o~oU, 127 

15th Dec. 1730 when Sayer attended to answer the complaint made against him. 
It is interesting to note that Bro. Highmore had an opportunity of seeing the 
subject of his painting, and that, though the fact of Sayer's poverty was well 
known to him, the engraving was issued with the honourable title of Gentleman 
appended to cur first Grand Master's name. Other portraits of Freemasons 
painted by him include the Duke of Lorraine, Heidegger, Sir James Thorahill, 
Alexr. Chocke, and Nathaniel Oldham, lie was buried in Canterbury Cathedral 
"in the Body of the Church and wrapped in sheeps wool." 

Hill, Tho. Q.C.A., x., 4, 22. 
Lodge: The Queen's Head, Turnstile, Holborn (1723 List), removed to the 
Green Lettice in Brownlow Street (1725 List). The Lists have twelve names in 
common. The Lodge was originally one of the Four Old Lodges and met at 
the Crown, Parker's Lane. 

./fill, Thomas (1661-1734). D.N.B., xxvi., 424. Portrait Painter. One 
of his portraits is that of Sir Henry Goodricke, Bart, (1642-1705), who is named 
by Aubrey in conjunction with Sir Chr. Wren. (See Gould's Iftxtor//, ii., 6, 53.) 

Hippisly, John. Q.C.A., x., 167. 
Lodge: St. Paul's Head in Ludgate Street (1730 List). 

Hip /lisle//, John (d. 1748). ]).JJL, xxvii., 8. Was an Actor and 
Dramatist. Owned Theatres at Bristol and Bath. A list of characters acted 
by him at the Theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields (1722-33) is given. He created 
" Peaehum " at Covent Garden, (He had a son, John Hippisley, who was both 
actor and author and died in 1767. The Father seems the more likely of the 
two to be the Freemason. The slight variation in tha spelling of the surname is 
negligible.) His Portrait was painted by Hogarth and etched by Sykes. There 
is also another portrait of him. Both portraits show r him "'in character." 

Hogarth, William. Q.C.A., x., 43, 178, 240. 
Lodge: Hand and Apple Tree, Little Queen Street (1725 List). 

The entry on p. 178 gives the name as "Mr. .Hogarth" only, and he 
was then a Member of the Lodge at Rose Tavern without Temple Bar (1730 List). 

On 30th March 1734 he was named as a Grand Steward. 

Iloynrth; William (1697-1764). D.J.B., xxvii., 83. Perhaps of all the 
names in Q.C.A., x., Hogarth's name has the widest appeal. 

His genius as an artist wdien it touched upon Freemasonry was not always 
commendatory, as witness the picture called " Night " and that relating to the 
Gormogons. He is t;aid to have designed the Grand Steward's Jewel. Some of 
his finest and most characteristic paintings are to be seen at the house in 
Lincoln's Tnn Fields knowii as the Soane Museum. Sir John Soane was a 
Freemason and Grand Officer. 

Hogarth was a pupil of Sir James Thornhill at the painting-school 
established by the latter. On March 23rd 1759 he married Thornhill's daughter 
without obtaining her Father's consent, but the latter became reconciled to the 
fact accomplished. Flogarth was a frequenter of Old Slaughter's Coffee House, 
where a club of artists and literary men met regularly twice a w T eek. Highmore 
and Roubiliac were among his fellow members. (See W T heatley's II of/arrh' .s 
Loudon, p. 291.) 

His portrait, painted by himself, has been frequently reproduced. His 
bust, by L. F. Roubiliac (a Freemason), is in the National Portrait Gallery and 
engravings have been made from it. He painted portraits of the following 
Freemasons, viz.: — John Dennis, Martin Folkes, James Gibbs, John Henley 
(Orator Henley), John Hippisley, Thomas Pellett, John Pine, Sir James 
Thornhill, John Wilkes, and George Parker, 2nd Earl of Macclesfield. 

Swift indicates by the following rhyme that the correct pronunciation of 
the artist's name differs from that now used: — ■ 

" How 7 I want thee, humorous Hogarth 
Thou I hear a pleasant rogue art." 

(See Wheatley's H or/art h's London, p. 24.) 

128 Tnuis'ictiutis of the Qii'ififor Coronati Lady. 

Holland, Thomas. Q.C.A., x., 16, 33. 
Lodge: The Dolphin in Tower Street (1723 and 1725 Lists). 

It is just possible that the Freemason named Thomas Holland was the 
person of that name who assumed the name of Thomas ficclexion . Tf so, his 
period was 1659-1743 (J).A.B., xvi., 350) and he was a Jesuit, a Missioner in 
Yorkshire, and Chaplain at Ingatestone Hall to Lord Petre. He was a man of 
more than one part, as he was a Captain in James II. 's Army after 1688, but 
left the Army in remorse having slain his opponent in a duel. He wrote a 
Treatise on "The Way to Happiness," 1726, 8vo. ; 2nd Edn. London 1772. 8vo. 

Howard, Leonard. Q.C.A., x., 36 and 40. 
Lodges: Devil Tavern, Temple Barr, and Swan in East Street, Greenwich, of 
which Lodge he w T as a Warden (1725 List). 

Howard, Leonard (1699 ?-1767). D.X.B., xxviii., 50. He compiled a 
Collection of Letters of many great Princes, great Personages, and Statesmen 
published in 1753, and was a D.D. and Bector of St. George's, Southwark, 
1749-67. Also Chaplain to Augusta, Princess Dowager of Wales. A portrait 
etching of him, by Bellamy, is in the British Museum. 

No indication is given in the 1725 List that the Freemason Leonard 
Howard had taken Holy Orders. He was originally a Clerk in the Post Office 
and apparently took orders after 1725. The D.X.B. says: " Fie took orders; 
was M.A. probably of some Scottish Hniversity and D.D. by 1745. In 1742 
he was a Curate in London. He was frequently in prison for debt." 

Hudson, Thomas. Q.C.A. , x., 35. 
Lodge: Ship on Fish Street Hill (1725 List). 

Hudson, Thomas (1701-1779). D.X.B., xxviii., 154. He was a prolific 
portrait painter and for two years had Joshua Reynolds as a pupil. He painted 
portraits of Handel and George II., Martin Folkes, the 2nd Duke of Montagu, 
Richard Nash, James Quin, Isaac Schomberg, and the 4tb Viscount Townshend. 
He resided for many years in Great Queen Street. 

Hunt, Thomas. Q.C.A., x., 44. 
Lodge: Cock and Bottle in Little Britain, 7th J any. 1725 (1725 List). 

Hunt, Thomas (1696-1774). D.X.B. , xxviii., 279. He was an Orientalist 
and Fellow of Hart Hall, Oxford. M.A. in 1721. D.D. 1744. Laudian 
Professor of Arabic 1738. Regius Professor of Hebrew 1747. F.R.S. 1740. 
F.S.A. 1757. 

Doubt is thrown on his identification as the Freemason so named owing 
to the omission of any reference in the 1725 List to his having taken Holy Orders. 
He may, however, have taken orders after 1725. Soon after Sir Isaac Newton's 
death in 1726 he became Tutor in Lord Macclesfield's family. 

Dr. Desaguliers was in 1710 a Lecturer at Hart Hall, Oxford, LL.D. in 
1718 and F.R.S. Thus the two men would probably have been drawn together. 
There is a Tablet to bis Memory in the north aisle of the nave of Christ Church 
Cathedral, Oxford. 

Although the MS. Lists frequently give the titles of the persons named, 
it does not follow that those names without a title (such as Revd. or D.D.) did 
not possess them. The lists may sometimes have been made up from a list of 
signatures only, and in such cases titles are usually omitted by signatories and 
are not always supplied by the copyist. 

Jackson, Revd. Mr. Q.C.A., x., 33. 
Lodge: Ship without Temple Barr (1725 List). 

There are other entries of a Mr. Jackson at different Lodges on pages 32, 
34, and 157, and of John Jackson (p. 192) in the 1730 List. 

The name is so frequent that little can be based on its occurrence except 
to mention that : — 

Jackson, Revd. John (1686-1763) is in D.X.B., xxix., 93. He was B.A. 
of Jesus College, Cambridge, in 1707; Rector of Rossington, Yorkshire, 1708; 
and succeeded Samuel Clarke (whose views on the Trinity he propounded) in 

Masonic Tfrxniiftlia, J.72A-.iU. 129 

1729 as Master of Wigston's Hospital, Leicester, in 1729. In 1718 he was 
refused the degree of M.A. because of his writings on the Trinity. 

His Portrait, by F. vr Myn, was engraved by J. McArdell. (Engraving 

in British Museum.) 

James, George. Q.O.A., x., 11. 
Lodge: The Baptist Head, Chancery Lane (1723 List). 

The D.K.H., xxix., 214, gives particulars of George .lame* (1683-1735) 
who was printer to the City of London. He was brother of John James. His 
mother was Eleanor James who was sent to Newgate for dispersing scandalous 
and reflective papers. She interviewed Charles II. and James II. and admonished 
George I. Dryden mentions her. 

James, John. Q.C.A.. x.. 40. 
Lodge: Swan in East Street, Greenwich (1725 List). 

James, John (d. 1746). D.K.B., xxix., 213. Here the identity is 
reasonably clear. John James was an Architect, Clerk of the Works at 
Greenwich Hospital (1705-46). Surveyor of St. Paul's, Westminster Abbey 
and (1716) the fifty new churches of which Bro. Blackerby was Treasurer. In 
1734 he was Master of the Carpenters' Company. He designed St. George's, 
Hanover Square, and other important buildings and wrote on architecture and 
gardening. Among his architectural writings was a translation of Claude 
Perrault's Treatise of the Five Orders in- Architecture which was printed for 
J. Senex and J. Hooke, who published the 1723 Constitutions. It is advertised 
at the end of the latter as ' made English by John James of Greenwich,' 

Jefferys, George. Q.C.A., x., 19. 
Lodge : The Crown and Anchor near St. Clements Church (1723 List). 

Jeffrey*, George (1678-1755). D.K.B., xxix., 284. The variation in the 
spelling of the name is to be noted, but probably the Freemason is the poet and 
dramatist recorded in the D.N .B. He was Fellow of Trinity College 1702-9, and 
published two tragedies {Edwin in 1724 and Me rope in 1731) which were acted 
at Lincoln's Inn Fields. He was author of Miscellanies in Verse and 1'rose, 
published in 1754. He held some post in the Custom House at London, but 
passed most of his life at leisure in the houses of his relations the Dukes of 

Kelly, John. Esq. 0.0. A., x., 170. 
Lodge: Cross Keys in Henrietta Street (1730 List). 

Sir Cecil Wray was Master of this Lodge at the time and Martin Clare 
also was a Member, but neither of them attain a niche in D.K.B. 

Kelly, John (1680 ?-1751). D.X.B., xxx., 352. He was a Journalist and 
Playwright and a member of the Inner Temple. His works include a reprint 
of f* nieersal Spectator 1747 and four plays. 

King, Cha. Q.C.A., x.. 33. 
Lodge: Ship without Temple Barr (1725 List). He was Master of the Lodge. 

King, Charles (1687-1748). D.X.B., xxxi., 125. He was Almoner and 
' Master of the Children ' of St. Paul's Cathedral, London, in 1707. Organist 
of St. Benet Finck, Royal Exchange, 1708, and Vicar-choral of St. Paul's 1730. 
Composed Church music and was Mus.Bac. of Oxford. 

The Revd. Mr. Washbourne and Revd. Mr, Jackson were Wardens of the 
same Lodge. Revd. Mr. Simmonds was a member; perhaps further enquiry 
might make the identity more certain. His association with Church music might 
bring him into touch with the Clergyman named. 

Laguerre, Mr. Q.C.A., x., 178. 

Lodge: Bear and Harrow in the Butcher Row (1730 List). 

Lmjuerre, John (d. 1748). D.X.B., xxxi., 397. Was educated for a 
painter, but became an actor. He was a scene painter. Ts best known by a 
series of drawings ' Hob in the Well,' which were engraved. 

130 Traiix-H't ion* of the Qmifiiur Coroirifi Lo</</c 

Mr. (Jibber, Jvmr., the actor, was also a member of the same Lodge (see 
before). Jas. Smythe (Grand Warden) was also a member and was associated 
with the drama. So also was Mr. Quinn, the actor, of whom more hereafter. 
Laguerre was a friend of Hogarth (Wheatley's Ihxjarth'x Loj/d"/i, p. 324). 

Larone, Mr. QJ'.A ., x., 163. 
Lodge: Crown and Sceptres in St. Martin's Lane (1730 List). 

Laroon, Maroellus, the younger (1679-1772). D.X.ii., xxxii., 154. lie 
studied painting and music and was actor and singer at Drury Lane Theatre. 
Having joined the Footguards in 1707, he fought at Oudenarde in 1708 and was 
deputy Quarter- L\Iaster-General of the Troops in Spain. Returned to England 
1712. Made Captain 1732. Was a friend and imitator of Hogarth. Best 
known for h's conversation pieces. 

The identification is doubtful. Perhaps the fact that Leblon next 
mentioned belonged to the same Lodge is a factor in aid. 

His Portrait is at. the .British. Museum in an engraved group. 

Leblon, Mr. Q.V.A., x., 163. 
Lodge: Crown and Sceptres in St. Martin's Lane (1730 List). 

Ac m„ii (Le Blond), Jacques Christopher (1670-1741). D.X.ii., xxxii.. 
331. Was Painter, Engraver, and Printer in colours. Was born at Frankfort 
and studied on the Continent, ultimately coming to London. 

His colour prints fetch high prices now but were not a pecuniary success 
for him. In 1730 lie published an account of lus process and is deemed to be 
the inventor of the modern system of chromo lithography. He produced a 
portrait of 'Frederick Prince of Wales when a boy. A. specimen is in the 
British Museum. 

Leveridge, Mr. (J.C.A., x., 178. 

Lodge: Pear and Harrow in the Butcher Row (1730 List). 

Leveruhjc, Richard (1670 M 758). D.X.ii., xxxiii.. 143. Was born in 
London. Sang at Drury Lane Theatre 1703-S; at the Haymarket 1708-13; at 
Lincoln's Inn Fields 1715-32: at Coven t Garden 1732-51. Composer of "All 
in the Downs" and "The Roast Beef of Old England." 

If the identification is correct, he was a fellow member with three other 
members of the theatrical profession, vi:., Quinn, Gibber, Junr., and Laguerre. 

There are engraved Portraits of him in the British Museum. Hogarth 
engraved a frontispiece to a Collection of Songs with the Musick by Mr. Leveridge 
(1727). In 1751 tli e pension paid to Captain Coram, Founder of the Foundling 
Hospital, was on tli3 latter's death transferred to him. 

(Xotf. — The 1725 List names John Leveridge as a Member of the Lodge 
at the Buffeloe in Bloomsbury, p. 30.) 

Lewis, Revd. Thomas. Q.C.A., x., 20. 
Lodge: The Old Devill at Temple Parr (1723 List). He was Master of that 
Lodge, being described as Revd. Mr. Tho. Lewis, Ma 1 '. 

Leirix, Thomas (1689-1749?). D.X.ii., xxxiii., 196. Of Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford, P. A. 1711. Ordained 1713. His writings were mainly 
controversial and in 1717 he had to hide on account of the libellous nature of 
his periodical publication " The Scourge " in Vindication of the Church of England. 
He continued to write until 1735. About 1720 he appears to have been acting 
as Curate at St. Clement Danes. He sent Rawliuson an account of his life in 
1737 (Rawl. MSS. Bodleian, J.; fol. 4, pp. 33-6). 

LillO, George. Q.C.A., x., 190, 191. 
Lodges: Sun in Fleet Street, and Oxford Arms in Ludgate Street (both in 1730 

Lillo, George (1693-1739). D.X.ii., xxxiii., 252. Author of the famous 
tragedy, " The London Merchant or the History of George Barnwell " (first acted 
in 1731), and of other dramas. He helped to popularize the domestic drama in 

M'eixonic I'erxoiialia , J72-J-J0. 131 

England. Cibber in his hires of the Poet*, vol. v., 1753, gives an account of 

Loudoun, Earl of. QJ'.A., x., 199, and about fifteen other pages. 
In the List of Grand Masters at p. 199 he is named as Grand Master in 1735 
and his titles are given as: — ■ 

The Rt. ITonble. John Earl of Loudoun, Machline & Jerinzien &.c. 

The following summary of his Masonic career is taken from the index to 
QJ'.A ., x. : — 

Present at Grand Lodge, 253, 264; Nominated as Grand Master: 
Invites Brethren to Breakfast: Procession starts from his house, 271; 
Elected and Invested as Grand Master, 272 ; Presides at Grand Lodge, 
273, 281; Nominates the Earl of Darnley as his Successor; and 
invites Brethren to breakfast, 285; Presides at Grand Lodge, 286; 
Present at Grand Lodge, 288, 291, 300, 306, 311, 315. 

The above evidences that he was a zealous as well as a Noble Brother. 
The entries range over the period 17th April 1735 to 13th April 1739. Whether 
he is mentioned in the subsequent volume of Minutes for the publication of 
which many of us are waiting, this writer knoweth not. The latest Minute in 
QJ'.A., x., is dated 12th Deer. 1739. 

The List of Grand Masters and Officers at end of Minute Book I. ranges 
from 1717 to 1744. His Portrait, engraved by J. Faber, Junr., after A. Ramsay, 
is in the British Museum. 

CahtphrH, Jolm, Fourth Earl of Loudoun (1705-1782). D.S.B., viii., 
376. Was the only son of the 3rd Earl. Entered the Army in 1727. 
Succeeded to the Earldom in 1.731. Scottish representative Peer 1734-82. 
Governor of Stirling Castle 1741. Supported George II. in the Highlands 1745-6. 
Was Commander in Chief in America in 1756, but was superseded in 1758. 
Afterwards served in Portugal. General in 1770. Fond of Forestry. 

Machin, Mr. QJ'.A., x., 26. 
Lodge: Bedford Head, Covent Garden (1725 List). 

Machin, John (d. 1751). D.J ./I., xxxv., 110. F.R.S. 1710. Secretary 
of the Royal Society from 1718 to 1747. Professor of Astronomy at Gresham 
College, London, 1713-51. He left unpublished writings and made contributions 
to the 7'fii/ox(/j)Jti-c((I Trnnxnetionx. (Authorities referred to are honrfon Mat/., 
xx., 284; Nichols' lllttxt. of hitei-it., iv., 23; Rigaud's Correspondence of 
Scientific Men, vol. i., i>a*siiii ; and Watts' Jiihl . JJritt.) 

Mannmgharri, Sir Richard. QJ'.A., x., 6 and 23. 
Lodge: The Home Tavern at Westminster (1723 and 1725 Lists). 

Mmutiiujhani, Sir Richard (1690-1759). D.S.B., xxxvi., 74. LL.B., 
Cambridge, 1717. M.D. Practised in London. F.R.S. 1720. Knighted 1721. 
Chief man-midwife of the day. He attended Mary Toft, who fraudulently 
claimed to have given b'.rth to rabbits, and exposed her fraud. He wrote on 
obstetrics and other medical subjects. He was the Son of a Bishop of Chichester. 
Was referred to in Tristram Shaixl;/, chap, xviii. (an anachronism). Buried at 
Chelsea. (According to Musgrave's Obituary his age at death was 74. This 
differs from J).X .B.) 

Mears, William. Q.C.A., x., 19, 41, 43; and Meirs, William, 185. 
Lodges: The Crown and Anchor, nr. St. Clements Church (1723 List); The 
Fleece in Fleet Street (1725 List); The Blew Posts in Devereaux Court (1725 
List); and The Black Lyon in Jocky Fields (1730 List). 

Mears, William (flourished 1722). D.JYJl., xxxvii., 275. Freeman of 
the Stationers' Company 1707. Issued editions of Holinshed ; of Defoe's Moll 
Flanders, &c. Was imprisoned in 1732 for publishing a Philosophical Disserta- 
tion on Death by de Passereau and Morgan. Pope mentions him in the 
l)n rtci'td . Referred to in t,'e/if ten/an'^ Ma<ja\ine 1755, p. 826. According to 

132 Trmix'trf ions of the Qi/titt/or Corointi Lod;/e. 

M.usgrave's Obituary he was J. P. for Surrey and died at Lambeth 13th Oetr. 
1736 ait 8b. (Authorities quotod include (fe/if.'s May. 1736, p. 620.) 

Mendes 5 Closes. Q.C.A., x., 287, 302. 
His name is not in any of the three IMS. Lists. He was named as a Steward 
28th April 1737 by Hro. Sr. touchier Wray, Barrt., and acted as such. He in 
turn chose his Successor (Pro. Alexander Pollock) on 27th April 1738. 

Me tide a, Moses (d. 1758). D.J./i., xxxvii., 248. Tie was Grandson of 
Fernando Mendes, a Physician who attended Catherine of Braganza and 
Charles II. He was a successful stock-broker: hon-viraiit and wit. He wrote 
dramatic pieces, and poems and songs. 

blendes became M.A. in 1750. His sons took the name of Head and 
one of his grandsons was the well-known Sir Francis Bond Head. He 
collaborated with Paul Whitehead and Dr. Schomberg in producing a satire 
called 77/ e Hat find (two cantos fol. 1751). His humorous epistle to John Ellis 
(hereinbefore noticed) inviting him to supper is in Xotes and Queries (4th Series, 
vii., 5). His Portrait: was engraved by W. Bromley. There is also a portrait 
of him by Hayman. A portrait, of him, taken from Euro perm 3[aoa~ii)e for 
1792, appears in A.Q.('., xviii., 104, illustrating an article by Bro. J. V 
Simpson, entitled "Brother Moses Mendez, Grand Steward, 1738." 

Miller, Jo. Q.C.A., x., 28. 
Lodge: Sun Tavern in Clare Market! (1725 List). 

Miller, Joseph or Josias ; commonly called Job Miller (1684-1738). 
J). A. I>., xxxvii., 417. Actor and reputed humorist; joined Drury Lane 
Company 1709. Secured a good position there, and was a member of the 
Committee of Actors which proposed to rent the Theatre from Fleetwood, the 
lessee, in 1735. He was temporarily engaged at Goodman's Fields, London, in 
1731, but returned to Drury Lane in 1732. He resided in Clare Market. His 
boon companions are reported to have included James Spiller, the actor, and 
Hogarth. lie died on 16th August 1738, aged 54, and was buried in St. 
Clement's Burial Ground, Portugal Street, Claremarket (now built over). 

The inscription on his grave was composed by Stephen Duck and described 
him as a tender husband, a sincere friend, a facetious companion, and an 
excellent" comedian, and emphasized his honesty, and wit. and humour. 

The monument gives his Christian name as '"Joe" only. It was restored 
in 1816 by Jarvis Buck, Churchwarden, but was finally destro}'ed in 1852. 

Several engraved Portraits are known: one after C. Stoppelaer, dated 
1738, as "Teague," by Andrew Miller; another by Charles Mosley, as Sir 
Joseph Witt oil (in the Jests, 8th edit., 1745). 

After his death, a collection of jests by John Mottley was published, 
unwarrantably entitled ''Joe Miller's jests," 1739, which became a standard 

Ml'saisbin, Dr. Q.C.A., x., 213 and 218. 
He is not named in the MS. Lists. The entry on page 213 refers to his 
acting as J.G.W. pro tempore on 2nd Mar. 1732. That on p. 218 to his 
appointment as Steward on 19th April 1732. (lie is there called Dr. 
M izanhrn}. 

Misaiihu), John (d. 1734). .D.X.'H., xxxviii., 51. Was born in France. 
M.D. Cahors, 1687. Settled in London and became L.R.C.P. in 1719. He 
lived near Coveut Garden and died on 29th April 1734. Is mentioned in Tow 
Jones. It ltas been repeatedly said that in Hogarth's Marr/af/e-ada-l\fode the 
picture showing the Scene with the Quack depicts Dr. Misaubin as the Quack. 

Montague, Duke of. QJ'.A., x.. 60, &c. 
The First Noble Grand Master after the formation of Grand Lodge in 1717. 
His period of office was 1721-2. He is described at p. 196 as His Grace John 
Duke and Fril of Montague, Marquess and Viscount Monthermer Baron 
Montague of Bought on. Ma. 1 ', of the Great Wardrobe, Lord Lieutenant and 

Muxoiw' l'er x oicilia, i ].'■>--)■). 133 

Custos Rotolorum of 1 lie Countys oi' Northampton unci Warwick, i\la r . Forrester 
and Warden of Rockingham Balywick and Goddington Woods within the Forrest 
of Rockingham in the County of Northampton and Knight of the most Noble 
Order of the Garter. 

Mont«<ju, John. Second Duke of Montagu (1688 ?-i 719). D.S.H., 
xxxviii., 253. 

For the present purpose the above particulars and the following quotation 
must suffice. It remains that a distinct article be written on the subject. His 
Portrait in armour, by Dahl, engraved by J. Faber, Juur., appears in Q A ' . 
St. John's Card 1903, and there are two other portraits in the .British Museum: 
one engraved by J. Faber, Junr., after G. Kneller. 

The following paragraph is quoted from the D.X.H., but the Duke had 
many amiable sides to his character: — 

" The duke appears to have been a man of some talent but with much 
of the buffoon about him. lie was the originator oi' the famous hoax 
at the llaymarket Theatre of a man squeezing himself into a quart 
bottle. Sarah, duchess of Marlborough wrote of him to Lord Stair 
' All my son-in-law's talents lie in things natural to boys of fifteen 
and he is about two and fifty. To get people into lbs gardens and 
wet them with squirts, to invite people to his country house and put 
things in their beds to make them itch, and twenty other such pretty 
fancies' (Walpolo Letters I., 339)." 

Montjoy, The lit. Double, the Lord Vise'. iMontjoy. (JA'.A.. x_, I'm. 
Lodge: Bear and Harrow in Ruteher Row (1730 List). 

He is not the subject of an article in. I). As .15. The first "Viscount Mount joy 
was so created in 1683. He was Sir William St < mart . Baronet, and as a Soldier 
had an adventurous life, specially in Ireland. He was killed in William III.'s 
Army at Steenkirk in 1692. (See D.X.M., liv., 364.) 

The Freemason succeeded on Jan. 7th, 1727-8, to the title as 3rd Vise! . 
Mountjoy and became Earl of Rlesington in 1745. Having been G.M. in 
Ireland for 1738-9, he accepted the oflice of G.M of the Antients in 1756 and 
until 1760, when lie resigned. lie died in 1769. (For further particulars see 
Lepper and Crossle's History of (/rand Lod</c of Ireland, vol. i., pp. 165-7.) 

His Portrait appears in A.QA'., xviii., 24, 

Montresure, Mr. James. Q.C.A., x,, 173. 
Lodge: Gibraltar Lodge (1730 List). 

M ontrexor, James Gabriel (1702-1776). D.X.B., xxxviii., 327. He 
became Director and Colonel of the Royal Lngineers. In 1727 he was 
" matross." Practitioner-Engineer in 1731. Ensign, 1732 (i.e., after the com- 
pilation of the 1730 List). Lieutenant 1737, &c. He was chief engineer at 
Gibraltar 1747-54. Did important engineering work in North America and 
afterwards at Purfleet and Chatham. Colonel in 1.772. Was buried at Teynham, 
Kent. There is a tablet to his Memory on the North Wall of the Chancel. 

Mordaunt, Mr. John. Q.C.A., x., 167. 
Lodge: St. Paul's Head in Ludgate Street (1730 List). 

Jfordai/nf, Sir John (1697-1780). D.X./i., xxxviii.. 108. Entered the 
Army in 1721 aud was Colonel in 1741 and K.B. He became a General. 
Probably he is not the Freemason so named. It should, however, be observed 
that in the List of the St. Paul's Head Lodge (sixty-four names) all except Dr. 
George Douglas are styled Mr,, which seems to indicate that little or no 
discrimination, was exercised in such designations. Probably the list was taken 
from a list of signatures or names merely. There was a contemporary Colonel 
Hon. John Mordaunt, who in 1735 married the widowed Countess of Pembroke. 

Morton, Earl of. Q.C.A., x., 200. 
Grand Master in 1740. Described as The Rt. Honble. James Douglas Earl of 
Morton, Knight of the Most Noble and Ancient Order of the Thistle. 

i 34 Tni/t-s'tctio/ts of t/ic Quutiior Curo/t'ttt Lot///*'. 

Doutjlttx, James, fourteenth Earl of Morton (1702-1768). D.X.H., x\\ , 
331. M.A., King's College, Cambridge, 1722. 

Helped to transform the Medical Society of Edinburgh into the Society 
for improving Arts and Sciences and was first President in 1730, K.T. 1738. 
Lord of the Bedchamber and representative Peer of Scotland 1739 ; owner of 
Orkney and Shetland by Act of Parliament 1742. Imprisoned in the Pastille 
1746. Lord Clerk Register of Scotland 1760. President of the Royal Society 
1764. He had been elected F.R.S. in 1733 and contributed several papers, 
chiefly Astronomical, to the Transact ions. Was cue of the First Trustees of the 
British Museum. Died at Chiswick 12th October 1768. 

Nash, Richard. Q.C.A., x., 37. 
Lodge: Queens Head at Bath (1725 List). 

Xnsh, Richard, Beau Nash (1674-1762). D.X.B., xl., 99. Known a? the 
King of Bath, where an obelisk was erected to his memory. 

See article on Alexander Popa in A.Q.C., xxxviii. 

His Portrait, engraved by J. Faber, Jiuir., is in the British Museum. 
There are other portraits of him. 

Newman, John. Q.C.A., x., 13, 29. 
Lodge: The Swan at Ludgate Street (1723 List); removed to The Three Tunns 
in Ludgate Street (1725 List). 

Xeicmaii, John. (1677 ?-l 741). D.X.B., xl.. 339. Presbyterian Minister 
at Salters Hall from 1696. Trustee of Daniel Williams's foundations 1728. 
Buried at Bunhill Fields oil 31st July 1741. 

The identity would probably be deemed established if the prefix Revd. had 
occurred in the 1723 List. Nonconformist divines, however, were in many cases 
opposed to the use of such titles. 

I remember that one objected on the ground that the only place in the 
Bible where the word "Reverend" occurred was in Psalm cxi., 9, where it is 
said of the Lord "holy and reverend is His name." In the 1723 ('t)iixlitufion>i 
such a prefix is not given either to Dr. Desaguliers or to James Anderson, A.M. 
(See p. 74.) The latter is called Mr. Jas. Anderson in the 1723 List. (See 
also Thomas Bradbury in this paper.) 

Newman's Portrait is in Dr. Williams's Library and an engraving of it is 
in the British Museum, 

Norn's, Mr. Hen. Q.C.A., x., 4. 
Lodge: The Cheshire Cheese in Arundel! Street (1723 List). 

Xorris, Henry (1665-1730?). D.X.H., xli., 124. An actor who played 
at Dublin, 1695, known as Jubilee Dicky from his success as Dicky in " The 
Constant Couple or a Trip to the Jubilee," at Drury Lane, 1699. His short 
stature disqualified him for important parts, but the D.X.J), gives a list of many 
parts acted by him on the London stage from 1699 to 1730. 

Oakley, Edward. Q.C.A., x., 24, 44, 155. 
Ledges-. Three Compasses in Silver Street (1725 List); also Naggshead and Starr 
in Carmarthen, South Wales (1725 List, but dated 9th June 1726), when Edwd. 
Oakley was one of the Wardens and one of the "five Gent." constituting the 
Lodge by deputation granted to Mr. Emanuell Bowen. Queens Head in Knaves 
Acre (1730 List). 

Mr. Oakley (without any Christian name) is also mentioned in the 1725 
List, at p. 26, as a Member of the Lodge at the Bedford Head, Covent Garden. 

We are fortunate in this case to have the record of "A speech delivered 
to The Worshipful Society of Free and Accepted Masons at a Lodge held 
"at the Carpenters Arms" (which show Three Compasses) "in Silver Street, 
"Golden Square the 31st of December 1728 By the Right Worshipful Edw : 
"Oakley Architect, M.M. late Provincial Senior Grand Warden in Carmarthen, 
" South Wales." 

Masonic I'e/^otadia, HJ-i-dU. 135 

Bro. John T. Thorp in an article headed " Edward Oakley, Architect 
M.M." has reprinted this speech (see his Paper*, Part V.) having taken 
it from ^Benjamin Cole's Constitutions published in 1729 and later. 
One golden paragraph must suffice for the present purposo : — 

" I must now in the strictest Manner charge you to be careful and 
diligently to enquire into the Character of such persons who shall 
interceed to be admitted of this Honourable Fraternity, I therefore 
according to my Duty, forewarn you [notj to admit, or even to 
recommend to be initiated Masons, such as are Wine-Bibbers or 
Drunkards, witty Punsters on Sacred Religion or Politicks, Tale- 
Bearers, Bablers, or Lyars, litigious, quarrelsome, irreligious or 
prophane Persons, lew'd Songsters, Persons illiterate and of mean 
Capacities; and especially beware of such who desire Admittance 
with a selfish view of Gain to themselves ; all which Principles and 
Practices tend to the Destruction of Morality, a Burden to Civil 
Government, notoriously scandalous, and entirely repugnant to the 
Sacred Order and Constitutions of Free and Accepted Masons." 

Bro. Thorp also reproduces the engraved Frontispiece and Title page of 
Oakley's Jfayu-zine of Architecture. The Title page gives the Author's name as 
" Edward Oakley, Architect, M.M." Benjamin Cole engraved ninety-six copper 
plates for this work. 

Oakley, Edward (fl. 1732). B.XJi., xli., 290. Architect. Published 
works on Architecture and building. The date of Oakley's death does not 
appear; but Maitland's London, vol. 2, published 1756, includes designs for 
Blackfriars Bridge by Edward Oakley. B. Cole sculp. 

Oldham, Nathaniel. Q.C.A., x., 302, 316. 
Not in any MS. List. On 27th April 1738 Bro. Nathl. Oldham was chosen 
as Steward and on 3rd May 1739 he chose Bro. John Saint as his Successor. 

Oldham, Nathaniel (fl. 1740). D.X.B., xlii., 111. Virtuoso. Collected 
paintings and curiosities; died prisoner for debt in Kings Bench. His Portrait, 
engraved by J. Faber, Junr., after J. Highmore (dated 1740), is in the British 
Museum. He is dressed in a green velvet hunting coat, with a gun. 

Ozill, John. Q.C.A., x., 169. 
Lodge: Cross Keys in Henrietta Street (1730 List). 

Owll, John (d. 1743). D.X.B., xliii., 19. By trade an Accountant. 
Auditor General of the City of London and Bridge accounts and of St. Paul's 
Cathedral and St. Thomas's Hospital, London. lie published numerous transla- 
tions and was mentioned by Pope in the Duneiad. Died at his house in Arundel 
Street and was buried in the Church of St. Mary, Al derm anbury. 

Pack, Geo. Q.V.A., x., 18, 19. 

Ijodges : The Busiebody at Charing Cross; and The Crown and Anchor near 

St. Clements Church (1723 List). 

(Richard Burleigh also was a Member of hot/t these Lodges.) 

/'(ir/,-, George (fi. 1700-1724). D.X.H., xliii., 26. Originally a singer: 

acted at Lincoln's Inn Fields 1700-5, at the Haymarket 1705-7, and at Drurv 

Lane. Retired in 1724. 

Paisley, Hon. Lord. Q.C.A., x., 5, 23, &e. 
Lodge: The Home Tavern at Westminster (1723 and 1725 Lists). 

17th March 1725 (p. 60) appointed on Committee of General Charity. 
27th Novr. 1725, The Grand Ma r . (Duke of Richmond) recommended the Rt. 
Honble. James Lord Paisley to be Grand Ma 1 ', for the ensuing year which mett 
with a Generall Approbation (p. 63). 27th Deer. 1725, Elected Grand Master 
accordingly, he was absent but had by letter to the Duke of Richmond declared 
his acceptance and appointed Dr. Desaguliers Deputy and named his Grand 
Wardens (p. 69). 28th Feb. 1726, Presided at Grand Lodge (pp. 69, 70). 
12th Dec. 1726, Presided at Grand Lodge and nominated Lord Inchiquin as his 

136 Transactions of the (J wit nor Coronati Lodi/e. 

Successor (p. 70). 27th Feb. 1727, Presided at Grand Lodge (p. 71). 29th 
Jan, 1729/30, Joined in procession at Annual Feast when the Duke of Norfolk 
was declared Grand Master (p. 116). 

At p. 197 he is thus described: — 

The Rt. Honble. James Lord Paisley Son and Heir appart. of James 
Earl of Abercorn Ld. Paisley, Ld. Hamilton, Lord Mountcastle, Lcl . Kilpatriek 
in North Britain and Viscount Strabane and. Lord Montcastle in Ireland and 
one of his Maties most Honble Privie Councill in that Kingdom. 

II dindton, James. Seventh Earl of Abercorn (d. 1744). D.X.H., xxiv., 
185. Second son of James Hamilton, sixth Earl of Abercorn; Privy Councillor 
of England (1738) and Ireland (1739). F.R.S. Published fa/rn/ations and 
Tab/ en Pe/afiny to Attractive 1'oircr of Loadstone, 1729. Died in Cavendish 
Square, London, 13th July 1744; Buried in Duke of Ormonde's vault in 
Westminster Abbey on 17th January 1745. 

Xote. — His Father the 6th Earl died in 1734, and Anderson in the 
1738 Constitutions (p. 119) records that Lord Paisley was then Earl of Abercorn, 

Palmer, John. Q.C.A., x., 46. 
Lodge: Green Lettics in Brownloe Street in Holbourn (1725 List). 

Palmer, John, the elder (d. 1768). J).X.B., xliii., 134. Known as 
Gentleman Palmer. Acted as Captn. Plume, as Osrio, as the Duke's servant 
in "High Life Below Stairs," and as Mercutio. Used to sing female parts in 
dialogues "with that great master Mr. Leveridge." After retiring from the 
Stage he took a public-house at the corner of Haymarket and Pall Mall, which 
he called The Busy Body. (Another writer calls it The Clobe.') 

Parker, Geo., Esq. Q.C.A., x., 38. 

Parker, 'Mr. George. Q.C.A., x., 161. 
Lodges: Swan in Chichestsr (1725 List); and Anchor and Haptists Head in 
Chancery Lane (1730 List). 

Parker, George. Second Earl of Macclesfield (1697-1764). JJ.X./i., xliii., 
234. Astronomer. Son of Sir Thomas Parker the first Earl, who died in 1732, 
having been Lord Chancellor. Became F.R.S. in 1722 and P.R.S. in 1752. 
Hon. D.C.L. of Oxford 1759. M.P. for Wallmgford 1722-7. Helped to procure 
change of style in Chronology 1752. 

Note. — There is another George Parker (1651-1743), an almanac maker, 
who is described in D.N Ji., xliii., 233, as a disreputable character. This person 
is not likely to be the one called Esquire in the 1725 List. 

The Earl's Portrait, engraved by J. Faber, Junr., after T. Hudson, is 
in the British Museum. The painting belongs to the Royal Society. It shows 
him in Peer's robes. Hogarth also painted his portrait, which was exhibited in 
1882 by the then Earl of Macclesfield. (Wheatley's ILoyarth' 's London, p. 101.) 

Parker, Thomas. Q.C.A., x., 41. 
Lodge: Crown and Plarp, St. Martin's Lane (1725 List). 

Parker, Sir Thomas (1695 ?-1784). B.X.B., xliii., 282. Knighthood was 
not conferred until 1742. Was Barrister of Middle Temple 1724. King's Serjeant 
1736. Baron of the Exchequer 1738. Removed to the Common Pleas 1740, but 
returned to the Exchequer as Chief Baron, 1742. Retired 1772. 

His engraved Portrait in judicial robes, by J. Tinney, is in the British 

Parmeratier, James. Q.C.A., x., 8, 25, 42, 43. 
Lodges: The Greyhound in Fleet Street (1723 List), which removed to Globe 
Tavern in Fleet Street, where his name occurs in 1725 List; Solomon's Temple, 
Hemmings Row, under name Jaques Parmentier (this is the French Lodge) 
(1725 List); Blew Postes in Deveraux Court (1725 List). 

Parmentier, James (Jacques) (1658-1730). D.X.B., xliii., 322. Born in 
France. Resided intermittently in England from 1676. Employed bv William 
III. as a decorative painter. He left France for England after revocation of 
Edict of Nantes. Interred in St. Paul's, Covent Garden. 

Jlasoiuc I'crxoitahd, 17JS-J9. 137 

Pellett, Dr. Q.C.A., x., 26. 
Lodge: Bedford Head, Covent Garden (1725 List). 

Pellett, Thomas (1671 ?-1744). JJ.J./i., xliv., 265. M.B. Queen's College, 
Cambridge. 1694. M.D. 1705. Harveian Orator 1719. President of the Royal 
College of Physicians 1735-9. 

Pellett delivered the Harveian Oration on 19th October 1719. It is 
remarkable as the only one of those orations which is partly in verse, and the 
only one in which a Knight of the Garter (John 2nd Duke of Montagu, a 
Doctor of Medicine of Cambridge) is congratulated as having become a Fellow. 

Portraits of Pellett, engraved by J. Faber, Junr., and others are in the 
British Museum. Hogarth painted one of them. His Portrait, painted by 
Dahl, is at the College of Physicians. 

Pine, John. Q.C A,, x., 31, 117, 133, 206, 314. 
Lodge: Globe Tavern at Moorgate, where he is named John Pyne (1725 Inst). 

lie was the Marshal of the Processions on 29th January 1730, when Lord 
Kingston, G.M., escorted the Duke of Norfolk, G.M. Fleet, from the Duke's 
House in St. James's Square to Merchant Taylor's Hall. " The Marshal Mr. 
Pyne is to bear a Truncheon painted blew and tipt with gold " (p. 118). 

(p. 133-4). The Deputy G.M. acquainted Grand Lodge on loth Dae. 
1730 that Br. Pine to whom £1. 16. was due for printing the Report of the 
Committee of General Charity had voluntarily made the Society a present of it. 
Thanks were accorded to him. 

1731. 14th May (p. 206). Br. Pine proposed that the Minutes of each 
Quarterly Communication should for the future be etched by him who is a Mason 
and very well known to the Grand Lodge and might be trusted with anything 
relating to the Craft. 

After enquiry as to the time which would be taken a Resolution was 
carried that Br. Pine should etch the Minutes. The Secretary was to attend 
the printing and the Minutes and Plates were to be brought to the G.M. or his 
deputy iu order to have the Plates destroyed. So great was the caution taught 
and practised in 1731. 

Bro, Songhurst, iu a note at foot of p. 206, gives particulars of the only 
copy of Pine's Minutes then known to exist. 

Brother Pine was for several years the engraver of the List of Lodges. 
This explains the Minute dated 13th April 1739 (p. 314) authorising him to make 
a charge of 2 ! /6 d for altering the place and 1/- for altering the time of meeting 
in the engraved lists. 

John Pine's Portrait, by Hogarth (in Rembrandt's style), appears in a 
volume of Hogarth's works in the Q.C. Library. It was published at the 
Rembrandt's Head. 

Pine, John (1690-1756). ]).1\.B., xlv., 312. Engraver. Practiced in 
London; probably pupil of Bernard Picart, whom lie resembled in style. (This 
may throw a side-light on the provenance of the List of Lodges engraved in 
Picart's < ' 'ere hi on] ex and reproduced in A. ,().(' \ Among Pine's earlier works are 
the illustrations from Picart's designs to "Jonah, a poem," published in 1720. 
His first work of importance was a series of large and important engravings, 
entitled, " The Procession and Ceremonies observed at the time of the Installation 
of the Knights of the Bath on 17th June 1725." (From drawings by Joseph 

In 1743 Pine was appointed Bluemantle Pursuivant at Arms in Herald's 
College. Took up his residence there. For other interesting particulars my 
readers should refer to the D.X.B. itself. 

Pope, Alexander. Q.C. A.., x., 156. 
Lodge: Goat at the Foot of the Hay Market (1730 List). 

Pr>t>r, Alexander (1688-1744). JJ.X.Ji., xlvi., 109. 
The subject of Pope in connection with Freemasonry has been dealt with in a 
paper by the present writer in A. (J. (J., xxxviii. 

J 38 Trai/xarlio/ix of the Quatuor Corontdi Lodge. 

There are two other Alexander Popes named in the D.X.B. One was 
a Scottish Divine who died in 1782 and with whom Pope had some communica- 
tion. The other was an actor; but as he w T as not born till 1763 he is excluded 
from further consideration here. 

Portraits of Pope are numerous. TI13 following examples are mentioned 
as being engraved by Freemasons. One painted by Kneller was engraved (1) by 
G. Bickham and (2) by J. Faber, Jr. Another painted by Vanloo was also 
engraved by J. Faber, Jr. L. F. Rouhiliao also executed a Marble .Bust, a 
drawing from which was engraved and appears as a Frontispiece to some Editions 
of Pope. 

Popple, William. Q.C.A., x., 287, 302. 
The only clues given by the Minutes to the Masonic activities of our Brother 
are that on 28th April 1737 Bro. Lewis Theobalds chose him to be his 
successor as Steward, which honour Bror. William Popple Esq. had declined as 
mentioned in the Minutes of 27th April 1738. 

Popple, William (1701-1764). JJ.X./i., xlvi., 149. Entered the cofferer's 
office c. 1730. Promoted solicitor and clerk of the report, to the Commissioners 
of Trade and Plantations 1737. Governor of the Bermudas from 1745 till shortly 
before his death, author of mediocre plays and pamphlets. 

Pope mentions him thus in the Dunciad : — 

"Lo P — p — le's brow tremendous to the town." 

Probably his connection with the drama brought him into touch with 
Theobalds, also a dramatist, who nominated him as a Steward. 

Popple was buried in Hampstead Churchyard " where there is an inscribed 
stone to his memory. 7 ' 

Price, John. Q.C.A., x., 20, 28, 35, 44, 155. 
Lodges: (1) The Old Devill at Temple Barr, of which he was Senior Warden 
(1723 List) (also in 1725 List). (2) Bull Head in Southwark (1725 and 1730 
Lists). Junior Warden in 1730 List. (3) Cock and Bottle in Little Britain 
(1725 List). Junior Warden there. 

It is possible there may have been more than one John Price. There 
was also a Sir John Price of New r forest, Bart., who is named as a Member of 
the Carmarthen Lodge, but he is not noticed in the D.X.B. 

N.B. — The John Price mentioned below 7 worked at Soufli irark. 

Price, John (d. 1736). D.X.B., xlvi., 331. He was an architect who 
executed several buildings in London and the neighbourhood. Among his works 
were the Duke of Chandos's great house at Edgware (designed by James Gibbs) 
and the Duke's town mansion in Marylebone. He rebuilt the Church of St. 
George the Martyr, Southwark, which was completed in the year of his death. 

Price, Mr. William, Q.C.A., x., 149, 164. 
Lodges: Ship behind the Royal Exchange (1730 List); and Three Kings in 
Spittle Fields removed to the Sash and Cocoe Tree in Upper Moore Fields (1730 

Price, William the younger (d. 1765). D.X.B., xlvi., 343. Glass Painter. 
Filled several windows in Westminster Abbey, at Winchester College, and at 
New College, Oxford. He died in TIatton Garden. His Father and Uncle 
were also glass painters of note. 

Pyle, Dr. Q.C.A., x., 169. 
Lodge: Vine Tavern in Holbourn (1730 List). 

Pt/Ie, Thomas (1674-1756). D.X.B. , xlvii., 74. Divine and Author. 
M.A. Caius College, Cambridge, 1699. A strong Whig. Prebendary of Salisbury 
in 1726, but his unitarian tendencies prevented his further preferment. His 
livings were mainly outside London, but according to the D.X.B., " Pyle began 
to be known in London as a Preacher." He published several works. 

( To b e co nt in a ed , ) 

&t* glolju's Sou) in ©ouxtcet 

FRIDAY, 24th JUNE, 1927. 

HE Lodge met at Freemason's Hall at o p.m. Present : Bros. 
Rev. AV. AV. Covey-Crump, AV.M. ; George Norman, P.A.G J).C, 
S.W.; Lionel Vibert, P.Dis.G.W., Madras, P.M., as J.W.; AY. J. 
Songhurst, P. (I. J)., Secretary ; Gordon P. G. Hills, P.A.G.Sup.W., 
P.M., D.C; H. C. do Lafontaine, P.G.D., S.D. ; J. Walter Hobbs, 
P.A.G.D.C, I.G.; J. Heron Lepper, P.Pr.lns., Antrim, P.M.; 
K. H. Dring, P.G.I)., P.M.; AY. J. Williams; and T. M. Carter, 
P.Pr.G.St.B., Bristol. 

Also the following members of tlie Correspondence Circle : Bros. R. J. Sadleir, 
Harry G. Smith, J. \<\ H. Gilbard, J. C. Pickford, P.G. I ns.AYkgs., Victoria. Kobt. 
Colsell, P. A. G.D.C, H. I). Hirst, L. G. Wearing, Walter Dewes. J. F. Hal!sd)ally. 
C. S. Plumb, (hand Historian, Ohio, 1). Warliker, T. C. Eekenstein, C. F. Sykes, 
J. Flston Cawthorn, T, Lidstone Found, Ivor Grantham, Frank H. Pocliin. AY. 
Ceoghcgau, W. Francis, Francis J. H. Coutts, Fred. Underwood, Ed. M. Phillips, W. 
Davie, W. Young Hueks, F. lnskipp, W. E. J. Peake, C. F. Tyson, K. F. Adams, 
F. R. Betenson, F. Lace, P.A.G.D.C., S. C. Keville, G. W. South, W. Emerson, F. G. 
Bourne, AVm. Lewis, H. C. B. Wilson, J. Ed. AYhitty, Geo. C. Williams, L. Hemens, 
Chas. Rogers, Edwin J. Evans, G. W. Bnllamore, G. Pear, F. C. Ellestou Erwood, 
A. Regnauld, R. Wheatley, C. E. Newman, Eric Lotting, Wm. B. Gregar, Percy H. 
Hoi-ley. B. Telepneff, W. Stubbing*, L. Sykes, (J. C Parkhurst Baxter, H. A. Matlie-om 
L. A. Margetts, F. Vuilleiinoz, D. Forbes. H. ('■. Mile, Lloyd C. Henning, and H. A'. 

Also the following Visitors :— Bros. II. A. Trubshaw, Dep.Prov.G.M.. S. Africa 
N.Div. (EC); R. L. Shawley, P.G.S.R., Victoria; F. E Clarke, Pattison Lodge 
No. 913; H. Ralph Hone, St. Cecilia Lodge No. 10:36; C. E. Cawthorn, S.W. Defence 
Lodge No. 1221 ; and G. M. Brown, Queen Mary's Lodge No. 3327. 

Letters of apology lor non-attendance were reported from Bros. Sir Alfred 
Bobbins, P.G.W.. Pres.B.G.P., P.M.; Rev. H. Poole, J.W. ; Gilbert W. Daynes. J.i). ; 
Ed. Comber. L.R., PAL; S. T. Klein, L.R., P.M. ; J. T. Thorp, P.G.D., P.M.; 
Cecil Powell. P.G.D., P.M. ; W. AVatson, P.A.G.D.C; and Rodk. H. Baxter, 
P.A.G.D.C, P.M. 

Congratulations were offered to Bros. Sir Alfred Robbins, AV. J. Songhmst. 
Lionel Albert, and Edward Cornier, on their appointment as Honorary Members of 
the Grand Lodge of Iowa with the rank of Past Senior Grand ATarden. 

One Lodge and nineteen Brethren were elected to membership of the Correspon 
den co Circle. 

Bro. J. AValtek Hobbs read the following paper : — 


Traii-iuct ion* of the Quatuor Coronati Ludye 




HAVE selected a dual title for this paper in order to cover a 
field of enquiry into some of the circumstances concerning- the 
life and work of our Mediaeval Brethren, in the hope that we 
shall elucidate to some extent, or more nearly, the actual state 
of the Craft at the time Masons are said to have travelled in 
s?arch of work, and certain of them were supposed to form a 
separate body of Builders of Cathedrals. 

In my judgment the same facts affect both questions, 
and the present investigation may prove useful in regard thereto, or at least 
will indicate lines of further research which will add largely to our knowledge 
on the subject of the Craft in bygone days. I wish here to state clearly that 
the present, effort must not be taken as complete either in scope or detail, but 
must be regarded as preliminary, partial, and fragmentary. For 1 have found 
that actual inspection and study of Cathedrals, Churches, Castles and other 
buildings is (as I think) essential for a full understanding of many problems, 
and inspiration and enlightenment is thereby obtained. 

While I have, during a long period, been able to make inspections 
of many such buildings in various parts of England and Scotland, 1 have only 
been able to make a comparative survey (not in the technical sense) of a 
limited number of areas, but even so I am satisfied that a more widely extended 
investigation, will yield similar or more definite results. 


There are two aspects in which this subject presents itself: (a) The 
Aubrey-Dugdale assertion, and (b) The generalised statement. 

The former has been examined already, at length, and as I am not 
concerned with the origin or validity of the statements, but merely with their 
existence, I do not propose to do more than refer shortly to the details for 
convenience in dealing otherwise with the subject. 

The latter or generalised statement, made on many hands, may be 
summed up as a declaration that Masons were migratory in most cases and 
had no permanent home except where, and as long as, work was available. 
When it ceased at one place they went elsewhere in search of it. Indeed, 1 
have found it in some places looked at as corresponding with the custom, not 
yet extinct, of workless, unorganised bodies of men mostly of the Building trade, 
seeking out building works and lurking about them in the hope of securing a 
job. Failing success, it would seem they were thought of as parading the 
streets (as 1. can recall in my young days) singing doleful ditties mostly con- 
cluding with the refrain "We've got no work to do." But these extremely 
modern views are, I think, unjustified, and we have here, as in many other 
instances, to think in terms of the period under review. It cannot be denied 
that Masons were at times migratory, although many were not. These were 
dependent on the continuance of particular works, not always carried to com- 
pletion by continuous service. For the moment, while I do not forget the 

The Travelling Masons find Cathedral Builders. 141 

terms of our Old Charges and other sources of information. I content myself 
by expressing my opinion that Masons did not travel in England by authority 
of any Bull, Diploma or Patent; such travelling as was done was not by chance, 
but as part of the carrying out of their particular employment, or by order, 
request or introduction, or as the result of organisation under a particular Lord 
or employer. I hope to make this apparent later on in these remarks. 

Let us consider very shortly the nature of the Aubrey-Dugdale statement, 
as given by Gould, lltxtort/ of F ret mason r//, vol. ii., p. 6, from Aubrey's 
original MS, in the Bodleian Library, of the " Naturall llistorie of Wiltshire," 
Fob Tar- 
s'' William Dngdale told me many years since, that about 

Henry the thirds time, the Pope gave a Bull, or Diploma to 

a Free-Masons 

a+i company of Italian Architects to travell up and downc 
over all Europe, to build Churches. From tho-e are derived 

the Fraternity of Free-masons. They are known to one another 

by certain Signes & M^kes and Watch- words: it continues to 
this day. They have severall Lodges in several] Countres for 
their reception; and when any of them fall into decay, the 
brotherhood is to relievo him &c. The manner of their Adopt 'on 
is very form all, and with, an Oath of Secrecy. 

The interlineations and underlinitigs in this passage, and the scoring 
out of " Markes " are significant. The History was completed in lG8(i, 
the year in which Sir William Dugdale died. The statement clearly 
indicates by the words "many years since " that Sir William's verbal 
story was given while the History was being written, or was recalled long after 
hearing it by Aubrey when writing. My own view is that Sir William's state- 
ment probably ended at "Fraternity of Freemasons," and that the preceding 
alterations and the subsequent remarks were Aubrey's own, both made to 
correspond with the statements about Wren on the preceding folio. Sir William 
Dugdale's great work, the " Moitasticon Anglicanum," in which Aubrey assisted 
him, has no reference, so far as I know, to the statement under consideration, 
but I have had no opportunity of making a complete examination of it, nor 
is this needed, as my purpose is not concerned with the origin of the story but 
merely with its existence. 


The Aubrey-Dugdale story may afford an easy transition from the mere 
Travelling Masons theory to that of the Cathedral Builders. It will be noted 
that the original statement was to the effect that a Bull or Diploma was 
granted to a " Company of Italian Architects to travell up and downe all over 
Europe to build churches." Two assumptions are needed to justify calling this 
statement in aid of the alleged existence of Cathedral Builders, as a body, in 
England, viz., that " up and downe all over Europe " included this country. 
Of course, in one sense it does, but it is doubtful whether such a document 
if it ever existed really had that effect or was needed. Angevin monarchs here 
had sufficiently great influence on the Continent to obtain workers without any 
such authority, nor has any record been found of any organised body as 
" Company of Italian Architects " intruding themselves here by virtue of that 
authority. Then while the term " Churches " in its wider sense includes 
Cathedrals, we find the bald term Cathedral builders used in its limited sense. 
Whether Leader Scott's work, The Cathedral Builders, had any effect in 
bringing about or supporting the modern use of the term may be possible, yet- 
doubtful. Professor Prior's work, The i'aihedral Builders in Eni/hind, is 
limited in scope and area to our own country. It may, however, be observed 

142 Transactions of the Quota or Corona ti Lodge. 

that Leader Scott deals in the main with Italian Cathedrals except in Book II., 
which book is mainly directed to support the Roman Collegia and Comacine 
theories as in evidence in this country. I do not need to concern myself here 
and now with these, but will merely remark that the somewhat free use of such 
terms as " possibly — is it possible — it seems possible — seem to have been," and 
the like, are at least inconclusive. 

Leader Scott, as regards the existence of the Bull or Diploma referred to, 
states in the Proem to the 2nd Edition (1899) : "I have lately been to Rome 
to try and find this document, but as eight Popes reigned during the time of 
Henry III. it is difficult to seek." Obviously the search was negative. Ashmole 
is said by a commentator in 1747 on his writings (Gould, vol. ii., p. 16) to have 
formed an opinion on the subject. This appears as quoted by Gould to be : 
" What from Mr. Ashmole's collection I could gather was that the report of 
cur Society taking rise from a Bull granted by the Pope in the reign of 
Henry III. to travel all over Europe to erect chapels, was ill-founded. Such 
a Bull there was, and those Architects were Masons. But this Bull in the 
opinion of the learned Mr. Ashmole was confirmative only, and did not by any 
means create our Fraternity, or even establish them in this Kingdom." On 
this I will only remark that Ashmole married the daughter of Sir Wm. Dugdale 
in 1668, so also may have been told by the latter about the legend or tradition, 
while the commentator makes two variations in it, viz., " in the reign of 
Henry IIP," instead of " about Henry the thirds time," and to " erect chapels," 
which is not quite the same thing as "build churches." As regards the former 
variations it may be noticed that Leader Scott also speaks above of "in the 
time of Henry III." 

The modern arguments and assertions in favour of a separate Company, 
or even Gild of Cathedral Builders only, do not impress me, and 1 hope to give 
sufficient instances to show that men in charge of the construction of great 
ecclesiastical buildings were also engaged on castles and other structures. Prom 
the point of view 7 of the styles of Architecture, ornament and other work as 
indicating the source from which they were derived I do not think it is 
possible to exclude imitation or the independent indigenous evolution of 
similarity in form; but then I am a layman, and not fully versed in such 
matters technically, but only observationally. 

I quite acknowledge the complexity of the matters involved, and the 
magnitude of the subject is such as to preclude any final decision thereon as 
at present advised. I do, however, feel convinced that the true explanation 
does not lie within the compass of any theory limited to organised companies 
either of Travelling Masons or of Cathedral Builders only. 


The division into periods is merely for convenience and does not 
necessarily cover the whole time usually indicated. Some of the events of this 
period are material to the subjects under consideration. 

There is a general allegation that Augustine brought with him 596 A.I). 
Masons to work in England. If such there were they would certainly have 
been travelling in one sense, but are claimed as members of the Comacines by 
Leader Scott (Preface to 2nd Edition of The Cathedral Builders, 1899) thus: 
" it was the brethren of the Liber i Muratori who from their headquarters at 
Como were sent by Gregory the Great to England with St. Augustine to build 
churches for his converts." The Venerable Bede, however, in his Hcclexialical 
History of the Enylish X at ion, makes a different statement (see Book I., 
ch. xxiii., ef seq.): "He (Gregory) sent the servant of God, Augustine, and 
with him several other monks, who feared the Lord, to preach the Word of 
God to the English Nation . . . They had . . . taken interpreters of 
the nation of the Franks . . . There was (597 A.D.) on the east side of 
the city (Canterbury) a Church dedicated to the honour of St. Martin, built 
whilst the Romans were still in the island ... In this they first began to 

The Tra-veWiifj MOxohh ami Cathedral Builders. 143 

meet . . . pray . . . baptize till the King (Ethelbert) being converted 
to the faith, allowed them to preach openly, and build or repair chufches in all 
places . . ." Augustine in 599 A.D. reported progress to the Pope and 
put sundry questions to him, one being as to the application of the gifts of 
the faithful, to which the Pope replied inter aha in 601 A.D., ''one fourth for 
the repair of churches." In a Papal letter to Bishop Mellitus, Pope Gregory 
says: " The temples of the idols in that nation ought not to be destroyed 
for if those temples are well built it is requisite that they be converted 
to the service of the true God." In 602 A.T). it is stated that "Augustine 
recovered therein (Canterbury) a church which he was informed had 
been built by the Roman Christians and consecrated it . He also built 

a monastery not far from the city to the eastward in which . . . Ethelbert 
erected from the foundation the Church of the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul." 

These statements by an almost contemporary historian well affected to 
the Roman Church disclose what happened, but make no reference to Masons 
being brought here, still less any company of Ltheri M uratori . 

Rede also discriminates the nature of the material used in building 
churches. Thus in Book II., ch. xiv., A.D. 627, he says: ''King Edwin 
received the faith . . . He was baptised at York, on the holy day 
of Easter being the 12th of April, in the Church of St. Peter the Apostle which 
he himself had built of timber . . . but as soon as he was baptised he took 
cars ... to build in the same plaec a larger and nobler church of stone." 
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle confirms this and similar statements. 

Two notable contemporaneous Builders of the latter part of the seventh 
century who are often referred to are Wilfrid of II exham and Benedict Biscop 
of Monk Wearmouth and J arrow. Of these Wilfrid is not credited with 
obtaining Masons from abroad, but Benedict is. Of him the usual generalised 
statement is that he fetched Masons from Gaul, giving rise to an idea that no 
native workers were available. Bro. Vibert says: "Wilfrid could find work- 
men to build him his Roman Basilica in Britain apparently, although his 
contemporary and neighbour Benedict Biscop had to send to Gaul." Leader 
Scott, in a chapter by another hand incorporated in The Cathedral Builders, 
has the following (p. 150): "The Comacines who settled with Augustine in the 
royal city of Canterbury must have established according to their custom a 
lodge and a schola in that city, for there Wilfrid some seventy years later sent 
for Architects and builders (ccementarii) to renew the Cathedral Church of 
York . . . (and p. 155) If there was at Canterbury a Comacine school of 
architecture . . . why did not Bishop Benedict send there for Architects 
and Masons'? The simple answer is that Wilfrid had already engaged them for 
his work at Hexham . . . Wilfrid was just beforehand with Biscop who 
in consequence had to look elsewhere for his architects and he set out to Gaul to 
engage them there." Let us, however, again turn to the Venerable Bede on 
the subject. He says in his A/inah of the Holy Ahhafs: "After the interval 
of a year (675 A.D.) Benedict crossed the sea into Gaul, and no sooner asked 
than he obtained, and carried back with him, some masons to build him a 
church in the Roman style which he had always admired." Leader Scott's 
collaborator indeed (on p. 155) quotes the Latin words " jtt,rt:i Itomaitonnii 
qucm semper atnahat inoretn." I must not prolong this portion of my subject, 
but my own view, based on more than the words dealt with, is that there were 
in substance no foreign Masons brought here till Benedict brought the Masons 
from Gaul. This, in my judgment, was not because there were no men available 
but because Benedict on his many journeys to Rome and Gaul saw buildings in 
the latter district which he liked and brought men from thence who were 
acquainted with the special style he preferred. 


The Anglo-Saxon style of Architecture as it was developed in course of 
time was indigenous, although possibly tinged with influences from outside. 
The early period buildings were largely destroyed bv invaders, but such as 

144 Transaction.^ of the- Qiuttiior Coron'iti Lodye. 

survived, or were constructed prior to the coming of the Normans, were 
demolished in great part by the latter. One is apt to consider the Conquest 
(1066) as the opening of the Norman period of Architecture here, but while 
that event is truly so regarded as regards the Dynastic succession, yet there was 
a great deal of peaceful penetration by those people before that event. The 
Norman proclivities of Edward the Confessor are well known, and his great 
work in the constmction of his Palace at Westminster and the Benedictine 
Monastery and its Abbey Church there in the Norman style, demonstrates the 
fact that the distinctive style of those people was being carried on prior to 
1066, although the Monastic buildings had not been completed then, but were 
subsequent to that date, as an inspection of their remains now existing clearly 
shows. To give one other instance only, I may mention that Waltham Abbey, 
commenced previously to the Conquest by Earl Harold, gives the same result. 
Whatever may have been the extent of the pre-Conquest Norman work it is 
clear that skilled Norman builders were imported or intruded and their methods 
carried on for a time by the aid of the Anglo-Saxon Masons and lesser work- 
men. For our present purpose the question of the population is a material one 
for consideration. The Domesday Book (1086) was not, it is true, a Census 
return but a Taxation basis from which it has been computed that of the 
240,000 holdings there mentioned 100,000 were those of Villeins and 
25,000 of Serfs, so that just over half the holdings were those of people more 
or less in a state of servitude. The Anglo-Saxon servitude had previous to the 
Conquest been considerably alleviated, but thereafter had increased, and although 
the Kendal System of the Normans was super-added to the earlier system, it 
was little more than a change of name, with increased burdens upon a larger 
class. This servitude, and the restriction of personal movement to a com- 
paratively limited area, form an important element for consideration in the 
present investigation. The term c Cementarius " appears in the D.B., so that 
there was then a recognised Building Craft, but the numbers then engaged in it, 
both alien and native workers, could not have been great. Throughout the 
period with which I am now dealing a great part of the building work was at 
first done by unskilled workers, but this class diminished as the demand for 
higher attainments and skill increased. 

In Norman and later times foreign Masons and workers were available 
from the English possessions in Northern France, while a very considerable 
trade sprang up in imported Caen Stone ready worked in small blocks which 
were used in South-East and Southern England, especially in Ecclesiastical 
buildings. My own opinion is that the chief utilisation of foreign, i.e.. 
Continental, Masons was in that class of highly skilled Masters as supervisors 
or advisors of works. 1 may mention only two such — both well-known names 
and selected for that reason — viz., William of Sens, at Canterbury (1174-1178) 
and Henry of Rheims, at Westminster (1245-1253). In both cases they were 
followed by Englishmen whoea attainments preclude the suggestion that there 
were no men of local or native origin available originally. My own view is that 
the chief reason was one of plan, and, secondly, the (lass of work was for the 
time being an advance ou the English development. At Canterbury then we 
have William the Englishman (1178-1184"), by some thought to be William of 
Hoo, a notable Kentish Master; and at Westminster, John of Gloucester (1253- 
1261) and Robert of Beverley (1253 or earlier-1279), of whom more anon. 

The irruption into England of the alien Monastic bodies chiefly in the 
twelfth century brought with it many demands for development in the character 
and style of Ecclesiastical buildings by reason of the varied nature of the 
services and practices of the Orders. The demands of the non-Monastic 
religious bodies also had a largely similar effect. Both entailed the creation 
of an organisation of workers of varied kinds, including Masons. The new 
ideas and demands produced methods of building, alterations of plan and 
design, and led to the inception of architectural forms and devices of a 
character leading to the evolution of the pointed arch, and the anticipation, 
in a measure, of the various styles succeeding the Norman and Early English, 

The Trtivell'uHj Masons and Cathedral Jhiildera. 145 

and the increase of ornament in stone, and other developments. However far 
these were the outcome of supervision, or even of invention, 1 entertain 
practically no doubt that the developments were the result of native talent and 
skill, which has suggested the possession of a tradition among the Craftsmen 
which they preserved from outsiders. 

The building of Stone Castles in place of the earlier improvised defensive 
works of the Norman Conquest period, which were largely of Mound, Stockade 
and Moat type, proceeded in many cases under the charge or supervision of 
Masters engaged in Ecclesiastical work. 

The building of Churches was proceeding, and these present a field of 
research so widespread that 1 can only refer to it in a subsequent part of this 
paper, and then but slightly. 

There was but little Domestic Architecture in Stone. 


In the course of the period just dealt with, the process of securing 
personal and civic liberty had been continuous and effective. The servile 
burdens had been largely alleviated, and in many cases extinguished by a money 
payment charged upon the tenement. The recovery of fugitive bondmen had 
practically disd out, for the legal principle had been enunciated that such a 
man who had resided in a Free Town, or Borough for a year and a day, without 
let or hindrance, paying Scot and Lot, was thereby free at least as against his 
Lord. The increase of Free or Self-governing communities or Municipalities 
was widespread, and the Gilds, both Merchant and Craft, were developing, 
although the latter had not yet reached the zenith of their power and influence. 

By the middle of the fourteenth century the organisation of the Mason 
Craft had become mora definite, although not entirely settled. It consisted of 
certain defined sections which later became more homogeneous after the great 
dividing line caused by the Black Death and the upheaval of Craft institutions 
and national development caused thereby and by the laws resulting therefrom. 

The development of the Mason Craft, as I view it, was shortly as 
follows: — From the recovery of the people from the shock and immediate 
consequences of the Conquest, there proceeded the absorption of the invaders 
into the national body politic (a process which is inversely at the root of our 
extension of Empire) and the imposition of our aspirations and character upon 
the whole people. The Craft made headway upon its own lines affected only 
by the growth of its liberties and the incidents of their own particular calling. 
The shackles upon its liberties were not entirely cast off until later. The 
architectural skill and progress of its members developed according to the needs 
of the Employers (the Lords of the Old Charges) and the exigencies of the 
country, the availability of materials, the nature of the site, and the work 
required to be done. The importation of Free Stone, ready worked, from 
Normandy, and of Marbles from abroad, gave place to the exploitation of 
native stone, free and hard, and of Marble from adjacent localities, or Purbeek. 

It may be that some building tradition was preserved among them and 
carefully guarded, but by their collective individualism they triumphed over 
difficulties of construction and of working, and evolved methods suitable to the 
need of the particular demand. Their Lodges were evolving from a mere work- 
shop into a centre for combined action upon information gained on the work 
as brought from elsewhere, and the men themselves carried their skill and 
knowledge to other areas of work. 


But by the middle of the fourteenth century this development was 
arrested by the plague known as the Black Death. The first and worst was in 
the middle of 1349 A.D., but other visitations occurred in 1361 and 1368. At 
the former date the population of England was just over four millions, of whom 
about 75 per cent, were unfree workers. The result of the first visitation was 

146 Tnwsacttons of the Qu-atiior Coronatt Lodi/e. 

the almost immediate decimation of not less than 50 per cent, of the whole 
population. The effect was instantaneous on Architecture, and building work 
was almost entirely suspended. The succeeding work for a time was less 
elaborate in style and decoration. Labour was scarce, and wages were exacted, 
out of all regard to value and reason. 


This brought about a series of Statutes to regulate Labour (almost all 
entirely useless) of which we have ourselves not seen the end. The first 
Ordinance of Labourers 23 Edw : III. 1349 provided that every able-bodied 
man or woman (with certain limitations as to age and nature of work) free or 
bond should work for the wages of previous! years for anyone willing to employ 
them, the Lord having a limited preference in the number of his bondmen or 
tenants. This and subsequent Statutes were largely evaded, and I am of 
opinion that many bondmen, by evasion, became in consequence free. We must 
here bear in mind that some Masons and other Craftsmen, of the higher class, 
may have been exempt from the operation of the first Ordinance of Labourers 
as exercising a Craft, or having whereof they could live, or being over three 
score years of age. 

The free supply of Masons, and the number of those in any case available, 
were respectively very limited for a long time subsequently, and means were 
adopted to secure and keep workers, by which they were more or less retained 
in a particular locality, or service. Take as a possible instance of this the 
procedure of Masons pledging themsslves to the Dean and Chapter of York by 
oath to observe the old regulations (Fabric Foils, 1375). One may also note 
that it was not until after this cataclysm we find any record of a "Free" 
Mason, in any form of the words, nor do the extant MSS. or Old Charges 
appear to have existed prior to the Gild Statute of Richard II. (1388), although 
they reflect customs, usages and legends long prior. 


We may, therefore, sum up the organisation of Masons shortly as 
follows : — 

(1) Masons who were permanently in the service of Ecclesiastics. Those 
under Monastic rules being Lay Brethren and Conversi. Those in 
the employ of secular ecclesiastical bodies being retainers or servitors. 
At Canterbury in 1427 these were called Latham i. Fcrlcs/ae. 

(2) Masons who were employed by those bodies intermittently as at York 
(1375). At Canterbury in 1429 this class were termed J^ithonii tie 
la Lo //(/ye. 

(3) The King's Craftsmen, certainly the Masters, and, I think, also the 
lower classes of workers, who were free to go anywhere on his service, 
and were recruited by impressment when the supply of free workers 
was insufficient. 

(4) Masons free of their Gild or Borough who while limited to service 
within the area of their jurisdiction, yet (I think, tentatively) were 
not always limited to it but were available elsewhere, although the 
area was closed to strangers. 

(5) Workers of a lower class, who while legally free, had no Gild or Craft 
rights for the time being, although possibly acquiring them in cases. 

Building work was not regular, funds were not always available, but 
work was in any casa not carried on in haste or within strict limits of time. 
When men were not wanted they had of necessity to find other building work 
elsewhere, or revert to some other form of employment. This is where the 
" travelling " question arises, and we can now investigate the causes and 

The Travelling Masons and ('afliedral liuilderx. 147 

circumstances affecting the employment of Masons in various parts of the 
country and the evidence on the subject, which must, from the magnitude of 
the areas to be dealt with, be much restricted here. 



The Monastic Orders maintained Craftsmen and workers of all kinds, as 
Lay Brethren, Conversi and Servants, who certainly included Masons. The 
non-Monastic religious bodies also kept an organised staff of Craftsmen of much 
the same nature. Unskilled labour required could be obtained from the 
Tenants of the Employer's property, in part as rendering their service to their 
superior, and otherwise paid for at current rates. Other great Employers no 
doubt obtained workers on much the same plan. 

The number of Craftsmen available varied, but was, in fact, small, 
especially those of the higher and skilled classes in the earlier times. Among 
the many vital results flowing from the Black Death were the practical destruction 
of the old servitude and the creation of free labour. Employment and wages, 
which were originally calculated by the day and in some cases by the week, 
became stabilised, the minimum being the week, but in some cases the year. 
Task or piece-work, from being paid for by the day, was then rewarded by 
measurement, or in gross. This became specially so as regards Tombs, Effigies 
and Sculpture, and other non-constructional forms. In the latter respect con- 
struction in part, or of the whole building, began to be a matter of contract, 
as personal service was also. 

The legal status of the people was improved, and freedom increased. 
Many men were able to evade, or were exempt from, the Statutes of Labourers, 
under the exceptions in favour of men who had sufficient means to live on, or 
exercised a non-manual Craft. This would be especially so as regards Master 
Craftsmen, and it is well established that Master Masons were becoming a 
highly paid and wealthy class, and many grants of lands, rents and the like, 
as well as other circumstances, confirm this. The restrictions on the Lords as 
to employment of their own bondmen could be, and I think were, easily evaded 
on both sides, and there is no doubt the Statutes were largely ineffective. Some 
examples of long term service before and after the Black Death and of Task or 
Piece-work are given as illustrative of the points referred to. 


1222-1246. Master Ralph de Dartford, Cementarius at Westminster Abbey. 

1288-1266. Master Alexander of Worcester (called in official documents 
Cementarius Ecclesiae Beate Marie de Wigorn). 

1254 or possibly earlier, to 1279. Master Robert of Beverley, King's Mr. son at 
Westminster, London, and elsewhere. 

1254-1261. Master John of Gloucester, King's Mason, same places and elsewhere. 
1326-1353. Master William de Ramsey, Cementarius of notable skill, St. Paul's 
Cathedral and elsewhere. 

1381-1408. Master John Bredon, Cementarius of Worcester. 
[Five times Bailiff of that City.] 


1253. Westminster Abbey — Henry de Chersaltoun — for vault filling — 650 feet 
of chalk by task, 26''. 

Bernard de Sea Os3da — 588 feet of Asselars, by task at 

40ft. for l/-=14 s /8 (1 . 

John Benet — 3 Capitals, 3/\ 

148 Tra/t-v/ctioiis of (lie (J.inituor Coro/tati Lod<j<>. 


1291. Master Richard de Crimdale — made the Tomb of Queen Eleanor (of 
Castile) and the Cross at Charing for £10. The paving k iron- 
work were contracted for by separate craftsmen. 

1395. Henry de Yevele & Stephen Lole— - contracted to construct Tomb of Queen 
Anne of Bohemia (& her husband Richard 11.) for £2(0. 

Many other instances of buildings proper, (fee, could be cited. 


My view is that a combination of circumstances flowing from the 
general and national situation under consideration tended to limit the area of 
travel by workers in search of employment, and, possibly, more so after the 
Black Death. Put shortly, the Lords kept the men they had, and obtained 
others specially qualified from elsewhere, additional help being brought from 
other properties owned by the same Lord. This resulted in a considerable 
stabilisation of employment, for while there may have been a cessation of work 
of one kind at a place, either temporarily or permanently, there was generally 
work of some other kind on the same site then in hand or commenced as 
circumstances might require. 

What 1 mean on this point can be thus illustrated : — 


124 2-1269, Demolition of eastern part of the Norman Church. Rebuilding 
the Presbytery and Chapels, Choir and eastern bays of Nave. 
Transepts, Chapter House and Vestibules, part of east Cloister, 

1375 and later. The Nave continued and completed. There were, however, 
during the interim continuous works in the interior, of com- 
pletion, adornment and monumental, besides some exterior work. 

But these were to the Abbey Church only. What happened in the interval ? 

1269-1388. Building or re-edification of the Sacristy and Cloisters. Monastic 
Buildings of great extent. Flying buttresses to Chapter House. 
Repairs and works after great fire in 1298; and so on, with but 
short interval, 1348-1362. 

Thus it will be seen that there was contiriuoiis employment, though 
actually of fewer men, on the work there, although it remains to note what 
other work for the Abbey authorities was done on their possessions elsewhere. 

There are other points to be considered in this connection, such as the 
location of the home and family of the worker. Were the latter as peripatetic 
as the worker was, or is supposed to have been ? What of the ownership of 
the Mason's tools: were they his own and carried about with him? Masons, 
and other Craftsmen, acquired property in places; they were no doubt of the 
more skilled sort, but this would affect the need or desire to go aboiit to find 
work. He could be fetched from thence, to advise, consult, or even to work. 
The succession of Father and Son in carrying out a particular work, of which 
there are records, adds to the limit of area of travel, or of occasion to go 


Land was for a very long period in the hands of comparatively few 
persons, or bodies. At the Conquest the Conqueror divided up the lands of 
the disposessed people with considerable skill, to subject the people themselves 
and to divide the attentions of his great men and prevent them becoming a 
menace to his rule ; but he retained much of the land in his own hands, and 

The Travelling Masons and (Jathcdr<d JJ udders. 1-19 

it was added to by himself and his successors by escheat, reverter or 
confiscation, the quantity held being lessened by subsequent grants. The Barons 
themselves sub-granted some of their holdings to supporters and followers subject 
to their own over-riding seignory. The Monastic Orders, and what may be 
vaguely termed the Church, acquired by grant, gift or other means, much land 
and properties of various kinds adjacent to their particular centre, or their 
principal and subsidiary houses and elsewhere, to which they added Manors and 
lands held on Lease. The Religious and Military Orders of Knights, and later 
on Gilds, great families and opulent Merchants became landowners and the 
original few became many as times altered and fresh interests arose. This must 
suffice here as indicating how group ownership of lands in various parts tended 
to provide work for Masons and other Craftsmen by distribution among the 
dwellers on the properties of the same owners and avoided much seeking at 
large for work. 

To give some instances: — 

The Royal Manors and lands were widespread. Mention need be made only of 
Winchester, Windsor and Clewer, Guildford, Tower of London, West- 
minster Palace, and so on. 

William de Warrenne, Karl of Surrey, held amongst other lands and Manors 
the whole Rape of Lewes (Sussex), the Manor and Barony of Castle 
Acre (Norfolk), at both of which places were founded a Castle and 
a Cluniac Priory. Also the Manor of Reigate, where was erected a 
Castle and a Priory of Austin Canons. 

Richard fitz Gilbert held the Barony of Clare (Suffolk), which the family 
adopted as their name and title, Tonbridge (Kent), Bletchingley 
(Surrey), and in the latter county owned 55 Manors. Of these, 
before the J). Book, be gave Tooting and Streatham to the 
newly intruded Priory of Bee, and into these were merged the 
Manors of Balham and Leigham. The Prior of Bee leased the 
Manors to the Abbot of Merton in 1394, and then to John Duke of 
Bedford. Reverting to the Crown, after various owners, t lie Manors 
came to the Russell family in 1695 and remained therein until sold 
by John Duke of Bedford in 1816 with certain exceptions. 1 
mention this partly to show the connection of Monastic Houses with 
various parts of the country and, incidentally, the connection of the 
Noble House of Russell, of which the M.W. Pro G.M. is a member, 
but also because if was in going through the Court Rolls that I 
conceived the idea adumbrated here. 

The Abbot of Westminster (a Benedictine House of Pre-Conquest origin) 
formerly held many lands, but I only mention the Manor of Battersea 
and Wandsworth. 

The Cistercian Order intruded here in 1128 and settled at Waver! ey (Surrey), 
extending its locations to Rievaulx, Fountains, Tintern, Kirkstall, 
Furness, Buckfastleigh, Melrose and elsewhere. Repeat this investiga- 
tion for all the other Religious Orders, Houses or bodies, and you will 
realise the network of estates held, or controlled, by one owner, or 
body, and the effect, of their inter-communications and interests. 


For a long period the holding of Benefices and the preferments of the 
Clergy provided a means of wide communication and knowledge which had its 
effect on the employment of Masons and building Craftsmen, as well as of 
Architectural development. Without going into the somewhat vexed question 
of the share Ecclesiastics had in the actual building operations, there can be 
little doubt that on the transfer of an Ecclesiastic, given to building, who set to 
work in his new sphere to originate, enlarge or beautify his Church or buildings, 
his knowledge of those in his former, or other, place would be of use, and not 

150 T 'rai/xact ions of the (J not no?- Uoronatt Lodge 

improbably he could, and would, have the help of Masons with whom he had 
formerly been associated, who would know his wants. If he did not fetch them, 
he might at least have been thought of by such Masons wanting employment. 
The holding of benefices was then plural to the last degree, and many 
holders probably seldom if ever officiated at many of them. Nor were all the 
holders exclusively religious: many were Soldiers, Statesmen, Courtiers and 
office holders, Confidants of Kings, and Ambassadors, and travelled widely. 
Hence their knowledge of what was going on elsewhere was ample and their 
power of carrying Craftsmen in their train and of utilising such workers was 
no less ample. I should here note that all Ecclesiastics ware not pluralists 
even in those early days. Many of both classes were great benefactors to their 
Churches and found much money to aid in the work of building and extensions. 
I must not weary you with instances (and will give only two), but if you look 
into the details of benefices and preferments of Bishops, Abbots, Priests and the 
like, and their concerns in building, you will entertain no doubt they carried 
with them traditions and information on methods, styles and work: — 

1247. John Mansell (a pluralist), Provost of Beverley, Keeper of the Great 
Seal, Adviser to Henry III., Ecclesiastic, Soldier, Diplomat and 
Statesman. He held many offices besides Beverley, Chancellor 
of St. Paul's, Dean of Wimborne, Treasurer of York, Prebendary 
in London, York, Lincoln, Chichester, Bridgnorth. Benefices in 
Yorkshire, Lancashire, Sussex and Kent. 

1349. Simon Langham (a non-pluralist), Abbot of Westminster, Lord Treasurer 
to Edward ITT. (1360), Bishop of Ely (1361, when he resigned 
the Abbacy), Lord Chancellor (1364), Archbishop of Canterbury 
(1366), Cardinal (1368). Died in 1376. His monetary benefac- 
tions to his old Abbey were over £10,800 of money of his time. 

I add here one instance (of several) where the co-operation of Ecclesiastics was 
concerned with building development : — 

12th Cent: Alderman Ailwyn founded the Abbey of Ramsey (Hunts.) 
and was visited by Bishop Oswald of Worcester, who promised to 
send a skilled man from the Monastery at Worcester who could 
direct the building work, and that help should be sent from 
Westbury. Ednoth, a priest and steward, was sent. He 
gathered men and materials, and the work was put in hand, 
the timber church being first enlarged. After completion, a 
crack appeared in the central tower, and Ailwyn called in 
"certain cementarii " for expert advice. They decided the 
tower must be taken down and rebuilt on stronger foundations, 
which was done, some of the younger monks being employed to 
help . 


I have little doubt, considering the number of Masons and skilled workers 
in the art of Masonry available throughout the country during the period under 
review, that many instances of continuous employment under one Lord at various 
places could be ascertained and proved. If I am right, this, too, was a means 
by which continuous or extended work was available without the necessity for 
travel in search of it, although requiring travel in executing it. The following 
are some instances illustrating the point : — ■ 

1243-53. Master Henry of Rheims, Master of the King's Works at Windsor and 
Westminster. (He died 1253.) 

1253-79. Robert of Beverley, King's Master Mason at Westminster and else- 

John Mansel, Provost of Beverley, founded an Augustiuian 
Priory at Bilsington, Kent, in 1253. The Parish Church is 

T/w Trarelliinj M axons and Vaflu-dral Hu'ddei'x. 151 

largely of the same period. 1 am Inclined to think that Provost 
■Ylansell had brought up Robert from Beverley to begin this work, 
when the death of Henry of Rheinis gave Mansel the opportunity 
of putting Robert into the King's service. 

1253-61. John of Gloucester, King's Mason, at Westminster, St. George's 

Windsor, Woodstock, Gloucester and elsewhere. 
1281-1294. Richard Cruudale, at Westminster, City of London and elsewhere. 

1365-1400. Henry Yevele, Westminster and elsewhere. See Bro. Wonnacott's 
paper (AJJ.C, vol. xxi.) on his work. Yevele was clearly a great 
man in his day, and advised, and was concerned for many people. 
For the Abbey of Westminster, one instance of his work for that 
body, elsewhere than at the Abbey, may be given, viz. : — 

1379-80. He contracted for a new window in the east end of the Parish 

Church of Battersea, then part of the Abbey property. His fee 
was £5, and the work was carried out by the Abbey Masons, 
and they went down by boat. The Abbey Masons did repairs 
and additions to the Church over a long period. 


The prevalent impression given by the title "Cathedral Builders" is 
that Masons actually employed on such buildings, or those of that character, 
did no other work. If this was not so, the term is a misnomer. There are 
many cases, however, where such Masons are recorded as working on other 
buildings. If we had more collated references, and more knowledge, as to the 
men who built Parish Churches and so on, we should doubtless find that such 
workers had been engaged on Cathedrals or the like. Of course, there were 
few Cathedrals properly so-called prior to the Reformation, On that event 
some Abbeys and Monastic Churches were made Cathedrals, and others are being 
erected now. 

Some instances showing the view that Masons of the Ecclesiastical type 
also worked elsewhere on other buildings are here given: — 


1171. Radulphus Cementarius Regis. Dover Castle — later at Chilham Castle, 

1170. Ricardus-Ingeniator. Employed at Norham Castle, and on engineering 
work also. 

1256. Master Gerard, Ingeniator, believed to be an actual instance of a Military 
officer as King's Engineer. (40 Henry TIT.) 

The above were doubtless only Castle builders. But not the following: — 

1244-5. Henry of Rheims — Master of the King's Masons — (Westminster and 
Windsor) carried out works at Y 7 ork Castle. 

1256-7. John of Gloucester (ante), at Guildford Castle, work carried out there 
" by the view and counsel of Master John of Gloucester and 
Master Alexander our Carpenter." The Chapel there was paved 
on John's advice 1258-9. He was also " Master of all works at 
the King's Castles this side of the Trent." 

1279. Robert of Beverley (ante), Member of Commission holding inquisition on 
the wall of the City of London at Ludgate. 

1336. William de Ramsey (ante) served on Commission on the state of the 
Tower of London. 

1367. Prior John of Rochester, Chief Master of the works at Rochester Castle. 

Some of these may have been works of a type neither military nor ecclesiastical. 
The connection of Henry Y r evele, William of Wykeham and others with 
both classes of work is well known. 

152 Transact ions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodje. 


1391. John Gedeney, clerk of works, for \arious works, and for a Bridge at 

1445. Richard Beck — Master — at Canterbury, and later was consulted as to 1 he- 
stability of the arches of London Bridge. 


Colleges and the like. William de Wykeham, William de Wynford and others 
worked at these. Other like work done by Masters elsewhere. 
Later on domestic architecture w r as dealt with. The vaulted 
substructures of houses, and so on,, suggest the work of Masters 
used to Church work. 


The availability of suitable materials and the transport from place of 
origin to the building site had an important bearing on our subject. It had a 
definite effect on the construction and style of building. Pew of the buildings 
we are considering were situate near a Quarry of suitable stone, except, perhaps, 
some Castles. Fewer quarries were open in the earlier days. The character of 
the stone affected the method of working it. The search for it, and the inspection, 
purchase and transport necessitated some travel on the part of competent men 
who thereby gained knowledge and information. Stone was largely imported in 
the tenth and eleventh centuries from Normandy and was extensively used in 
the South and South-East of England, as were at that time foreign marbles. 
Carriage of commodities by sea from Northern and Western France to England 
was considerable. 

The loss of Normandy (1204) and the consequent diminished export of 
stone thence, with the rising demand for native materials, brought about a 
change, where the former trade existed. Stone, both soft and hard, and 
Marbles were obtained locally and transported by sea, river or land, as the case 
required. Some instances (limited to Kent, Surrey and London) are given, 
with some indication as to source of stone supplies elsewhere: — 

12th Cent: Uttett Stone imported — in small blocks or slabs — ready dressed; 
used with knapped flints and otherwise. 
Marbles imported from Holland. 
J'l/rbeck Marble began to be used about 1170. 
Softer Stones and local hard stones began to come into use. 

13th Cent: l{ei <ja.te and Gat tun (Surrey) stone used at Westminster. Brought 
by road to Battersea, and thence by boat to 'Westminster. 

Betliersdeu Marble (Kent) used in many parts of that County for 
columns, fonts, tombs, &c. 

Pet worth Marble (Sussex), of a different colour and texture, also so 

Tufa, from Dover, Darenth, East Mailing and elsewhere in Kent, 
used for vault filling. 

Chalk, from North Downs of Surrey and Kent and the South Downs 
(Sussex), also used for the same purpose. The hard Chalk from 
the South side of the North Downs used for inferior work. 

Subsequently, the area of production widened. Generally, the stone used was 
as follows, but not necessarily limited to the places named : — 

Exeter Stone from Beer. 

Lincoln ,, Ancaster, Barnack. 

York ,, Huddlestone. 

Bristol ,, Dundry and Doulting. 

Gloucester ,, Cheltenham. 

The Travelling Masons and Cathedral Builders. 153 

Alabaster, from Nottingham, for Altars, Tombs, Statues and so forth. 
Iron, from Gloucester, at Westminster in 1253 to the quantity of 

3 Tons, used for tie bars, ties and nails. Cost, ,£20. The 

working of iron in Sussex began soon after this time. 
Tiles, for flooring, largely native. In . the South of England. 

Chertsey (Surrey) and several places in Kent notable sources. 
Glass. Made at Chiddingfold (Surrey), and also obtained from 

Bristol, Coventry, Normandy and Flanders. 
Timber. Obtained largely in the locality, in many cases obtained 

from the Employer's Estate. Various kinds used, but chiefly 

Oak in later periods. 

The Transport was chiefly of the following character -. — 

By Wafer. Boats and Ships. These were chiefly small; the ships, 
so-called, were often smaller, seldom as large, or larger, than the 
modern Thames sailing barges. The river craft were much of 
the old wherry type. The cargoes were necessarily small. 

Jiy hand. By Carriage, or Cart. They were not large, but cumber- 
some and slow. Evidence of the use of these is well known. At 
Westminster Abbey in 1253 there were " two horse carts " for 
the builders. 

By Horse. Panniers slung on each side of the animal, of a basket- 
type, but quantity carried small. 

By Labourer. Men carried stone and materials on the back, or 
shoulder. A man's burden was then a known method of weight 
ascertainment. Barrows, wheeled much as now. A kind of 
carrying barrow without wheels but with shafts fore and aft, 
carried by two men. 

Progress was slow and tedious, but labour, especially unskilled, was cheap. 
Even horse and cart transport was slow and difficult. Witness this: — 

1367. Peter Mason, a noted alabaster worker, of Nottingham, made a 
" great table of alabaustre " there for the " Kings Chapel at 
Wyndesore. " It took more than a fortnight to bring it to 
London. The Sheriff of Nottingham and other authorities were 
directed to take all men, carts and horses required, and to 
imprison owners who did not comply. The " table " was 
probably the Altar and Reredos at St. George's Chapel. My 
own view is that the transport from London to Windsor was by 


As tending to show possible limits to the travel of Masons, regard must 
be had to the similarity of architectural style within fairly localised areas, 
suggesting the spread of influence from various centres. This subject needs 
special and separate treatment and may be summarised to indicate the trend of 
architectural development, but this must be taken as indicative only for further 
consideration : — 

London, the chief centre which drew the best men from elsewnere mainly because 
of the King's works. Its influence can be traced in many parts 
of Kent, Essex and elsewhere. 

Canterbury, Winchester, Exeter, Bristol, Wells and others in South and West 
England. Gloucester, Worcester, Chester, Lincoln, Norwich, 
York, Durham and others in the Midlands and North. 

This is not exhaustive, but sufficient for this purpose. The Gloucester style as 
ultimately developed in the Perpendicular spread over the whole country. 

154 Transactions of the Q.uatuor Coronati Lodye. 

The ordinary observer can see evidence of the development from centres 
in the similarity and distinct local types of Churches, Towers, Roofs and so on. 
Kent, Somerset, East Anglia and elsewhere are instances. 


The question of tracing the travelling of Masons by means of Masons' 
Marks is one which needs considerably more organised investigation than has 
been the case. The mere collection of Marks is not enough. Bro. the Rev. 
Herbert Poole has urged (aud I agree with him) that some definite method 
should be adopted to search for, record and tabulate the Marks. The difficulty, 
as matters now stand, which presses me is exemplified thus: — 

At Westminster Abbey on original work temp: 1380 is a mark of a 
distinct character. I have not met with another like it except at Carlisle on a 
building of secular nature but about the same date as at Westminster. Now 
it is difficult to decide from the marks alone whether the mark is that of the 
same man, or two related, or non-related, men. 

Until more information on the subject and nature of the Marks is 
available I do not think it is safe to rely too much on them for the purpose 
I have indicated. 


Besides the share taken by Masons and Builders in the construction of 
buildings here, the co-operation aud aid of other Crafts was necessary, especially 
in the adornment and completion of the building and its contents. That these 
men had some influence with or upon the Masons, is hardly to be doubted. 
That news of work in progress elsewhere came by their means, its nature, style 
and so on, is no less certain. It must be remembered that the thirteenth 
century saw the beginnings of a specialisation in various classes of work, the 
final development of which left the Mason as the mere Builder. My own view 
is that the art, decoration and adornment of our stately and superb edifices 
vent hand in hand with the development of the Mason Craft. 

For want of space and of time I can only here refer to the Craftsmen 
at Westminster Abbey, and, indeed, only to a few of them, but this will be 
sufficient to elucidate the point and indicate that the subject has not been 
overlooked : — 

Carpenters, Master Alexander. 1239-1265. 

Simon the Joiner. 1253. His work on the Sedilia is still extant. 
The Hurley and Herland families. 1273-1395. 

Hugh Herland, one of the above, devised and executed 
the present roof of Westminster Hall, 1398. 

Glaziers. 1253. Lawrence the Glazier — supplied white glass at 4 d . a foot: 
colored at 8' 1 . a foot. 
1290. John of Bristol — supplied glass for windows at a total of 

64/ s . 
Later. The glass was foreign, from Flanders, Normandy, &c, but 
Englishmen were engaged. 

Sculptors. 1259. John of St. Albans. 

1319. Master Richard of Reading. 

1351-8. William of Patrington. [Probably related to the Robert 
of Patrington at York, 1368-70.] William carved images by 
Others from various places, including York, at later dates. 

Marhlcrs. 1253 ft seq: Men from Corfe. 

Alabasterers. 1479-1529. Workers from Nottingham. 

The Tmvdltnij Maxons and Cathedral Builders. 155 

Smiths. 1253. Workers probably from Gloucester, 

1259-90. Master Henry of Lewes — (he died 1291) — made the grille 

on the Tomb of Henry III. 
1294. Master Thomas de Leighton — made grille on the Tomb of 

Eleanor of Castile. 
1316. David at Hope — Chief Smith and Surveyor. 
1371. Peter Bromley. 
1431. Roger Johnson — made ironwork to Tomb of Henry V. 

I'aiuU'.rs. 1240-8. Master William of Westminster (a Monk) — painting in St. 

Faith's Chapel (1265). 
1262. Master Walter of Durham — painted the cover to the Tomb 

of Eleanor of Castile (1292) and the Coronation Chair (1301). 
1307. Master Thomas — son of Walter the painter. 
1292-1349. Richard of Stokwell. 
1367. Master Peter the Sacrist — painted the portrait of Richard II. 

still in the Sacrarium. 

Goldsmiths. 1291-1303. Master William Tore]— Effigies of Eleanor of Castile, 
Henry III., &c, 
1300. Master Adam, King's Goldsmith — made the Coronation Chair. 


1245-53. Henry of Rheims. King's Mason. 
1249-93. John of St. Omer. Painter. 
1253. Peter de Hispania. King's Painter. 

1258. Ordericus of Florence and assistants. Mosaic workers. 

1359. Jean de Soignoles. Macon et ymageur, 

1369. Hawkin de Liege. Tomb of Queen Phillipa of Hainault. 

1512. Torrigiano. Bronze ornaments to and effigies on Tombs of Henry VII. 

and Margaret Duchess of Beaufort. 
John Ducheman. The Screen. 

(The workmen were mostly English.) 


It is obvious that the quantity of work available is a material point to 
be considered. Equally, also, a knowledge of the number of Masons, of those 
free to travel, or those skilled or unskilled, would be most useful. The 
information on these points is very meagre, but we may get a slight idea by 
the population figures, which, approximately, are: — 

11th Cent: After the Conquest about 2 millions. 
13th Cent : About 3 millions. 

14th Cent: 1349, before the Black Death, just over 4 millions, reduced after- 
wards to about 2i millions. 
17th Cent: About 5^ millions. 

However this may be, the proportion of Masons was not large; that of 
the highly skilled man considerably less. Agricultural labour was proportionately 
plentiful and was available for unskilled labouring work between seedtime and 
harvest. The area of land under cultivation was relatively small, but pro- 
duction was in the thirteenth century sufficient for the year. 

We are left to get some idea as to the work which was available from 
existing or known buildings. This is rough and approximate, but is interesting. 
I again limit my examples perforce to Kent and Surrey : — 

156 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Ludye. 


Canterbury Cathedral. Work practically continuous 1065-1331. 
Cathedral work continues 1376-86. Then 1412-1460 and 
1495-1503, etc. 
Rochester Cathedral. 1082-1199, 1227-1235, 1343 and later works. 
Parish Churches. 26 Norman or Pre-Norman periods work. 

22 — of 12th to 16th century — built or added to. 
Castles. 12 built or added to — 11th to 16th century. 
Mediaeval Houses. 14th- 16th century. 17 of note still remaining in 

whole or part, 


No Cathedral till recent times. 

Parish Churches. 19 of Norman or Pre-Nor-man type — in part or 

76 — from 12th to 16th century — built or added to. 
Castles. 5 built or altered — 11th to 16th century. 
Mediaeval Houses. 14th-16th century. 16 of note still remaining in 

whole or part. 

In both cases, repairs, alterations and other works not included. 

This process over the whole country would show much building work 
available in each locality. 


It will be gathered from what has gone before that the subject dealt with 
is of great variety and extent, as well in circumstance as in area. To elucidate 
fully the various points I have referred to is really the task of a lifetime. 
Although I have personally inspected nearly all the Cathedrals in England, and 
many great ecclesiastical buildings and other structures, and have made many 
researches, I have felt compelled to deal only with a very limited number of 
examples and instances in order to keep this paper within reasonable bounds. 
Hence, too, those examples have been taken from buildings in areas within 
practically immediate reach, rather than spreading them over a wider area. 
At the same time I am convinced, from the investigations which I have made 
in other parts than those mentioned, that the propositions I have put before 
you would be more amply justified had the examples been multiplied beyond 
the bounds which I set myself for the present purpose. 

Among the subjects or lines of enquiry which I have purposely refrained 
from discussing in this paper, or been compelled to omit, are the influence and 
operation of Gilds, Fairs, Municipal or Town regulations, on labour and its 
protection and extension. Also the effect of local or extended Pilgrimages, 
Journeys by Ecclesiastics and members of their staffs and others at home and 
abroad, Military expeditions, Sea and Land Transport, Travel for inspections 
and acquisition of information, and many other matters which would have 
affected the provision of work, extension of knowledge and skill, and the 
adoption or adjustment of styles, methods, work and employment of Mason 

I also found it needful to refrain from dealing with the nature and 
effect of the development of Gothic Architecture and the various allied works 
of Art, Sculpture and Decoration. Or the nature and effect of Masonic Craft 
organisations and practices in the operative building art, the regulations and 
procedure of Lodges, their control over the members of the Craft, the provision 
of work for strange Masons, or the putting of such on the way to other places, 
and the means, if any, of recognition, and many other points which, while 
relevant to the question of work and employment, really require more detailed 
and special separate treatment. 

The Travel! nuj Maxonx and Catlierfral Builders*. 1;j7 


The result of the facts and information 1 have placed before you may 
be thus summarised : — 

The Travelling Masons, as a sjiecially organised and authorised body, 
appear to be a fiction. Such travel or movement as occurred was the result 
of ordinary circumstances of the Craft and organised or regulated thereby. 

The Cathedral Builders, as a separate entity of specially skilled Craftsmen, 
cannot be regarded as having any existence here, whatever may have been the 
case elsewhere. The materials so far available do not in my judgment justify 
the claims or assertions made as to their existence, or their succession to other 
alleged bodies, at any rate, so far as England was concerned. 

The importation of Foreign Masons from time to time was at first limited 
in scope and numbers. In later times their work was more in the direction of 
the decorative arts. Neither had any permanent or direct effect on the English 
Craft, its methods, or development. 

There appears to be good reason to infer, or believe, that the old 
organisation of Masons as a distinct body of operative Craftsmen, whatever 
may have been its nature and extent, became after the Black Death con- 
siderably improved and stabilised. The division into grades or classes was 
more apparent and protected. It is noteworthy that the existing copies of the 
Old Charges, greater evidence of Lodge influence and procedure, and even the 
title of Freemason in any form, are only evidenced after that epoch-making 

The consequent revolution in Labour conditions, coincident with greater 
personal freedom from servitude, the rise of commerce and trade and other 
circumstances brought about a very different and complex state of affairs, which, 
from 1349 to the mid-sixteenth century, requires special and detailed treatment. 

The increased development of specialisation of branches of work formerly 
part of the Mason Craft and its effect on the latter, especially in the direction 
of reducing its effective power and continuity, requires further investigation. 

May I add that, whatever view may be taken upon my conclusions or 
the facts I have put before you, I express the hope that this paper will at 
least have aroused your interest and friendly comments, and may result in an 
increased knowledge of the Craft of old times, the value of which to the Craft 
to-day is that it is not merely an incentive to the adoption of those great 
principles of action which animated our forbears, but that it also assists us to 
put into practice the ideals for which we now stand. 

A hearty vote oi ; thanks was passed to Bro. Hobbs, on the proposition of B?f>. 
Covey-Crump seconded by Bro. Norman, comments being offered by or on behalf of 
Bios. H. Poole, L. Vibert, J. Heron Lepper, Ceo. W. Bnllamore. M . J. Williams, 
and C. F. Svkes. 

Ero. W. W. Covey-Crump said: — 

We heartily welcome the evidence which Bro. Hobbs has adduced, and 
greatly appreciate the labour involved in collecting it. Having no predilection, 
however, for iconoclasm, I am not prepared to acespt his primary contention 
that the same facts affect both the "Travelling Masons" and the "Cathedral 
Builders," for I fail to regard them as identical. Let us keep clearly in mind 
the particular period of English history with which they are concerned. I fail 
to see any relevancy in the controversy as to some of Augustine's companion? 
and Benedict Biscop's imported architects being Lihn't ~Sl\iratori . In anv cas<? 

158 Transactions of the. Qi/atuor Coronati Lodge. 

they lived and worked in Saxou days — long before the alleged Papal bull was 
issued in the XIII. Century. 

I have elsewhere expressed certain views as to the " Company of Italian 
Architects" (referred to in the Aubrey-Dugdale statement) being descended 
from the Comacine Masters who had operated in Lombardy. I see no conflict, 
however, between Bro. Hobbs' paper and my own; for I carefully avoided both 
expressions "Travelling Masons" and "Cathedral Builders" because of their 
indefmiteness. Leader Scott used the latter expression, and defined it as 
" builders of cathedrals in Italy," i.e. experts in Romanesque architecture. 
Bro. Bavenscroft used it in the same sense ; though he believed that the 
Mar.xfri (71 Como after disbandment in 1169 "merged into the great Masonic 
Guilds " in England as in other countries. Professor Prior uses the expression 
but means by it the men who planned and directed the erection of cathedral 
structures in England, apart from any central organizing Gild — the existence 
of which is (he says) "not proved." Bro. Hobbs lias (I think, unfortunately) 
not further defined his term "Cathedral Builders" than as "a separate entity 
of specially skilled Craftsmen " — a phrase which is, I suggest, delightfully vague. 

As to his expression " Travelling Masons " we are more clear. He 
implies, not architects or supervisors, but artizan operatives, going about from 
place to place wherever ecclesiastical or monastic erections (or alterations) were 
in progress, during the English Gothic period. He contends, quite justifiably, 
that during the reigns of Norman and Angevin monarclis the intercommunication 
between England and Northern France was such that, though it did not induce 
any appreciable immigration of French operative masons (as suggested by Prof. 
Prior), it did materially affect the status and organization of our uative sculptors 
and stone-squarers. The English Lodges (he says) were then evolving from mere 
workshops into centres for combined action, and for developing certain tectonic 
improvements brought by migratory craftsmen from other parts of the country. 

Whilst, therefore, we shall all admit that (as Prof. Prior maintained) 
a decided emancipation from feudal claims of servitude and an establishment of 
greater freedom to travel about resulted from industrial conditions in England 
after the Black Death in 1349, and showed itself in mason-craft by the birth 
of Perpendicular architecture, that event may in the case of the ecclesiastical 
operative masons have merely strengthened privileges existent long anterior. 
The erection of Gothic minsters and churches in England had by that time 
become a nearly finished work; and although from Gloucester and elsewhere there 
issued bands of travelling masons, they were not the " Cathedral Builders." 

Nor do I think Bro. Hobbs has demonstrated that the secular lords 
transferred ecclesiastical craftsmen from ecclesiastical work to that of erecting 
and extending castles and other buildings of that kind. An exception could 
perhaps be urged as regards colleges at Oxford and Cambridge, but anything 
beyond that is unproven. The names adduced by Bro. Hobbs in supporting hi^- 
surmise are those of that superior class which presided over the work. That 
such " master masons " occasionally planned or directed certain secular jobs 
more or less contiguous to the ecclesiastical work which they were supervising 
may be quite true; but it furnishes no criterion as to any earlier or contemporary 
transfer of artizans skilled in church building. And it is of utmost importance 
for us to remember that the claims for the descent of our fraternity are claims for 
an old (though small and select) organization of manual operative craftsmen, 
not for one of draughtsmen or supervisors ; though the latter may, and probably 
did, become merged into the class of settled urban e/n pli>f/erx who became 
constituted as one of the civic trade Gilds, and more subsequently were able (by 
force of circumstances) to impress a ritual and certain traditions involved therein 
upon a sodality of masons far older than their own. 

With these few remarks and fraternal criticisms, I have much pleasure in 
proposing that a hearty vote of thanks be accorded to W.Bro. Hobbs for his 
valuable and interesting paper. 

Discussion. 159 

Bro. Lepper said: — 

Brother Hobbs has not given us anything in his pleasant paper that T 
feel disposed to criticise, so, apart from joining in the thanks we all owe him 
for his industry in collecting and clarity in presenting the material, the only 
thing left for me to do is to stress one or two passages in it that seem to deserve 
special stressing. 

We should recognise to the full the advantages that accrued to native 
architecture by what Bro. Hobbs terms " the utilization of foreign 
highly skilled masters as supervisors or advisers of works." A former Prime 
Minister of France has, in a recent book, made some sapient remarks upon the 
influence of district on architectural style, and, as a pendant, has pointed out how 
even the most experienced builders had to accommodate their plans to new 
surroundings and allow their personal aspirations to be modified by local taste, 
available quarries, transport facilities, and the like. " Lanfranc," he says/ 
" whether as Prior of Saint Etienne (in Caen) or Archbishop of Canterbury, 
w 7 ill not be able to apply to his creations the ideas he may have amassed in 
Lombardy. Saint Etienne will be inspired by Jumieges ; Canterbury Cathedral 
will imitate the abbey church of Bernay. . . . The Romanesque art of 
Normandy will penetrate all England, and will inspire work so nearly approaching 
to the treasures of our own province as to form, even to-day, a powerful bond 
between two great countries." And later (page 93), alluding to the French 
architect, William de Sens (William de Seno), who was summoned to Canterbury 
to supervise the construction there in the twelfth century, he remarks: "At 
Canterbury I cannot but feel the tie which unites this English capital of the 
faith to the celebrated abbey whose ruins remain in Bee Hellouin. Once again, 
Normandy forces us to look in turn towards England and towards France, so 
as to recall to the two countries the community of ideas which binds them 

This is a statement, in somewhat rhetorical terms, of the indisputable 
fact that when a Norman ecclesiastic with a taste for building was translated 
from his own country to a fatter see in what Geoffrey of Monmouth calls ' ' the 
best of islands," he would bring his architect and, probably, some of his skilled 
workmen with him. The superior knowledge and cleverness of these strangers 
may well have given rise to the legend of the Comacines, 

Putting such theories on one side, my own opinion is that a great number 
of these foreign skilled workers in stone must have come into this country during 
mediaeval times. A curious proof of this came under my own observation quite 
recently, while paying a visit to the little twelfth-century church of Brookland, 
in the Kentish Marshes, near Rye. It contains a beautiful stone octagonal 
font, on which the carved panels represent the seasons of the year; and 1 noted 
w r ith surprise and pleasure that the choice of subjects and details were precisely 
the same as occur in some of the cathedrals of Northern France, details of which 
can be found in M. Emile Male's great work on ecclesiastical art, " L'Art 
religieux du XIII. siecle." 

This example points out for us one of the trade secrets owned by the 
mediaeval Craft; that is, the knowledge of how a sacred image or symbol, or a 
series of them, should be portrayed or grouped ; there was only one right way of 
representing it or them, and all the other ways were regarded as wrong. Thus 
we find the Craftsman in Kent illustrating his theme by precisely the same 
allegorical figures as were being employed by brother artists in Chartres and a 
dozen other places as far removed from one another. 

The subject is too vast for more than a menticn on the present occasion ; 
this much, however, I may advance as a personal theory : that the identity of 
practice in grouping symbols which was common to masons of different nations 
seems to argue a very good understanding between the members of the Craft, 

1 " Amid the Forests of Normandy," by Edouard Herriot. English translation 
by John Hevou Lepper, 1926; p. 62, 

160 Transactions of the Qimtuor Coronati Lodye. 

as a Craft, and irrespective of nation. The facts themselves are "beyond dispute, 
but if we begin to argue from them disputes would be certain to arise; so I will 

It would be quite possible, I think, to illustrate the relations between 
the Lord and his Freemason by evidence drawn from a very much later period, 
than that dealt with in Bro. Hobbs' paper, for this evidence would show the 
existence of ancient customs; and there is nothing so indestructible as a custom 
unless it be a symbol. I have in my mind's eye the diary of the Karl of Cork 
who was a great builder in Dorset and Minister in the early years of the 
seventeenth century. In this personal record we find many intimate details 
of Boyle's dealings with his workmen; how he employed skilled Bristol Masons 
to shape stones, which were afterwards shipped into Ireland and set up in place 
by his local Irish Masons; his contracts for building near Sherborne and else- 
where; the way in which he stood by his workmen when they got into trouble; 
his little presents to them to ensure good workmanship ; his laudable habit of 
beginning any new building operation by invoking the Deity ; all of these things 
have a truly mediaeval flavour, and would perhaps help to throw light on social 
conditions prevailing in yet earlier times. However, this is hardly the time 
to introduce them to your notice, so I will conclude by heartily supporting this 
vote of thanks to Bro. Hobbs. 

Bro. C. F. Sykes said: — 

I wish to add my word of thanks to Bro. Hobbs for his paper, reading 
which has given me much pleasure. 

There had been, as Bro. Hobbs puts it, some peaceful penetration of the 
Norman style of architecture into England prior to the Conquest. I was 
somewhat surprised recently to see among the ruins of the Abbey of Jumieges 
some signs there at least of peaceful penetration in the opposite direction, for 
on the S.W. side of the main building are evidences of Saxon work. 

The particular point to which I wish to direct attention is that of the 
intrusion of foreign workmen into England. During the period which Bro. 
Hobbs designates, the "Conquest period and later," I think there is pre- 
sumptive evidence of the presence of a much greater number of foreign 
workmen in England than Bro. Hobbs is inclined to allow. 

The Norman Period was one of great building activity and the amount 
of work accomplished is astonishing. This activity, moreover, was immediate 
after the Conquest and continuous. Look through a list of only the principal 
buildings upon which work was commenced before 1200, compare the skill which 
is exhibited in Norman construction with that which preceded it, and one is 
driven to the conclusion that there must have been a large number of foreign 
workmen employed. 

In a little handbook entitled, "English Architecture at a Glance," 
published by the Architectural Press, occurs the following: — 

' ' Norman architecture was introduced at the time of the Norman 
" Conquest, and so rapidly did the new style spread throughout the laud that 
" when the country had quieted down after the upheaval caused by the invasion, 
"hundreds of cathedrals, monasteries, abbeys and parish churches had already 
" been erected." 

Dr. Cunningham, in " The Growth of English Industry and Commerce," 
holds that there was a large immigration of artisans, merchants and builders, 
which began soon after the Conquest. At page 144 he writes: — 

" There has been so much rebuilding at different times, so much destruc- 
tion at others, that it is difficult for us to form any conception of the actual 
"amount of masons' work that was accomplished under the Normans and early 
" Plantageuets ; the abbeys and cathedrals which were erected then may be 

Discussion. 161 

" counted by tens, and the parish churches by thousands. Anyone who will 
"take a single county and look; for evidences of Norman, Transitional and Early- 
" English work, may e:\sily convince himself with his own eyes that this is no 
" exaggeration. " 

On pages 187 and 188 : — 

f ' Mauv monuments remain and give unimpeachable evidence of a large 
incursion of builders at all events. The few stone buildings which date from 
the time before the Conquest are different in style and workmanship from 
those which were erected in the twelfth century, but the twelfth century was 
a time of extraordinary activity in masons' work of every kind. There are 
numberless abbey churches and cathedrals which still bear witness to the skill 
of the Norman builders; but they give but a small idea of the amount of work 
which was going on at that time. However it may have been altered since, 
the fabric of very many of the parish churches of England still supplies evidence 
that the present buildings were first erected in the twelfth century; possibly 
the churches before this date had been usually constructed of wood; and the 
parishes throughout the length and breadth of England seem to have vied 
with each other in substituting new churches of stone. But besides these 
ecclesiastical edifices, many castles were reared. From Rochester to Carlisle, 
from Hedingham to Ludlow, the land was studded with huge fortresses. Both 
in design and in detail the masonry of the time bears witness that it comes 
from the hands of the men who practised the arts as they were followed at 
Caen. When we consider the number of these buildings which are still 
standing, though with more or less of subsequent alteration, and the tedious 
labour that was required to erect them, we cannot but feel that a very large 
number of masons and builders must have come in with the Conqueror." 

Professor Ashley, in a review of the Second Edition of Cunningham's 
work, questioned this immigration of alien craftsmen. The author, in an 
appendix to a later edition, gives the result of further researches, which strengthen 
his previous view. 

On page 649 : — 

" That there was a great development of building shortly after the 
Conquest is obvious from the remains which survive. The stone churches, 
indeed the stone buildings of any kind, erected before the Conquest were 
probably very few in number, as wood was a favourite building material ; the 
masonry which remains from pre-Normau times has some peculiarities of 
structure, while the workmanship is coarse, though effective. The beautiful 
masonry of the Norman castles and churches could scarcely have been executed 
fay the less skilled English craftsmen, while it has its exact parallel in 
contemporary buildings in Caen. When we remember, too, the extraordinary 
number of stone buildings erected in this country in the twelfth century, it is 
difficult to see where all the masons could have come from ; fragments of stone- 
work in one church after another go to show that churches which have been 
subsequently restored in the fourteenth or fifteenth centuries, were originally 
built in Norman times; masons were at work in every part of the country, 
building, after a foreign fashion, and with foreign skill, within a century 
after the Conquest. Stone was frequently imported from Caen; and that there 
was frequent intercourse between the workmen on both sides of the Channel 
appears from the simultaneous improvement in the art which took place in 
both countries in the twelfth century. In other cases, where Flemish fonts 
are found in the churches, it seems possible that the fabric was due to Flemish 
hands. The men of the Low Countries had a high reputation as builders 
in the succeeding century, and some were brought to do work even then ; 
though bv that time the art had had every chance of taking deep root in 
English soil. Bishop Poor of Salisbury employed Flemings in the building 
of his magnificent church, and there are traces of their presence at the erection 
of Llaudaff Cathedral, of Caerphilly Castle, and in Leicester, in the thirteenth 

162 Transactions of the Quutuor L'oronati Lodge. 

" century. The continued reliance on foreign skill raises a presumption that 
"the beat work of the preceding age had been done by imported craftsmen; 
"indeed, skill in any manual art can only be transferred from one land to 
"another by transferring the men who practise that art." 

That there were close friendly relations between the craftsmen on both 
sides of the Channel appears to be supported by Bro. Vibert in his ' Story of 
the Craft,' where, on page 10, he alludes to the similarity of styles in Northern 
France and England and on page 25 to the developments in France being 
followed by similar developments in England. 

This points to the fact that advancements in architectural design and 
structure were not only the residts of native talent and skill and that the 
developments in England were directly affected by foreign workmen. 

As another indication of foreign influence it is not unworthy of notice that 
the word ' Mason ' did not come into use until the twelfth century and then 
in France. It appears to have become established as the designation of the 
English Craftsman at about the time Chaucer was writing English in England, 
soon after the outbreak of the Hundred Years War, which interfered with the 
parallel developments of architecture in France and England and left eacli 
afterwards to advance on individual lines. 

Bro. II. Poole writes: — 

I think Bro. Hobbs is to be congratulated on what may, -even in these 
days, be fairly called a pioneer effort. With the exception of Dr. AV. 
Cunningham's paper of 1913 on the " Organisation of the Mason's Craft m 
England " (which was reprinted in Misc. Lat., Vol. x.), and perhaps also of 
Wyatt Papworth's paper of 1868 (which Cunningham quotes), I know of no 
systematic attempt on any suitable scale to get down to the bed-rock facts as 
to the organisation and functions of the mediaeval Mason. And I hope that 
this paper will lead to a much closer scrutiny of the mass of operative material 
(published and unpublished) which is available for the student, in ' Fabric Rolls,' 
Contracts, Gild records, and Rolls of Freemen, and perhaps to the discovery and 
publication of more such records. 

Little attention has so far been paid to the subject, except as regards 
London, where conditions cannot have been quite the same as in the provinces. 
At York, where conditions must have been somewhat similar — where, for example, 
in the early 15th century, there was sufficient Church building to employ a Town 
gild — the Cathedral Masons appear to have been largely independent of the City 
as regards freedom to work. The ' Fabric Rolls,' in the edition by Raine for 
the Surtees Society, are very inadequate in the matter of the names of the 
Masons. Between 1350 and 1446 there are 71 names of men employed in the 
building trades, including those of carpenter and glazier; of these, only 7 22 
appear in the City's roll of freemen, which seems to be fair!// complete; and of 
these 22, no less than 3 obtained the freedom of the City after they were 
employed on responsible jobs at the Minster. The transcription of the complete 
rolls might lead to much valuable light being thrown on the relationship between 
the two bodies. 

To give another illustration of the type of evidence supplied by such 
documents : the expense-roll for the building of the Kitchen at Durham in 1368 
(not, I believe, published) shows a John Lewyne as Master Mason ; while a 
' Jolian Lewyn mason ' contracted for work at Bolton in Wensleydale in 1378 
(A.Q.C. x., 70) — doubtless the same man, engaged on buildings in one case for 
the Prior of Durham and in the other for a lay employer. 

I a7n strongly inclined to accept Bro. Hobbs' conclusions ; but only such 
material as I have quoted, in the largest possible quantities, can fully establish 
the facts. It has long been a matter of astonishment to me that such research 
has not been undertaken; and if Bro. Hobbs succeeds in arousing a new interest 
in the subject, this paper will not have been in vain, 

Discussion. 163 

Bro. W. J. Williams writes: — ■ 

This Lodge and the Craft generally are greatly indebted to our Essayist 
for the illuminating and instructive paper he has produced, as well as for the 
discreet way in which he has repeatedly and emphatically limited the scope of 
his conclusions. Even in the course of enumerating the various matters which 
he has excluded from immediate consideration he has furnished us with many 
topics for future study. 

As to the move meats of Masons in the course of doing or obtaining their 
work, it seems desirable to note that Bro. Hobbs states that " it cannot be denied 
" that Masons were at times migratory, although many were not." Even if a 
Papal Bull, Diploma, or Patent were to be found, it would not follow that such 
migrations were made in pursuance of it. The necessity of the case is sufficient 
reason to account for all such movements in England as are in evidence. The 
occasional emigration of external Masons into England, such as is referred to 
by the Venerable Bede as having taken place about 675 A.D., when Benedict 
brought Masons from Gaul, gives very slender grounds for inferring the existence 
of an organised School of Masons emanating from the Comacines. 

The position seems to be that throughout his paper Bro, Hobbs has proved, 
and more especially in post-conquest times, that the ecclesiastical and other 
masonic work of the country was done by or under the direction of men whose 
names are known and on record, aud consequently there would not have been 
room for other workers. Had they presented themselves, they might have been 
told "from the lateness of your application the principal offices are already 
"filled." The actual workers so named are, in the main, English residents 
so far as structural work is concerned, as distinguished from a few special cases 
where decoration rather than construction was wanted. 

The book entitled "The Cathedral Builders" places very considerable 
stress on the recurrence of certain architectural details as evidencing a collegiate 
solidarity in the persons of the builders who utilised similar forms. Such a 
method can easily be carried too far and is in itself an insecure base for the 
construction of a conclusive argument. 

There was more travelling from one country to another in mediaeval times 
than we usually realise, and the facilities for travelling on land were not very 
considerably improved between Roman times and the beginning of the 19th 
century. Ecclesiastics (including Scholars), Artists and Noblemen were fre- 
quently going from their own homes to and from Rome, the Holy Land and 
other places, and thus anything especially noteworthy iu the building of important 
edifices would readily become known as to its general design. The transmission 
of designs in this way dates back to very distant ages, and it will be in the 
recollection of most of us that King Ahaz when he went to Damascus to meet 
Tiglath-Pileser, King of Assyria, saw an altar that was at Damascus, and sent 
to Urijah the priest the fashion of the altar and the pattern of it according to 
all the workmanship thereof, aud Urijah the priest built an altar according to 
all that King Ahaz had sent from Damascus. (II. Kings, xvi., 10, 11.) 

Presumably there never was a time when it required any abnormal skill, 
in a builder who knew his work and had the artistic faculty, to carry into execution 
any plan or design the general idea of which was communicated to him by an 
intelligent and interested traveller who had seen such an edifice in some foreign 
land. The influence would sometimes be reciprocal as between East and West; 
between England and the Continent. 

Neither the Comacines (whoever we may include under that designation) 
nor any other body of men had or could possibly have a monopoly of the archi- 
tectural and other artistic impulses. 

Bro. Hobbs has referred to Henry de Yevele (which I believe really means 
Henry of Yeovil). He died in 1400 and according to the D.X/B. he was at 
work "at Westminster for the King as early as 1356. The Patent Rolls for the 
reigns of Edward III. and Richard IT. throw very considerable light upon the 
history of the Craft during that period. Even in connection with Henry de 

164 Traus/u-tioiix of the (Jirttitor i'oronati lodf/e. 

Yevele alone we find him named as keeper of London Bridge and the works 
thereof (13 — ); in 1369 (43 Edw. III., p. IT., m. 25) a patent conferred upon 
him for life the office of disposer of the works of Masonrv in the Palace of West- 
minster and the Tower of London, with 12d. a day and a Winter Robe j-early 
out of the Wardrobe of the suit of the Esquires or its equivalent in value. This 
however was but an extension of a grant made 9 years before in. the 34th year 
of that reign during the King's pleasure. The Is. a day was afterwards 
commuted as to all but 25 shillings per annum by the grant of certain Manors 
having a slightly less annual value, namely £17 per annum as against £18 5s. 
per annum. Henry de Yevele was also employed in connection with works at 
Rochester Bridge, at Canterbury, and at Winchester. 

For these and other works Masons were needed and accordingly patents 
wera granted, of which I quote, a few specimens which seem to indicate that 
in those days to be a Mason was not to be Free. 

1st March, 1470. J,. 1 , Kdtrard If/., part 1, nu-mh. 21,.. 

Appointment of Master Henry Yevele to take 50 hewers of stone in 
London and the Counties of Middlesex, Essex., Kent, and Surrey, and bring 
them to Orwell or elsewhere as the King shall order so that they be there by 
1st May next at latest ready to set out from thence at the King's wages whither 
he shall appoint and arrest and commit to prison until further order all 

There was also a like grant to Master William de Wynford to take 50 
hewers of stone in the Counties of Somerset, Dorset, Oxford, Berks, Northampton. 
Bedford, and Buckingham, and bring them to Orwell as above. 

These two patents indicate that M.asons of the class referred to were ex- 
pected to be found in a wide area. 

1-177. 1 li'/ehurd 11., part /, Jl cmbrane 27. /Oth lid//, 1-177. 

Appointment of Henry de Yevele to take Masons (cementarios) wherever 
found except in the fee of the Church and put them on the King's works at 
the Palace of Westminster and the Tower with power to imprison the disobedient. 

Mevt/ 7, J, ITS. 1 JilchanI II., part v., me nib. T. 

Appointment of Master William Wyndford and Master Henry Yevele to 
choose and take and sel; to work at the King's charge as many stonemasons and 
other workmen tis shall be necessary for the works ordered at Southampton 
excepting the fee of the Church. 

[These two patents also show that there were Masons specially exempted 
as being employed by the Church.] 

l.'/th March, 13S1. ', llichard II., part 2. 

Appointment of Master Henry Yevele to take 30 Masons without the fee 
of the Church in the City and suburbs of London and the Counties of Kent, 
Essex, and Middlesex, and deliver them to William Lakenhethe, Sergant-at-Arms 
for service in Brittany with the King's Uncle, Thomas Earl of Buckingham. 

11th May, 133/ . I have a note that on this date protection was granted 
by patent for one year for William Londeneys, mason, working with the Abp. 
of Canterbury on the new city wall of Canterbury. 

1.3th March, 1203. JO Iid/tard II., part 3, membrane 25. 

Appointment of John Mayhew and John Russe, the King's workers of 
marble columns in the Church of St. Peter Westminster to take personally and 
by deputies in Dorset at reasonable wages the necessary masons workmen and 
servants of that art and ships, wains, and carts for carriage for the said work. 

Other instances could be given of similar operations with regard to the 
impressment of Masons, but I refrain. Brother Hobbs indicates in his paper 
that he was fully cognisant of these matters so the fact that I am able to call 
attention to them in some detail is due to his forbearance and not to any over- 
sight on his part. 

Discussion. 165 

Bro. Geo. W. Bullamore writes: — 

A tradition is something passed down by oral, as apart from documentary 
transmission. Bro. Hobbs suggests that we should dismiss as fabulous tradi- 
tions, the gilds of travelling masons and the belief that the first free masons in 
this country were protected by a Papal Bull in the time of Henry 111. 

Herbert in his History of the Livery Coin/pa-uies says: — " Gervase of Can- 
terbury speaks of both French and English, skilled in stone aiid woodwork 
travelling in gilds or societies for the purpose of building." I have little doubt 
that the popular idea is derived from Herbert, and as he gives a twelfth century 
historian as authority for the statement it does not fulfil my idea of tradition. 

The only statement concerning the origin of the Freemasons which 
antedates the loss of the documents of the Company of Freemasons attributes 
their origin to a Papal Bull in the time of Henry III. The belief is said to 
have been common to Dugdale, Ashmole and Wren. There was then in existence 
a document (quoted as to the livery in 1724) which contained the declaration 
of the Freemasons made before the 'Mayor and Aldermen in 1481 v . Such 
declarations by other gilds give the origin and object of their society. If we 
decide that this statement as to the Papal Bull came down by tradition we infer 
that historians curious as to the origin of the Freemasons failed to consult the 
Freemasons' records or else that the Freemasons did not declare their object and 
origin like other gilds in the past. My own opinion is that Dugdale, Ashmole 
and Wren all knew of this document and that we are not dealing with tradition. 
In both cases evidence of their fabulous nature must come from counter state- 
ments capable of the desired proofs. Till this is produced they are entitled to 

Bro. Gilbert W. Daynes irrites: — ■ 

Bro. ITobbs has, in his Paper, not only brought together many suggestive 
facts, but has also put before us certain aspects of mediaeval operative Masonry, 
which cannot fail to interest all Masonic students. 1 am so glad that he has 
made reference to and emphasized the importance of the English Castles in 
mediaeval Masonry. It has always surprised me to find that, in discussing 
operative Masonry, most Brethren have dealt with Gothic architecture in relation 
to the ecclesiastical buildings, and have ignored the erection of the enormous 
number of castles, which were constructed all over England and Wales, and oi 
which the ruins of so many still remain to tell us of their former greatness. 

It seems quite clear from the facts adduced by Bro. Hobbs that the term 
" Cathedral Builders," for any class of Mason, is a misnomer. Many of the 
Masons who built our Cathedrals must certainly have assisted in the erection 
of Abbeys, Priories, Churches and ether Ecclesiastical buildings, as well as taken 
part in the construction of those stone Castles which were erected during the 
same period. It may, however, be pointed out that in nearly all the examples 
given by Bro. Hobbs the Master Masons were the King's Master Masons, and 
as such would of necessity be available for the building, or repair, of the King's 
Castles. Tt would therefore be of still greater intere:-:t to the Student if Bro. 
Hobbs could amplify his Paper by giving examples of Master Masons, not so 
highly placed, who had charge of the erection, or took part in the construction, 
of both Ecclesiastical structures and Military Castles. The presence of similar 
types of architectural ornaments in Castles and Churches goes far to indicate 
that the same skilled Masons were employed on both. 

Accepting Bro. Hobbs' statement that there were no Gilds of Cathedral 
Builders, but that. " men in charge of the construction of great ecclesiastical 
buildings were also engaged on castle or other structures," there is another 
aspect of the matter upon which Bro. Hobbs does not touch. Nowhere in his 
Paper is there any answer to the question : Were those Masons, who built the 

1 Printed in full at A.Q.C., xxvii., 82-84. 


Transact ton* of the- Quatuor Coronatt Lodye. 

Churches, Castles, &c, the same as those who formed the Mason Gilds in the 
various Towns in England? Or, to put it in another way: Has Bro. Hobbs 
any affirmative evidence to demonstrate that Gild Masons left their Gilds and 
Towns to assist in the erection of Cathedrals, Monasteries, Churches and Castles ? 
Personally I have not been able to find any such evidence, and therefore hesitate 
to believe that, except perhaps under impressment, the Gild Masons from the 
Towns did assist in the construction of those Castles which were so often erected 
to dominate the towns in or near to which they were built. In this connection 
I refer, of course, to Master Masons, or Freemasons. The MS. Constitutions 
and the Masons' Gild Ordinances show a very different attitude of mind towards 
the Mason Craft as a whole. A careful comparison of the two peems to point 
to the fact that at some period the Gild Masons were separate from those 
Travelling Masons who erected many of our Castles as well as our Cathedrals, 
Abbeys and other important Ecclesiastical buildings, although after the Reforma- 
tion the Travelling Masons would doubtless have migrated to the Towns and 
gradually have joined the local Gild. 

With regard to the query by Bro. Hobbs as to the ownership of the 
Masons' tools, I would refer him to Apprenticeship Indentures for a part answer. 
Amongst the muniments of the City of Norwich there is a Book in which are 
enrolled several Apprenticeship Indentures of Masons. In most of there, dated 
from 1554 to 1560, it will be found that the Master Mason had to find the 
Apprentice at the end of his term with certain tools. (A.Q.C., vol. xv., p. 212.) 

I am sure we are all grateful to Bro. Hobbs for having re-opeued this 
wide subject — the operative Masons of mediaeval England — and the facts that 
he has collected should prove of considerable value to any student studying 
this phase of Freemasonry. 


Transactions of the Quatiiur Coronati Lodge. 




EDTEVAL, or Gothic Art, has been the subject of countless 
works. One of the most recent upon this subject, but written 
from a fresh view-point, is Art and the Reformation, by G. G. 
Coulton. In a well-illustrated Book, containing 595 pages, 
divided into twenty-five chapters, with thirty-five Appendices, 
the Author has " sought to trace very briefly the rise and decay 
of Medieval Art, and thence to argue first that its origin was 
less definitely religious than is commony supposed; secondly, 
that its decay was gradual — a logical and natural consequence of its evolution — 
and lastly, that its deathblow came not so much from the Reformation as from 
that general transformation of the western intellect which we call the 
Renaissance." "With regard to Art, he confines himself "mainly to Architecture 
and its subsidiary arts during the Middle Ages and the early Reformation 
period"; and with regard to Religion he confines himself to the Christian 
religion as conceived (to take two rough dates) between A.T). 1000 and 1600." 
Mr. Coulton reminds us that the great building era which set in during the 
eleventh century taxed the builders' resources to the utmost : that great 
churches and castles were wanted and masons and carpenters gradually rose to 
this greatness ; and that, later, greater and greater churches and castles were 
needed and the masons and carpenters rose to these more insistent demands 
until they reached their limit in structural design and ornamentation. But 
as soon as the ornamentation became superficial — a veneer rather than an 
essential constituent of the building itself — then Gothic Art began to decline, 
and thus the decadence in Art set in long before those religious changes to 
which such decadence has been attributed. Summing up, he asserts that 
"though it is true that Art and Religion from A.l). 1000 to 1600 and later, 
went through a very similar evolution, yet it was not entirely the course of 
Religion which dominated that of Art; we have no real excuse for talking of 
Religion as the bed through which the stream of Art flowed. Each evolved in 
accordance with wider social influences." 

In support of his views the Author has declined to accept mere generaliza- 
tions made from time to time upon faith of others who have gone before, but 
has gone to the fountain head — the actual records of the Middle Ages. From 
such sources he has brought together a wealth of material, and by the use of 
copious extracts has enabled us to learn " what contemporary writers of the 
Middle Ages have actually to tell us on the subject of Medieval religion and 
art in their mutual relations." Thus we have at our disposal a source-book, 
systematically arranged, with the Author's comments and views upon the 
" emergent problems." 

The first four chapters are devoted to the rival claims of the Monastic; 
and Lay Artist. With regard to the former, Mr. Coulton makes it quite clear, 
from contemporary records, that the Monastic Artist is the exception, and that 
even more exceptional were the Monastic workmen-builders. In the main the 
construction of Monastic and other ecclesiastical buildings was through the 
ordinary building trade of the period. He emphasizes the fact that Gothic Art 

168 Trditsacttous of the Quutuor L'orotuitt Lodyt. 

" is not in any real sense a Monastic art, although monks were certainly among 
its most liberal patrons, being able to spend far more money upon building than 
most ether people, and struggling with a natural and healthy rivalry to outdo 
the bishops, as the bishops strove to outdo the monks." He asserts that " even 
ill the Monastic period of architecture, the greatest buildings were often raised 
by horde:? of comparatively unskilled labourers, free or unfree, whose numbers 
compensated in some measure fcr their want of technical skill." Further, he 
quotes examples to show that Master-Masons were sometimes even serfs, the 
latest case he mentions for England being 1304. The anonymity in medieval 
art is discussed. Illustrations are given of English Masons, such as Andrew 
Swinnow and Thomas Bate, who did record their names on their work; but it 
is pointed out that similar examples are hard to find. The imprest system is 
referred to, and instances are given of important English buildings which were 
to a great extent built by pressed workmen in the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries. The next chapter is devoted to four self-characterizations, viz., the 
North-German Monk, Theophilus (d. circa. 1120); the French Master-Mason, 
Villard de Honnecourt (d, c. 1260); the Italian Painter, Cennins Cennini (d. c. 
1420); and the South-German Albrecht Diirer (1471-1528). That of the 
French Master-Mason naturally possesses the greatest interest for Freemasons. 
There is much to be learnt from the drawings, &c, in Villard 's Album, which 
we are told is " a testimonial to the variety of a master mason's jobs and to the 
active thought and discussion which went on in the lodge." 

Chapters vii. to xii. are full of useful material for all Masonic students, 
being devoted to the Operative Freemasons and their work. Mr. Coulton thinks 
it probable that the term "free-mason" meant a worker in free stone, but 
admits that the other view, that the word meant one who had the freedom of 
the town, is deserving of consideration. In his sketch of the Operative Free- 
mason there is, needless to say, much that has appeared elsewhere ; but the 
wealth of references to medieval records makes it fascinating to read and useful 
for the student. The records of the German Steinmetzen are considered in 
conjunction with the Craft traditions as set out in the Regius Poem and Cooke 
M.S. It is doubtful whether Mr. Coulton has quite appreciated the exact 
nature of the former, with its poetic licence and added material from other 
works. Then, too, the repetition in the Cooke MS. and its differences from 
the Regius Poem has led him to state that " the variations are such as practically 
to disprove the claim of each MS. to represent an ancient and settled tradition." 
With regard to the Masons' claim that Athektan was the founder of tlie 
Craft in England, he says " there can be little doubt that the suggestion came 
from the suggestion of xtaiir, xfont\ in his name." The Author also has 
interesting theories as to the creation of the traditional history of the Craft by 
the composers or writers of the MSS. just referred to. 

The importance of the Mason's Mark is very present to the Author's 
mind, and he points out " the crying need for some scholar with sufficient 
leisure to assimilate these scattered records and work out a full synthesis." With 
regard to the "banker-marks" — the mason's sign-manual which he set on his 
finished stone before it left the banker, or working-bench — Mr. Coulton considers 
that " all the indications point to the probability that, originally, the mark 
system had not been invented by the workmen but imposed by their superiors, 
and that such compulsion remained an essential characteristic throughout our 
whole period, at least." Examples of the same mark in different buildings, 
showing similar characteristics, are given; and it is shown how the actual 
master mason can be traced by the similarity of distinctive designs in different 
churches. We are warned not to confuse the position marks with the banker 
marks, and many instances of the use of the former are given. After the 
Author has discussed the Hand-grip, as the means of recognition between Masons, 
and has also commented upon sundry gild regulations affecting the Craftsmen, 
he interposes a chapter which deals in detail with the building accounts relating 
to Eton College and King's College, Cambridge, premising that the same man 
was called mason, freemason and master-mason, and that " it is probable. 

Hi rn >r. IG<* 

therefore, that we shall never be able to define exactly the different masonic 
titles, and that they were seldom or never exactly differentiated in fact." To 
those who have not already studied these accounts, the extracts given, and the. 
deductions made therefrom, are of considerable interest. 

Chapter xi. is headed " 'From Prentice to Master," a title which sufficiently 
indicates the subject treated. Masons undoubtedly came from a poor social 
status; and, although they must in the main have been wanderers, we are 
warned to avoid " the idea that these men formed a definite type, apart from 
the society of their time." Here, again, Mr. Coulton has collected many 
original sources from which to develop his points. The wanderings of the 
Mason are well brought out in the chapter that follows, in which we have a 
make-believe story of some Norfolk Masons and their families going from place 
to place, but we are told that there is nothing of importance in the story " for 
which vouchers could not be given, in the sense that it, or something like it, 
did really happen." 

The Book now, to a great extent, takes leave of the Masons as builders; 
and although, here and there, old building contracts and other records are quoted, 
which are valuable to the Masonic Stttdent if previously unknown to him, yet, 
in the main, chapters xiii. to xxv. deal with the Author's chief subject-matter — 
Art and the Reformation. Thus a suggestive chapter on " Symbolism " is 
followed by others on "The People's Mind," and "The Poor Man's Bible." 
There are also chapters on "Art and Religion," "Architectural Finance" — 
dealing with the raising of money for church building — and " The Puritan 
Revolt"; while the remaining chapters deal with the Renaissance, the rise of 
Protestantism and the Reformation, It is the Author's contention that the 
Renaissance did a great deal to open men's eyes as to the fabulous nature of 
much which had inspired the best of Gothic art, and that it cannot seriously 
be contended that it was Protestantism which killed Medieval Symbolic Art. 

Many of the Appendices are very valuable, and all excerpts have their 
respective sources given in the notes. Throughout the whole book there is much 
to interest and instruct the Masonic Student. ]n his Preface the Author states 
that he has made " an honest attempt to get at actual realities," and the 
attempt is certainly a very good one. Mr. Coulton 's reputation as a scholar of 
Medieval History, and the attractive manner in which he has made the various 
records of the past speak for themselves, should commend Art and the 
lie-formation to all Masons, but especially to those who are making a study of 
the Operative period of Freemasonry. 

Gilbert W. Daynes. 
7th November, 1928. 


T/'riitxrictifj/ix of tin: ijiitititor ('oro/iofi Lothje 


MASON. — At p. 105 of vol. xxxix. there is a note on Henry 
Redman, one of the master masons who presided over the building 
of Westminster Abbey, in which the inscription on his monument 
ai Brentford is given in full. By the kindness of Bro. L, S. 
Fosbrooko, of Arcadian Lodge No. 2(>9b, 1 am now able to 
reproduce a photograph of the actual monument, in which the 
words " chefe m mason" can be made out at the beginning 
-)f the second line of the inscription. Unfortunately the monument has been 
much damaged in the past, but it is now properly protected behind glass, and 
preserves for us the memory of a great craftsman of old days. 

Dr, Desaguliers. — In his "Life of John Theophilus Desaguliers. " printed 
in A.( t )J'.. xxxviii.. p. 288, Bro. Stokes quotes a reference to the "Will dated 
'29th Nov., IT'LL proved 1st March, 1743-4, of the aforesaid Grand Master. 
The following extract from Register Anstis. fo. 68. of the Prerogative Court of 
Lanterbury, adds a little 1o our information. 

The Will describes the Testator as John Theophilus Desaguliers, Doctor 
•of Laws, but- contains no reference to his position as a clergyman. Tie describes 
himself as " being in a very infirm state of health and willing to settle what 
"it has been pleased God to bless me wit hall before I depart hence." After 
.some devout Christian expressions he proceeded: — ''Let my bodv be buried at 
"the discretion of my Executor hereafter named. I desire that all my just 
debts may be fully paid and the remainder of my personal estate ... 1 
"do give and bequeath unto my dear son John Theophilus Desaguliers to his 
only proper use ami behoof, my other son Thomas Desaguliers being sufficiently 
' ' provided for. " 

The Testator then appointed the said J. T. Desaguliers his sole executor. 

The Will was signed by the Testator on the said 29th Nov.. 174,'L in the 
presence of Kemble Whatley, Benj". lladley, and Michael Fletcher. 

Probate was granted to the Executor on 1st March, 1723-4, as above 
stated. The Probate Act does not record the value of tho Estate; but the terms 
of the Will would lead us to infer that at the time he made it the Testator 
thought he was conferring a real benefit on his said son. No time was lost in 
obtaining Probate: indeed, it was taken out the day after the death and three 
days before the Funeral. In these days of heavy death duties such expedition 
would be impossible. 

The Testator left a Widow but does not mention her. 
:b-d Oct.. 1928. W.JAY. 

Ars Quatuor Coroxatorum. 

Monument to Henry Redman, in St. Lawrence Church, New Brentford. 

T/'ti/txacf/otts of the (Juatnor Corotmti L<x!</< . 



T is with regret that we have to record the death of the following 
Brethren : — - 

Ernest William Adair, of Nimes, France, early in 
1927. Our Brother was a member of Grecia Lodge No. 1105 
and P. 31. of Lodge No. 43 (Lgypt C). He was a Life 
.Member of our Correspondence Circle which he joined in I\!ay, 

Thomas John Armstrong, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, on 20th April, 1927. 
Bro. Armstrong had attained the rank of P.Pr.G.W., and P.Pr.G.R. (R.A.). 
lie was a Life Member of our Correspondence Circle to which he was admitted 
in "February, 1890. - 

John Heation BooCOCk, of Birmingham, on 8th June, 1927. Our 'Brother 
held the office of Pr.G.Treas., and had been appointed P.Pr.A.D.C. (R.A.) 
He was elected to membership of our Correspondence Circle in May, 1909. 

George Dayrell Callender, of Harpenden, Herts., on. 22nd April, 1927. 
Bro. Callender was a member of West Kent Lodge No. 1297, and P. So. of the 
R.A. Chapter attached thereto. He had been a member of our Correspondence 
Circle since March, 1912. 

Gilbert Thomas Cossens, of Bristol, in .December, 1926. He joined our 
Correspondence Circle in the same year. 

C. W. P. Douglas de Fenzi, of Pietermaritzburg, on 28th June, 1927. 
Our Brother was a Past Grand Deacon in Grand Lodge and Dis.G.Seo. for Natal. 
For many years Bro. Douglas de Fenzi acted as Local Secretary for the 
Correspondence Circle in his District. 

Alfred T. Drysdale, of Buenos Aires, on 29th September, 1926. Bro. 
Drysdale was P.M. of St. Andrew's Lodge No. 3706 and a member of Connaught 
Chapter No. 102;1. He joined our Correspondence Circle in May, 1918. 

Alfred Gates, of Sherbourne, on 21st April, 1927. Our Brother was 
seventy-four years of age and bad attained the rank of Past Assistant Grand 

Director of Ceremonies in Grand Lodge and Past Grand Standard Bearer in Grand 
Chapter. He had been a member of our Correspondence Circle since January, 


Francis George Hall, of Bristol, on 12th June. 1927. Bro. Hall was 
admitted to membership of the Correspondence Circle in 1926. 

Walter Holt, of Cleveleys, on 6th May, 1927. Our Brother held the 
rank of P.Pr.G.St . B., Last Lanes., and was P.Z. of Wisdon Chapter No. 283. 
He joined our Correspondence Circle in March, 1918. 

George Jackson, of Durham, on 10th April, 1927. He was a member 
of the Marquis of Grauby Lodge No. 124, and was elected to membership of our 
Correspondence Circle in May, 1918. 

James Thomas Marson, of Stafford, on 21st December, 1925. Bro. 
Marson was a P.Pr.G.W., and P.Pr.G.Sc.N. in his Province. He was a Life 
Member of our Correspondence Circle which he joined in November, 1893. 


Tva //tactions of the (Juatuur < 'oronnt'i Lo/Jyi 

John Joseph Lloyd Murphy, of Evanston. 111., on 24th August. 192b. 
Our Brothei' was S.I), of Lodge No. 524 (111.), and Sc of Chapter No. Ml. 
He was elected to membership of our Correspondence Circle in May. 1921. 

William Richardson, of Guisborough. Yorks., in 1027. Jiro. Richardson 
was a P.Pr.G.W. (Yorks.. N. & E. Riding), and had been a member of our 
Correspondence Circle since January. 1898. 

Walter Herbert Rollason, O.B.K., of Llandudno, on 19th February. 1927. 
He joined our Correspondence Circle in 1926. 

Charles Smith, of Southhelds. London, SAW, on 4th May, 1927, in his. 
eighty-seventh year. Rro. Smith was a member of the Royal Atheist an Lodge 
No. 19. He was elected to membership of our Correspondence Circle in October. 

Bolton Dan Taylor, of Leeds, in 1927. Our Brother was P.M. of Aurora 
Lodge No. 404 7, and a member of the Philanthropic Chapter No. 304. He 
joined our Correspondence Circle in 1924. 

David Norrie Youle, of Sutton, on J 0th June, 1927. Bro. Youle had 
attained the rank of Past Assistant Grand Director of Ceremonies in Grand 
Lodge, and Past Grand Standard Bearer in Grand Chapter. He had been a 
member of our Correspondence Circle since March, 19L1. 

€luatuor Cotonati 3Lo6ge, 

NO. 2076, L*ONK>ON- 

*g~ — — 

** FROM T 

'3*1 GIRO*, 1500 A.D. ^£ 








R t^j * ^- 


««IT1»H MUtEUM UO. IIW, ll.«81 

CIRCA nop A.D. 




PART 3. 


Proceedings, 7th October, 1927 


Oddfellowship ... 

Summer Outing; 1927— Oxford 

The Incorporation of the Company 
of Freemasons, Joiners and Slaters 
of the City of Oxford, 12th Novem- 
ber, 1604 

Dutch Rose Croix Patent 





Masonic Personalia, 1723-39 ... 
Proceedings, 8th November, 1927 
Exhibits ... 
Inaugural Address 
Reviews ... ... 

Notes and Queries 

Obituary ... 

St. John's Card ... 






was warranted on the 28th November, 1884, in order 

1. — To provide a centre and bond of union for Ma sonic Students. 

2. — To attract intelligent Masons to its meetings, in order to imbue them with a love for Masonic research. 

3. — To submit the discoveries or conclusions of students tb the judgment and criticism of their fellows by 
means of papers read in Lodge. - . ' , 

i. — To submit these communications and the discussions' arising therefrom to the general body of the Craft by 
publishing, at proper intervals, the Transactions of the Lodge in their entirety. 

5.— To tabulate concisely, in the printed Transactions of the Lodge, the progress of the Craft throughout the 

8.— To make the English-speaking Craft acquainted with the progress of Masonic study abroad, by translations 
(in whole or part) of foreign works. » 

7. — To reprint scarce and valuable works on Freemasonry, and to publish Manuscripts, &c, 

8. — To form a Masonic Library and Museum. 

9. — To acquire permanent London premises, and open a reading-room for the members. 

The membership -is limited to forty, in order to prevent the Lodge from becoming unwieldy. 

No members are admitted without a high literary, artistic, or scientific qualification. 

The annual subscription is one guinea, and the fees for initiation and joining are twenty guineas , and five 
guineas respectively. 

The funds are wholly devoted to Lodge and literary purposes, and no portion is spent in refreshment. The 
members usually dine together after the meetings, but at their own individual cost. Visitors, who are cordially 
welcome, enjoy the option of partaking— on the same terms— of a meal at the common table. 

The stated meetings are the first Friday in January, March, May, and October, St. John's Day (in Harvest), 
and the 8th November (Feast of the Quatuor Coronati). 

At every meeting an original paper is read, which is followed by a discussion. 

The Transactions of the Lodge, Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, are published towards the end of April, July, 
and December in each year. They contain a summary of the business of 'the Lodge, the full text of the papers read 
in Lodge together with the discussions, many essays communicated by the brethren but for which no time can be 
fdund at the meetings, biographies, historical notes, reviews of Masonic publications, notes and queries, obituary, 
and other matter. They are profusely illustrated and handsomely printed. 

The Antiquarian Reprints of the Lodge, Quatuor Goronatorum Antigrapha, appear at undefined intervals, 
and consist of facsimiles of documents of Masonic interest with commentaries or introductions by brothers well informed 
on the subjects treated of. 

The Library has now been arranged at No. 27, Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, where Members 
of both Circles may consult the books on application to the Secretary, 

To the Lodge is attached an outer or 


This was inaugurated in January, 1887, and now numbers about 3500 members, comprising many of the most 
distinguished brethren of the Craft, such as Masonic Students and Writers, Grand Masters, Grand Secretaries, and 
nearly 300 Grand Lodges, Supreme Councils, Private Lodges, Libraries and other corporate bodies. 
The members of our Correspondence Circle are placed on the following footing-. — 

1. — The summonses convoking the meeting are posted to them regularly. They are entitled to attend all the 
meetings of the Lodge whenever convenient to themselves, but, unlike the members of the Inner Circle, their attendance 
is not even morally obligatory. When present they are entitled to take part in £he discussions on the papers read before 
the Lodge, and to introduce their personal friends. They are not visitors at our Lodge meetings, but rather associates 
of the Lodge, 

2. — The printed Transactions of the Lodge are posted to them as issued. 

3. — They are, equally with the full members, entitled to subscribe for the other publications of the Lodge, such 
as those mentioned under No. 7 above. 

4r. — Papers from Correspondence Members are gratefully accepted, and as far as possible, recorded in the 
Transactions. ^ 

5.— They are accorded free admittance to our Library and Reading Eooms. 

A Candidate for Membership in the Correspondence Circle is subject to no literary, artistic, or scientific 
qualification. His election takes place at the Lodge-meeting following the receipt of his application. 
1 Brethren elected to the Correspondence Circle pay a joining fee of twenty-one shillings, which includes the 

subscription to the following 30th November. 

The annual subscription is only half-a-guinea (10s. 6d.), and is renewable each December for the following year. 
Brethren joining us late in the year suffer no disadvantage, as they receive all the Transactions previously issued in 
the same year. 

It will thus be seen that for only half the annual subscription, the members of the Correspondence Circle 
enjoy all the advantages of the full members, except the right of voting in Lodge matters and holding office. 

Members of both Circles are requested to favour the Secretary with communications to be read in Lodge and 
subsequently printed. Members of foreign jurisdictions will, we trust, keep us posted from time to time in the current - 
Masonic history of their districts. Foreign members can render still further assistance by furnishing us at intervals 
with the names of new Masonic Works published abroad, together with any printed reviews of such publications. 

Members should also bear in mind that every additional member increases our power of doing good by 
publishing matter of interest to them. Those, therefore, who have already experienced the advantage of association 
with us, are urged to advocate our cause to their personal friends, and to induce them to join us. Were each 
member annually to send us one new member, we should soon be in a position to offer them many more advantages 
than we already provide. Those who can help, us in no other way, can do so in this. 

Every Master Mason in good standing throughout the Universe, ' and all Lodges, Chapers, and Masonie 
Libraries or other corporate bodies are eligible as Members of the Correspondence Circle. 

FRIDAY, 7th OCTOBER, 1927. 

HE Lodge met at Freemasons' Hall at 5 p.m. Present: — Bros. 
W. W. Covey-Cramp, W.M.; John Stokes, P.G.D., I.P.M. ; George 
Norman, P.A.G.D.C, S.W. ; Lionel Vibert, P.Dis.G.W., Madras, 
P.M., as J.W. ; W. J. Songlmrst, P.G.D., Secretary; Gordon P. G. 
Hills, P.A.G.Sup.W., P.M., D.C. ; H. C. de Lafontaine, P.G.D., 
S.D.; J. Walter Hobbs, P.A.G.D.C, I.G. ; J. Heron Lepper, 
P.Pr.lns., Antrim, P.M.; W. J. Williams; and T. M. Carter, 
P.Pr.G.St.B., Bristol. 

Also the following members of the Correspondence Circle : — Bros. F. M. Riekard, 
P.G.S.B., J. A. Y. Matthews, P.G.D.C., Ben. Pollard, A. Rahman, Jos. T. Whitehead, 
G. W. South, R. J. Sadleir, F. Bare, Geo. Elkington, P.A.G.Sup.W., A. Tosio, 
G. E. W. Bridge, Sir A. A. Brooke-Pechell, Robt. Colsell, P.A.G.D.C., Henry T. 
Walker, F. Lace, P.A.G.D.C, T. Lidstone Found, Walter W. Caffyn, J. Toon, F. J. 
Asbury, A.G.D.C, W. Digby Ovens, P.A.G.St.B., F. M. Wakefield, P. G. Purs., Geo. 
Simpson, W. Francis, H. F. Whyman, P.A.G.St.B., F. K. Jewson, A. F. Ford, A. R, 
Boult, L. G. Wearing, A. Chichele Rixon, S. J. Bowers, Cecil Powney, P.G.D., Fred. .1. 
Mote, J. F. Halls Dally, W. Davie, B. Telepneff, Allen Davis, W. Emerson, A. B. 
Napier, A. Sutherland, W. Young, Edward M. Phillips, Percy H. Horley, W. T. J. Gun, 

E. Warren, W. D. Hirst, H. W. Chetwin, A. E. Gurney, F. J. H. Coutts, G. Pear, 
Albert D. Bowl, Wm. Lewis, George Young, Wilfred Brinkworth, R. Wheatley, B. 
Ivanoff, W. F. Swan, H. Johnson, Henry A. Matheson, S. W. Rodgers, Wm. Butcher, 

F. Vuillermoz, R. A. Dickson, Geo. A. Hoskins, and W. E. F. Peake. 

Also the following Visitors: — Bros. H. M. A. Rahman, Empire Lodge No. 2t08 ; 
B. Ashdown, East Surrey Lodge No. 2769; Geo. Sturges, North Shore Lodge No. 440 
(N.S.W.C); R. A. Dix, St. George's Lodge No. 1152; E. S. Gillett, Penge Lodge 
No. 1815; Geo. F. Henry, P.M., United Service Lodge No. 10 (N.Z.C.) ; C. W. 
Waghorn, Bowes Park Lodge No. 3119; F. R. Catchpole, Eltham Palace Lodge 
No. 2980; C. Komierowski, Dante Lodge No. 3707; G. M, Brown, Queen Mary's 
Lodge No. 3327; S. L. Smart, Lodge of Equity No. 3692; and 0. B. Meadmore and 
W. G. Shapley, Leigh Lodge No. 957. 

Letters of apology for non-attendance were reported from Bros. Sir Alfred 
Robbins, P.G.W., Pres.B.G.P., P.M.; Gilbert W. Daynes, J.D.; Rev. H. Poole, J.W. ; 
S. T. Klein, L.R., P.M.; J. T. Thorp, P.G.D., P.M.; R. H. Baxter, P.A.G.D.C, 
P.M.; Cecil Powell, P.G.D., P.M.; F. J. M. Crowe, P.A.G.D.C, P.M.; E. Armitage, 
P.G.D., P.M., Treasurer; and J. E. S. Tuckett, P.A.G.S.B., P.M. 

Bro. Dr. George Norman was elected Master of the Lodge for the ensuing year; 
Bro. E. Armitage, P.G.D., P.M., was re-elected Treasurer, and Bro. J. H. McNaughton 
was re-elected Tyler. 

One Lodge, one Masonic Society and Thirty-nine Brethren were elected to 
membership of the Correspondence Circle. 

A hearty vote of congratulation was passed to Bro. Gordon P. 
appointment, as Librarian of the Grand Lodge of England. 

G. Hills on his 

174 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronatl Lodye. 

The Skckltarv drew attention to the following 


By the Secretary. 

Play Bills. Theatre Leeds. 01 dates 23rd August 1832, 19th July 1845, 
12th November 1845. 30th June 1846. For the benefit of the Widows 
and Orphans of the Independent Order of Oddfellows in the Manchester 

Silylr St aii. London make, Hallmark 1865. In the centre are the Anns of 
the Oddfellows and beneath ii representation of the parable of the Good 

By Bro. H. Bladox, London. 

TYoodex Battle Axe. " Loyal Hope Lodge, No. 1. 1843. M.U. ESTd. July 
1839." " F.L.T. Tnith & Justice, Faith, Hope & Charity." 

By Bio. Wallace Heaton, London. 

Mcc Sunderland Ware. "The Loyal Independent Oddfellows Arms." 

Two ExoitAYKi) Silver Plate Jewels. " Heading Lodge No. 24. Esto Uidelis." 
Both London made with hallmarks of 18.12 and 1813 respectively. 

Staii (? Silver). In the centre a heart with two clasped hands. Beneath and 
encircled by inscription " The Black Prince Lodge." On the Star are 
engraved Poses, Thistles and Shamrocks, and Hearts are shown at four 
points. It is probable that these clo not refer to the Order of Oddfellows. 

Stah. Decorated with coloured glass. On one side a group of Figures probably 
intended to represent Faith, Hope and Charity, and on the other there 
are emblems including a Heart in Hand and " Goodwill Towards lien " 
and " Peace on Earth," 

Play Bill. Printed on satui " By Desire of the Loyal and Independent Shoppy 
Lodge of Oddfellows. Bell & Lion, Mile Town." At the New Theatre, 
Sheerness, on Saturday, 23rd March, 1811. 

By Bro. David Feather. Sheffield. 

MS. Book of the Lectures of the Grand United Order of Oddfellows, as confirmed 
at Sheffield in 1822, 

By Bro. Georoe L. Lixx'strou, London. 

Progkayime of the Centenary Celebration of the Manchester Unity Lodge of 
Oddfellows, Boyal Albert Hall., 1910. 

By Bro. W. G. Shaeley, London. 

Pareti contributed by him to the Secretaries' Link, the Journal of the 
Manchester Unity of Oddfellows' National Federation of Secretaries, in 
May 1926, with title "How Old are the Oddfellows?" 

A cordial vote of thanks was passed to those Brethren who had kindly lent 
these objects for exhibition. 

The following paper was read : — ■ 

Transactions of the Qtitituor Coronati Lodye. 




N Ars Qnatuor (Joronatoruni will be found several papers on the 
subject of old-time clubs and societies, of which there were so 
many in the eighteenth century. Very many of these clubs 
and societies quickly died out; some, like the ' Gregorians,' 
and ' Gormogons/ left some trace; others survived, though 
their general character was materially changed later on. The 
evident influence of the example of Freemasonry is to be seen 
in many ways in several of these societies, particularly those 
which aimed at being more than merely convivial clubs. Amongst the latter 
was the ' Society of Oddfellows,' now the foremost of English Friendly Societies. 
It is not proposed, in this paper, to trace the history of the Society of 
Oddfellows, but only to endeavour to indicate how Oddfellowship may have 
originated, and to describe some of its past and present peculiarities. 

The known history of the English Society of Oddfellows runs back to 
about the middle of the eighteenth century. As to the date and manner of 
origin, nothing definite is forthcoming. 

We are told by the historian of the Order — James Thornley, who was a 
P.G.M. of the Order — that enquiry into the early history of Friendly Societies, 
from want of positive information, has given a result far from satisfactory. In 
much that has been written there is a very slight foundation of fact, and for 
the reason that, of the early history of the societies, the records are so scanty 
as to be of but little value. As to their oi'igin, still less is known. 

There seem to be two possible roots from either of which, or perhaps a 
combination of both, the Society of Oddfellows may have grown: — 

i. The Society may have been an offshoot from the medieval guild; 

ii. The Society may have been the successor or imitator of the early 
eighteenth century club. 

Of neither have we any historical proof. 

We know from the Greek author, Theophrastus, that societies of this kind 
existed among the classic nations of antiquity, nearly 300 years B.C. 

" Among the Athenians and other Grecian states, associations were 
instituted, having a common chest, into which a certain monthly contribution 
paid by each individual, was deposited, that a fund might be raised for relieving 
such members of the society as might in any manner have experienced adverse 

So it is safe to assume that benefit societies in some form have existed 
from Time Immemorial. 

We know that in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries there were in 
England guilds of every kind, which afforded their members material support. 
Under forms to a great extent religious, these guilds could fulfil the purposes, 
on the one hand of a modern Trade Society by rules tending to fix the hours 
of labour, and to regulate competition, and on the other hand of a modem 
Friendly Society in providing for sickness, old age, and burial. And we know 
that, with the guilds of England, the leading objects w T ere the annual assembly 
of the members on fixed occasions, devotional exercises, conviviality, charity 
and relief to poor and distressed Brethren and their families. 

176 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

During the Reformation ruthless hands were laid on the possessions and 
lands of the guilds, and a blow was struck at the religious guilds of both 
priests and laity, from which they did not recover. However, we are told by 
Sir Frederick Eden, who in 1797 wrote a ' History of the working classes of 
England from the time of the Norman conquest,' that these societies, even after 
the confiscation of their lands at the Dissolution, continued their stated meetings 
in the common-room or hall for the purposes either of charity or conviviality; 
that the associations of the eighteenth century were mainly small clubs, probably 
fallen away from larger aims, to rise again later ; and that it is significant 
that the first Act which was passed for the encouragement of Friendly Societies 
designated them as ' Societies of Good Fellowship.' 

J. M. Baernreither, a Doctor of Law and Member of the House of 
Deputies of Austria, having visited England several times purposely to study the 
conditions of the working classes, in 1889 wrote a book, English Associations of 
Working Men, to which the then Registrar of Friendly Societies — J. M. 
Ludlow — wrote a preface. In this book Baernreither urges that both Friendly 
Societies and Trade Unions have a common historical origin, namely, the 
medieval guild, because he considered the development was controlled by the 
influence due to a strengthened social element derived from the union of working 
men in various associations; that these institutions received new birth at the 
period of large industries; that they owe their existence to the powerful reaction 
of the working classes against the deterioration of their material condition. 

In The Friendly Society Movement, written in 1886 by Rev. J. Frome 
Wilkinson, a member of several Friendly Societies, we are assured that we must 
go back 300 years in the search for the foundation from which Oddfellowship, 
etc., sprang, or, rather, in the search of those institutions whose vacant niches 
the modern Friendly Societies fill ; that in the destruction and spoliation of 
medieval trade and craft guilds we must look for the prototype of the modern 
Friendly Society system. And Wilkinson agrees with G, Unwin, who, describing 
the decline of the guilds in his book, Guilds and Companies of London, says 
that there was no violent break in the continuity of Craft development; that 
the old Guild organisation continued to exist in the towns and in most industries; 
that when and where it passed away, its death was due to slowly acting economic 
causes and not to the Act of 1547; that the great landmark of industrial change 
in England is to be found in the eighteenth, not sixteenth, century; and that 
coincident with this industrial change were the disappearance of the Guild 
system and the inception of new forms of voluntary societies more adapted to 
the altered requirements. 

Daniel Defoe, in his Essay on Projects, in 1697 wrote that the Friendly 

Society was no new thing; and he gave a detailed scheme for all sorts of 

benefits, and urged larger management. He is said to have been the first who, 
in any writing, mentioned Oddfellowship. 

Thus, notwithstanding the suppression of the old forms at the time of the 
Revolution, spontaneous combinations of handicraftsmen and labourers for the 
purpose of providing against the accidents of life by means of mutual help, never 
ceased to exist in some form; and there may not have been any historical gap 
between the guilds of old times and the modern Friendly Societies, which some 
writers think took shape as early as the first half of the seventeenth century, at 
the time when Puritanism abolished the old forms. 

That Benefit Societies, which were not primarily convivial societies, did 
exist in the late part of the seventeenth century and at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century is clear, for we have records of several. There was the 
Friendly Society of Free and Accepted Masons, founded in 1737, of which our 
late Bro. W. Wonnacott has given a full account (A.Q.G., vol. xxix). There 
were also several other Masonic Relief Societies and Clubs in connection with 
various Lodges in the Provinces. And again, a number of Trade Benefit 
Societies, the earlier ones, dating back to the end of the seventeenth century, 
having been founded by Huguenots who found refuge in England. 

Oddfelloivship. 177 

There may, therefore, be reason in the argument that the Friendly 
Societies are institutions which retain an unbroken connection with the old 
Guilds, and which increased gradually from the latter part of the seventeenth 
century until, at the close of the eighteenth century, they had acquired such 
importance as to occupy the attention of the Legislature. But, although it may 
be said that they were established in England about that period, the first 
decided impetus given to Friendly Society movement was not until the end of 
the eighteenth century or beginning of the nineteenth century. That this 
impetus occurred at this particular date may have been the outcome of the 
upheaval in connection with the Craft Guilds. 

It is important to realise that the Friendly Societies, in their early days, 
were in no sense provident societies. The members met for social and convivial 
purposes, and doubtless with ready sympathy raised occasional contributions for 
the benefit of their sick Brethren; but the relief they afforded was given merely 
in the form of ' sick gifts.' Gifts were made to only very needy members; and 
there was no claim by any rule; nor was any regular system of relief introduced 
until 1829. 

We know that the whole municipal, industrial and social life of the 
Middle Ages moved in the circle of the guild, which controlled the public and 
private interests of the townsfolk; and eventually the courts of the guilds 
became powerful. Though of the private and social activities of the Craft 
Guilds we have little knowledge, and very little testimony remains of the work 
of voluntary mutual assistance by them, yet it is, perhaps, not unreasonable to 
conceive that from various causes the two lines of activity, which might be 
compared with the Trade Union and the Friendly Society objects, would under 
the stress of circumstances diverge into two separated branches; and eventually, 
while the Trade Union element came into bad odour owing to disturbances 
during the Industrial Revolution, the Friendly Society element would be looked 
upon with a much less severe eye. 

When we turn to the subject of the Clubs, again we are unable to find 
any definite indication. 

During the eighteenth century there flourished a great number of clubs 
or societies, obviously of a convivial type. Some of these were apparently of 
but a brief duration; while others exhibited vitality and power of expansion. 
Their name was ' legion ' ; and they were formed for all kinds of objects, some 
genuine, some imaginary. 

We read in an article by Bro. B. Cramer, a German member of the 
Correspondence Circle of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, ' The origin of Free- 
masonry,' which article was translated by Bro. G. W. Speth (A.Q.C., vol. ii.) : — 

" We can no longer be in any doubt that the Freemasons' Lodges 
which arose in 1717 were nothing else but a new sort of clubs; does 
not the Book of Constitutions state that the newly initiated ' found 
in the Lodge a safe and pleasant relaxation from intense study or the 
hurry of business, without politics or party'?" 

And when we are told that the convivial club of the time was formed and 
modelled, at any rate as regards externals, in imitation of Freemasonry, we 
perhaps have reason in surmising that the Society of Oddfellows may have arisen 
in a similar manner. 

In Edward Ward's Complete and Harmonious Account of all Clubs and, 
Societies (1745 and 1756) is a long list of curious clubs, but there is not any 
mention of Oddfellows. Lawrence Dermott, in his Ahiman Rezon (1778), gives 
a short list, which does not include Oddfellows. But Dermott adds that there 
were ' many others not worth notice, whose chief practice consists in eating, 
drinking, singing, smoking, etc' J. Timbs, in his Clubs and Clublife in 
London (1872), describes a large number of clubs; but again there is not any 
mention of Oddfellows. 

However, all this is not necessarily evidence that any club or society of 
Oddfellows did not exist contemporary with the clubs mentioned, because none 

178 Transactions of the Q unfit or Coronati Lodge, 

of the lists can be called complete. Nevertheless, this seems strange when we 
find elsewhere references to Oddfellows' clubs. 

In the Historical Sketch of the Manchester Unit// the author claims to 
have been able to trace the Society so far back as 1745; but the only document 
in which the author saw it named as having existed anterior to the nineteenth 
century was one of the numbers of Bentlej/s Magazine for 1842, in which article 
the writer enumerates the different amusements of the period (i.e., earlier than 
1800), classing the society amongst the convivial associations of the day. 

The Gentleman's Magazine for 1745 speaks of Oddfellows Lodges as places 
where social and recreative evenings were passed, which at first appeared to have 
been secret societies for the threefold purpose of upholding constitutional govern- 
ment, instructing and amusing one another, and affording mutual assistance in 
times of misfortune and distress. And in Notes and Queries — 9th series XI.— 
we find Oddfellows mentioned as of those early days, under the heading ' Convivial 
Clubs and Societies.' 

The Collingwood Lodge, Bury, Lancashire, No. 11 of the Manchester 
Lmity was in 1814 a ' free-and-easy ' club, and gave birth to the present 
Athenaeum established in that town. 

I would like to quote from W. Bro. Gordon P. G. Hills' paper on 
'Sidelights on Freemasonry' (A.Q.('., vol. xxix.) where he refers to John 
Britton, F.S.A. (1771-1857), who in his autobiography says: "When my finances 
allowed, I frequented ' free-and-easy,' oddfellows, and sporting clubs/' " A 
sporting club at Jacob's Wells, Barbican, occupied one of my evenings in every 
week during the winter, the Oddfellows another, and Free-and-easys one or 
two more." Britton, as President of the Britton Club, says in an address: 
" From the Freemasons and Novimagians, to the Oddfellows and the Beaf steak 
Club, there are many shades of fraternal, friendly and useful associations." 

These quotations do not show that the Society of Oddfellows existed as 
a Friendly Society, though they do appear to show that Oddfellowship had 
progressed so far as to have combined in, at least, a club. 

Neglecting the numerous small and unimportant clubs, it would seem that 
the societies of more notable interest derived their interest from contact in 
some way with Freemasonry. Whether the club developed into a society or not, 
is of little real moment, but as these social clubs at taverns had existed since 
the reign of the Stuarts, or even earlier, it is natural to suppose that the 
society grew out of the club, particularly when the example of a society, largely 
convivial in character, had been set by the Freemasons. 

We are told by J. Tidd Pratt, who was, during the middle part of the 
last century, Registrar of Friendly Societies, and who, obviously from his words, 
was a Freemason, " That most of the Societies (i.e., Friendly Societies) met 
at taverns frequented by members of Freemasonry; but we must not conclude 
from that fact that they had any, even the slightest, connection with our 
Fraternity. It would be safer to assume that the houses were selected as their 
places of meeting because it was known that Freemasons' Lodges met there and 
therefore presumably furnished good cheer." 

In the direction of clubs, again there is inability to find any definite 
indication. Though Oddfellows' clubs have been mentioned, there is no trace 
of a positive connection between any such club and the Friendly Society of 

Bro. Ilextall, in his remarks upon a paper by Bro. F. W. Levander, 
'Collectanea of Rev. Daniel Lysons ' (A.Q.C., vol. xxix.), definitely gives his 
opinion that the Friendly Societies of to-day were not derived from the Craft 
guilds. Notwithstanding the almost equally definite views to the contrary put 
forward by various writers on the Guilds, Friendly Societies, and the Working 
Classes of the times (among whom are J. Toulmin Smith, J. L. and B. 
Hammond, Sidney Webb), yet it may be that, though the Spirit of Association 
was continuous, the actual promoters of that spirit were quite different people. 

Bro. Hextall may be right, notwithstanding these other opinions; for 
we have an indication of the tendency of affairs in the early days of the 

Ofhlfellatrsliip. 179 

Manchester Unity, in that some intelligent members of the Fraternity saw that 
something far higher than mere convivial meetings might arise from the 
promulgation of principles having mutual assistance, economy, and true charity 
as a basis; and that this movement for a reform of the institution extended 
over several years; that it was no easy task; that secession appeared to have 
been an outcome; and that several Lodges, formally seceding and embracing the 
new ideas, constituted the true Manchester Unity of to-day. 

Clubs or local associations of persons for mutual assistance in times of 
sickness and distress, in one form or another, have, without doubt, existed from 
Time Immemorial. But it is to be expected that when these budding societies 
began to run on their own, they would make an attempt to shape themselves 
upon lines then the most admired or the most favourable. That they shrouded 
themselves in a certain amount of mystery and kept their proceedings secret, 
was due, perhaps, to a fear of unjustifiable interference with their funds on 
the part of the Government, a fear created, maybe, by the recollection of earlier 
confiscations. Whether established primarily as convivial clubs, in which col- 
lections were occasionally made for the relief of brethren in distress, without any 
regular reserved sick or funeral fund ; or whether, as stated in the Report of 
the Committee on Friendly Societies in 1825, ' most alliances to raise wages 
cloaked themselves under the rules of Friendly Societies,' it appears that, not- 
withstanding the boasted antiquity and the pride, pomp and circumstance with 
which the now extensive and important Friendly Societies have been occasionally 
in the habit of presenting themselves to the public eye, their true history extends 
over but a very limited period ; that, in fact, they probably are but the humble 
modern offspring by imitation or otherwise of Freemasonry, political clubs, and 
convivial meetings. 

The time of their beginnings — in the latter part of the seventeenth 
century and beginning of the eighteenth century — was the time when the mania 
for Freemasonry had spread itself all over the Continent of Europe i when 
secret societies had become quite the rage. And it is very probable that the 
Order of Oddfellows was built upon the same basis as those secret protective 
societies which, under various names, spread over Europe in times of danger. 

So far as England was concerned, the chief outcome of the movement 
was the establishment at a date, not possible precisely to say, of the society 
which assumed and still retains the title of ' The Grand United Order of 
Oddfellows.' Accurate information on these points, as has already been said, 
appears to be unobtainable. But there is proof that the Order was in existence 
some time before the end of the eighteenth century, though there are no records 
from which information can be obtained as to its early organisation, rules, or 
methods of business. It is an unfortunate pity that no documentary evidence 
of the history prior to 1835, except one solitary document dated 1798, is to be 
found in its possession. It seems that the Society must have been entirely 
confined to Loudon for several years. When the rules of any of the Oddfellows 
Orders were first enrolled under an Act of Parliament it is impossible now to 
discover. The earliest certificate of registration which has been preserved is 
dated 19th August, 1851. 

James Spry, a Provincial Corresponding Secretary of the Order, in a 
Manual of Oddfellowship (1882), gives the Minutes of the meeting of a Lodge 
held 12th March 1748; and says that the Order must have been at that time 
well established, for the Minutes say "the Lodge was opened in its usual form." 
This does not seem to be sufficient proof, though there is evidence of the 
existence of another Lodge — St. Mary Overbury — in 1779, which was used for 
political purposes by Sir George Savile and the demagogue, Wilkes, both of 
whom were implicated in t\ie Gordon riots of 1780. It seems that these Lodges 
ran on their own; and may have been no more than clubs. 

Incidentally, we are told by Bro, Ilextall, in ' Some old time Clubs and 
Societies' (A.Q.d., vol. xxvii.), when quoting the memoirs of William Hickey, 
that the latter, writing in 1768, mentions how " John Wilkes [no doubt Wilkes 
the demagogue | , then a prisoner in the King's Bench, was proposed as an Hon, 

%mtuor (Eoronatt Xofcge, 

No. 20<7©, laONDON. 


N CIRCA. 1000 A.D. %£ 





Odd fellowship. 181 

between the procedures of Freemasonry and Oddfellowship, there is a strong 
probability amounting almost to certainty that the latter was influenced or 
affected by the former. 

It is not intended by this to imply that Oddfellowship was originated 
by Freemasonry. But we know that Freemasonry has exercised a remarkable 
influence over other oath-bound societies for a long period ; so that quite probably 
inner workings, rituals and various observances of these latter were not only in 
course of time to some extent thus affected, but also possibly directly influenced 
by individual Freemasons. That there were dissensions in the Craft from 1723 
onwards for some years admits of no doubt ; and the f alling-off in numbers of 
Freemasons from 1725-29 reflects the feeling of discontent which must have 
pervaded the Masonic body. In fact, there is a story that some disgruntled 
Masons were founders of one of the early English Oddfellows' Lodges. 

It is also probable that the general manner of their proceedings may have 
taken something from imitation of other bodies as the Gormogons and the 
Gregorians, which sprang up in imitation of Freemasonry; and vice versa. 

John Tester, who had been a leader of the Bradford woolcombers in 
1825, published in the Leeds Mercury of June and July, 1834, a series of 
letters in which he stated that the mode of initiation amongst the woolcombers 
was the same as practised for years before by the flannel-weavers of Rochdale ; 
and that a great portion of the ceremony, particularly the ' death scene,' was 
taken from the ceremonial of one division of the Oddfellows, who were flannel- 
weavers in Rochdale. The ' death scene ' formed part of the scenery in the 
early Oddfellowship ritual. Again, the particular Luddite oath was stated by 
a correspondent to the Home Office to be ' by no means dissimilar to one of the 
Freemasons' oaths. ' 

In the Complete Manual of Odd fell oteshij), privately printed for A. 
Lewis, it is claimed that of all mystical societies founded on the type of the 
Masonic institution, that of the Oddfellows is the oldest. 

As a natural corollary, it is to be expected that some imitation would 
occur in the desire to invent a venerable origin. And it seems fairly obvious 
that the favoured story would be a legend running on more or less parallel 
lines to the legends of Freemasonry; a succession being traced through the 
Craft guilds back to Roman institutions, claiming thus a Roman origin based 
upon the speculation that in the form of organisation and the customs of the 
Roman societies there was a resemblance more than accidental. As an example, 
R. W. Moffery, in his Rise and. Progress of the Manchester Unity of O.F., 
refers to Kenrick's remarks on Roman burial societies in the latter's book, 
lioman Sepulchred Inscriptions, and states that there is a substratum of truth 
in their imagining. 

Any such assertion has no more force than many another imaginary 
tradition; and romantic indeed have been some of the theories advanced by 
their members as to their mythical origin. The same sort of desire is to be 
found in the so-called traditions of the Bucks originating with Nimrod and 

Perhaps the so-called exposures of Freemasonry by Prichard produced the 
desire on the part of imitators to copy the Masonic ritual; and this may have 
stimulated the demand for those ( exposures,' which ran through so many 

Wilkinson remarks: — "Freemasons stop at Solomon, but Druids go back 
to the builder of the Ark, Free Gardeners to paradise, and Oddfellows may 
with more reason claim Adam as the primary head of their Order." 

In The Friendly Societies Manual (1859) it is stated that information 
regarding the origin of the Order had been obtained from a Past Master of 
the Order, whose veracity could be vouched for ; thus : — ■ 

"The origin of the Order is of antique date. It was first established 
by Roman soldiers in camp, after the Order of the Israelites, during 
the reign of Nero, the Roman Emperor, in the year of grace 55, 
at which time they were called ' fellow-citizens ' . The name of 

182 Transactions of the Quatuor C'oro/tati Lodge. 

' Oddfellow ' was given to this Order of men in the year 79 by Titus 
Caesar, from the singularity of their actions and from their knowing 
each other by night as well as by day; and, for their fidelity to him 
as well as to their country, he not only gave them the name of 
' Oddfellow,' but at the same time, as a pledge of his friendship, 
presented them with a dispensation engraved upon a plate of gold, 
having the following emblems, viz. : — The royal arch of Titus, and 
the Ark of the Covenant, and table weighing a great talent, the 
golden candlesticks, the sun for the Noble Grand, the moon and 
stars for the Vice Grand, the Lamb for the Secretary, the lion for 
the Guardian, the dove for the Warden, and the emblems for the 
Grand Master ' ' ; 
also : — 

"It is very probable that the first Oddfellows made their appearance 
in N". Wales about that time, as an invasion was made by one of 
Titus Caesar's generals on N. Wales and shortly afterwards on the 
island of Mona, now called Anglesea. The first account that we 
have of the Order spreading itself into other countries is in the 5th 
century, when it was established in the Spanish dominions under the 
Roman dispensation in the 6th century by Henry of Portugal ; in 
the 12th century it was established in France; and afterwards in 
England by John D. Neville attended by 5 knights from France-, 
who established a Grand Lodge of Honour in London, which Order 
remained until the 18th century in the reign of George the Third, 
when a part of them founded themselves into a Union and a portion 
of them remains unto this day." 

According to Lewis's Handbook — vice ' Roman soldiers,' read ' Jews of the 
Jewish legion under Titus.' 

" The Jewish legion in 79 A.D., being entirely of Jews who themselves 
had preserved the secret signs of the Ancient Order of Naharde, 
established by the priests and scribes at the time of the Babylonian 
captivity and transmitted from century to century until Titus Caesar 
took Jerusalem and carried the inhabitants of Jerusalem to Rome to 
grace his triumph." 

James Spry says that there is a strong similarity between the Order and 
one said to exist among the Jewish people; and he draws a parallel to the 
Order said by him to have been instituted: — 

"During the Babylonish captivity their [Jewish] leaders revived the 
Order that had existed in the time of Solomon, — called ' Priestly 
Order of Israel,' — and having adopted the signs of the rainbow, they 
divided their instructions under five heads or lectures named after 
the colours of the rainbow : — 

1. Violet or Purple 

2. Amber or Gold 

3. Red or Scarlet 

4. Blue 

5. White 

(Note. — The colours of the rainbow do not seem quite to agree.) 

' ' The instructions were : — 

Purple ... ... The High Priest 

Gold The Levites 

Scarlet ... ... The Princes 

Blue The Elders 

White The People 

This mode of handing down the instruction was adopted to keep it 
secret from the Babylonians," 

0<hlfcllow*hip. 183 

He draws the following deductions, saying: — 

" which I apply to our own Order [in O.F.] and to the instructions 
we receive in the lectures. 

1. Past Grands are entitled to receive the purple degree, and 
may be considered as ranking with the Priesthood ; being supposed 
to be well instructed in the laws and constitutions of our Order, and 
to have gained a sufficient knowledge of mankind. 

2. Those who have advanced to the gold degree have had an 
opportunity of learning in what purity consists ... a good 
imitation of the Levites, whose duty w 7 as to wake the people and 
prevent them from sinning. 

3. On attaining to the scarlet degree — the lesson teaches the 
duty of cherishing the memory of departed goodness, by raising up 
in our kindest regards living monuments of their good deeds; this 
will be an exemplification of the duty of the Princes. 

4. The blue degree is more essential than any other, since 
without adherence to the Divine precepts it inculcates, no dependence 
can be placed on one another. If life be well spent in causing its 
true developments, one will have earned the title of an Elder of the 

5. The white degree must be the broad basis on which the 
Order is raised, because it instructs in the greatest of the three 
Christian graces. The degree developes the meaning of true charity 
and informs of the golden rule, and shews fully the brotherhood of 
the Order." 

Spry suggests that the Israelitish Order continued to exist till the time of 
the subjugation of the nation by Titus, who is said to have discovered the 
fidelity of certain persons connected with his army, to whom he granted a golden 
dispensation on which were engraved certain emblems. 

In the last decade of the last century a periodical called the Friendly 
Societies' Fee order had a very large circulation among Friendly Society 
members. One interesting feature of the paper w 7 as the publication of 
' Historical Accounts ' of various societies ; and one of the series was that of 
the ' Ancient Noble Order of Oddfellows, Bolton Unity,' which appeared in the 
issue of January 15th, 1898. The account is supposed to have been taken from 
the innermost archives of the Order, derived from an old " document giving 
clearly Its origin and going far enough back for the most fastidious brother. 
The full text describes the Order going back to the 1st century of the Christian 
era, and introduces Nero, Titus Caesar, and other ancient w T orthies." Thus does 
Thornley dismiss the pretensions to great antiquity; but he adds from the 
document : — 

" And whereas from various causes the Order became defunct In this 
realm of England for a considerable time ... It w T as afterwards 
established in England in the city of London, in the memorials of 
which Grand Lodge of England the following memorial was recorded 
in the Book of the Constitutions and Journal of the Grand Lodge 
[of O.F.] of England: — 

' Be it known to all unto whom these presents shall come 
that Sir John Neuville, knight; Sir Alfred Slaiter, knight; Sir 
R>. Murdock, and Sir Rupert Harwood, and others being moved 
by Christian charity, did on the 23rd day of April in the year 
of grace 1452 institute and begin a Grand Lodge of an Order or 
Fraternity after the manner of those beyond the seas known by 
the name of Oddfellows, at the Boulogne sur mere, or Bull and 
Mouth, in the city of London and county of Middlesex, under 
the name and title of Grand Lodge of Honour, and the said Sir 

184 Transactions of the Qnatuor Coronati Lodge. 

John Neuville, and the seven knights forming the same, did bind 
themselves in strict amity and friendship to maintain the name; 
etc., etc' " 

If the Merchant guilds first appeared as results of the great changes 
wrought by the Norman conqueror, it may be asked whether there may not be 
some reason for this story. 

But Thornley adds: — 

" How much of this — an essay in ancient history — has any solid founda- 
tion of fact and how much is pure fiction, it is impossible to form an 

Oddfellowship is defined in Lewis's Manual as an association of men more 
or less self-denying, congregated for the purpose of self-help and self-education, 
but with the limitation that they have readily perceived that their function 
ended therewith; and that, as Oddfellows, they had nothing further to do with 
the body politic. It is claimed that this offers a suggestion as to the origin of 
the name; in that they were odd fellows or select brothers according to their 
first and now extinct rituals. 

But the H neyelopedia Britannica suggests that the name was adopted at 
a time when the severance into sects and classes was so wide that persons aiming 
at social union and mutual help were a marked exception to the general rule. 

The editor of the Oddfellows' Magazine, at the end of the last century, 
held that while the Masonic Order maintained intact the traditions of the 
Masonic Craft Guild, the Oddfellows comprised a collection from all the others, 
which were not strong enough in themselves to carry on a distinctive club. Thus 
they were not mercers, nor dyers, nor smiths, nor girdlers, nor drapers, but an 
" omnium gatherum " and hence l Oddfellows/ 

This is perhaps near the mark ; for we know that during the earlier half 
of the eighteenth century, Acts of the Common Council were continually being 
passed with a view to making the membership of the lesser companies coincident 
with the membership of the trade they represented, and translations from one 
company to another with the same object became very common. And one of 
the contributory causes of the collapse of the giiilds was that many of these 
associations were composed of the members belonging to a larger number of 
industrial groups. 

I have found one reference to ' Odd Master,' which appears in the 
Minutes of the Aristarcus Lodge of 12th March, 1748, and seems as if it 
formed a separate degree. Whether the terms ' fellows ' and ' masters ' were 
copied from Freemasonry and the word ' odd ' used to mean ' miscellaneous ' 
remains to be shown. 

There is one theory, however, which may be dismissed at once, viz., that 
the society was at first one of travelling labourers or odd men, i.e., super- 
numerary labourers, furnished with travelling passes or words entitling them to 
priority of recommendation and assistance in the places they visited. Had this 
been the case, we should have had traces of them in the early history of the 
labouring guilds, which we seek in vain. Moreover, this idea would be at 
variance with the laws against labour moving about. 

We learned from W. Bro. Poole's paper, ' Masonic song and verse of the 
18th century,' read in this Lodge early in 1927, that the ceremonies of, at any 
rate, the first fifty years of the Grand Lodge era, were interspersed with toasts 
and songs. The Minutes of the early meeting of the Aristarcus Lodge of 
Oddfellows, which have already been mentioned, show a similar practice, thus: — 

" The Lodge was opened in the usual form . . ." 

" The Chaplain uttered the prayer for peace and harmony . . ." 

" The Toast of Loyalty, given by the Master, was received with 

honours . . . " 
" On a call from the Master, Bro. Hodges pronounced the oration in 

praise of the Order . . ." 

Oddfellow ship. 185 

" Second toast, Fidelity, given from the cliair 

" The thanks of the Brethren given according to usage and responded 

to . . . ." 
tc Bro. Clemmow sang a Scotch melody (Hailed three times) 
"The Master ordered the loving cup to pass round . . ." 
" The last toast was given with profound silence . . . " 
" Proceedings closed with the solemn benediction of the Chaplain." 

These extracts would tend to show that, even allowing for the conviviality 
and joviality which formed part of all phases of life at that time, the general 
practice of Freemasonry was imitated by Oddfellows. 

In addition to this it is possible to discover many similarities between 
the working in Freemasonry and Oddfellowship. In the ancient Oddfellows' 
rituals the underlying ideas reflect several points of resemblance. The symbolism 
is alike in several instances — as in that of the colours, and other emblems which 
are mentioned later. And it may be that some Masonic emblems lapsed into 
disuse owing to this imitation by Oddfellows; e.g., beehive, key, Aaron's rod. 

Again, the use of the gavel, of an apron of lambskin in earlier times, 
and the expression, ' V.S.L.,' seem obviously copied from Freemasonry; while 
the manner of opening the fifth degree and several points in the working of 
that degree have distinct resemblance to former practice in connection with 
Royal Arch Masonry. 

I have endeavoured to trace similarities between the formation and 
practice of Oddfellows and those of other early clubs and societies; but I have 
found very little of much import. James Spry gives his opinion that the titles 
of the Officers were taken from the Order of the Gregorians. To me there does 
not appear to be any similarity between the names of the Officers of the two 
bodies, beyond the use of the titles ' Grand ' and ' Vice Grand/ which are 
common also to some other societies. But it may be that there is something 
in the following, though they are only slight, perhaps fancied, resemblances in 
certain points : — 

The first is in the Officers named ' Right and Left Supporters, ' which 
were instituted in the original Order of Bucks. This society has been given by 
Bro. Rylands a date of origin 'not much later than 1722/23.' The Bucks 
were originally a club, which started its career as a lawless band of bloods, 
existing only for frolics; at a later period (1756) it became purified into a 
Noble Order having the motto — 

"Freedom with innocence." "Industry produces wealth." 

1756 is a later date than that of the earliest known Oddfellows Lodge, but 
not of the earliest known ritual; and it may be that the reformed Order of 
the Bucks afforded Oddfellows some points for imitation. 

Another suggested resemblance is perhaps even weaker, and is in the 
matter of only an emblem, that of the bundle of sticks, which was used by the 
Gregorians and also the Bucks. But this emblem is now used by so many 
other Friendly Societies, and is indeed nearly if not quite the commonest of 
such emblems. 

In the opposite direction, as a practice perhaps copied from the Oddfellows, 
is the nomenclature of its Officers in the ' Improved Order of Old Friends, ' 
which was instituted about 1818. 

In the Life and Enterprises of It. W. Elliston, comedian (1774-1831), 
George Raymond tells how in 1797 the budding actor first took a job at the 
' Court of Comus,' a club which was held in Wych Street, at the meetings of 
which were given entertainments very similar apparently to the ' cabaret ' 
entertainments of to-day, and in which imitations of animals appear to have 
been a great feature. This may have been the source of the practice of using 
animal masks among the Oddfellows. In this particular biography is also 
mentioned the 'Humbug Club,' which was a sort of quiz on all institutions 

186 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati. Lodge. 

and was originally founded by James Perry, editor of the Morality Chronicle, 

about 1800. 

Again, in George Daniel's Merrle Eufjlaud of the OhU'.tt Timea we are 

told that " in 1790, among the most remarkable clubs were the Oddfellows, 

the Humbug, . . . etc." This last-mentioned Humbug Club was not the 

same as the first-mentioned, in which the use of masks with beards was a regular 


As we have no indication of the original date of the early ritual of 

Oddfellowship, it may be that this practice was copied from the Humbug Club ; 

or, of course, the procedure may have been the reverse. 

It may be accepted that sometime not long before 1792 there was 

established in London a fraternity from which, through the Grand United 

Order, the present system of Oddfellowship is descended. 

At least two Orders of Oddfellows were in existence before the close of 

the eighteenth century — the Ancient and the Patriotic. They differed, it is 
said, from one another for a time on the question of deep political importance. 
' The King ' meant to members of one Order, King George ; to the other, 
' The King over the water' . 

Whether the Grand Lodge in 1792 was the liiieal descendant of the 
Grand Lodge said to have been established or re-established in 1452, is perhaps 
not very material. What is of consequence is that in 1792 the London Grand 
Lodge of United Order of Oddfellows was the recognised head of an Order 
with Lodges in many parts of the Kingdom, and that it had become necessary 
to create a Provincial Grand Lodge to take a share of the work, for which 
purpose Sheffield was selected. It is to this that the afore-mentioned document 
of 1798 refers. 

Towards the end of the eighteenth century the several independent 
Lodges appeared gradually to approach nearer and nearer to each other, and, 
having adopted a definite common ritual, to have become confederated under 
the name of the Patriotic Order. This union, formed by the Patriotic Order 
and the various single Lodges, was no doubt that from which the Independent 
Order of Oddfellows, Manchester Unity, seceded in 1813; while the Grand 
United Order and the National Independent Order were splits from the 
Manchester Unity. Then followed the Nottingham Imperial Order and others 
to the number of thirty-four different Oddfellows' Societies. 

The effect of legislation on the rising Friendly Societies was very serious. 
The Government of the day, by repressive legislation, effectually checked any 
gravitation towards consolidation and union. This state of things not only 
caused a policy of isolation to be adopted by the suspected, but also prevented 
records of Lodge meetings being preserved ; and hence a dearth of reliable 
information. The associations were driven to secrecy; records, etc., were lost. 
The political agitations of the closing twenty years of the eighteenth century 
were exceedingly unfavourable to the successful carrying-on of secret societies. 
The more the Oddfellows proclaimed their loyalty to the State, the more the 
Government suspected them; but persecution only animated the interests of the 
Society itself. 

By the Act passed after the mutiny at the Nore, the giving or taking 
of unlawful oaths was punishable by seven years' transportation. Practically 
any secret oath would come under this Act. A Bill passed in July, 1812, 
made penalties for giving or taking illegal oaths more stringent — death was 
decreed for the former, and transportation for life for the latter. 

However, from 1834 onwards it became generally admitted that the 
avowed objects of Oddfellowship were in accordance with the welfare of Society 
and not in contravention thereto ; that it was a Society for mutual improve- 
ment in virtue, religion, and sound morals; and for the practice of a 
judicious, well-directed and efficient charity; and tolerance towards the Odd- 
fellows appears to have been engendered by promptness in conforming to the 
law of Priendly Societies embodied in the various Acts of Parliament. 

188 Transactions of the Quatuor (Juronatt Lodye. 

In 1860 a revision of the rules provided again for a Grand Master foi 
the first time since 1838. 

The degrees conferred at the present day differ from those of the 
Patriotic Order of 1797. In the Patriotic Order the series began with an 
initiation, and continued with the 

White or Covenant degree 

Royal Blue degree 

Pink or Merit degree 

Royal Arch of Titus or Fidelity degree. 

This last savours of Royal Arch Masonry. 

The subjects of the lectures connected with the degrees were: — 

Initiatory ... Death. 

White ... David and Jonathan. 

Royal Blue ... Good Samaritan. 

The present series of English degrees comprises an initiation, supplemented 
by: — 

1° — White, with a lecture on Charity. 
2° — Blue, with a lecture on Truth. 
3° — Scarlet, with a lecture on Knowledge. 
4° — Gold, with a lecture on Science. 
and the 5° — Purple, or Priestly degree. 

With regard to the Arch of Titus, this was looked upon as a mystical 
body, and was first referred to in an article in the Monthly Review of March, 
1835, as having an arduous struggle with the Grand Lodge; but no mention 
can be found elsewhere in the records of the Order. The only conjecture can 
be that it was composed of members who had taken certain degrees, or on whom 
certain honours had been conferred, and who claimed to be superior to the 
rules of the Order and beyond the jurisdiction of Grand Lodge. It would 
appear that, as a result of its quarrel with the Grand Lodge, the Arch of 
Titus degree ceased to form part of the organisation of the Grand United 
Order, though later it became a recognised feature of the Leeds United Order. 

As regards the colours attached to the degrees, the main points of the 
lectures inculcate: — 

White — Purity of heart and rectitude of conduct; 
Blue — Universal friendship, benevolence and truth; 
Scarlet — Fervency and zeal in proselytising mankind to the 

principles of benevolence; 
Gold — The majesty of the Order; 
and the Purple blends in itself the whole of the foregoing attributes and 

inculcates the spirit of harmony and unbounded love and philanthropy between 
the brothers and companions of the Order. 

It seems agreed by Oddfellows that the earliest ritual bears evident 
marks of having been composed long after the ritual of the Freemasons; and 
that it in no way asserts any portion of the legend of ancient origin. 

The many changes and modifications which the ritual has suffered seem 
somewhat arbitrary. The lectures of the W T hite and Blue degrees were issued 
in 1814; and that of the Scarlet degree in 1816. In 1820 appeared a special 
degree for Past Grand Officers. The Covenant and Remembrance degrees were 
adopted from America in 1826, and abandoned in 1834. In 1825 the Gold 
degree, or Golden Circle, and the Purple, or Patriarchal, degree were issued. 
But all these degrees, which had in them some really symbolical elements, were 
entirely done away in 1834 by the Annual Movable Committee; and new 
lectures were substituted ; this action being due to the Act against secret 

Odd fellowship. 189 

The ceremonies of the eighteenth century were grotesque ; but it must 
be remembered that the days in which these grotesque ceremonies of the original 
Oddfellows prevailed were the days of Hogarth and Bowlandson; and that 
society was merely homely, bouncing and hearty. 

In these ceremonies there was a profuse display of buffoonery ; and a 
certain comfortable solidity of practical joking throughout, but cast in unwieldy 

In the ancient ritual of the Patriotic Order of 1797, the word ' Grand ' 
was used when designating each of the various officers, because at that time 
each Lodge was independent, and therefore a Grand Lodge; and the name 
appears to have persisted to a certain extent. In the opening ceremony of the 
Lodge, the junior officers and the brethren were not present ; the Ancient 
Grand Master at first acts as if asleep, and has to be awakened; the idea being 
the exhibition of mortal weakness. 

When a candidate for initiation was ready to be brought in, the room 
was darkened ; every brother was masked in some strange animal mask ; the 
Ancient Grand Master wore a long white beard and wig; and strict silence was 
observed. The setting of the room included loose planks forming an imaginary 
road, with rough knots left at intervals; faggots of wood and bundles of cork 
to form rocks and forests; a small brazier with fir© in it; a shower bath; and 
appliances for a tempest scene. 

The use of the masks is not clear, whether in mere imitation of ancient 
ideas in the worship of animals, or whether for pure buffoonery. 

As regards the brazier, the instructions read:— "The candidate is now 
brought close to the brazier of fire and by instantaneous contact an exclamation 
of pain is extorted." 

The ordeal by fire may have been suggested by imitation of the Hell-fire 

I here quote Bro. Hextall in mentioning some items which occur in an 
old cash book of an Oddfellows' Lodge, but I cannot give the date: — 

Spirits and Mizalto ... ... £1.13 5 J 

Six Beards ... ... 12 6 (for officers) 

Hailstorm ... ... 86 (for candidate) 

Copper Spoon ... ... 1 (a brazier) 

Sun and Moon ... ... • 16 (for decoration 

of the room) 

These evidently were used at the time when the original ritual of the Order was 
in vogue. 

J. Burn, a Past Provincial Grand Master of the Order, describes what 
he calls ' the mummery practised by the Ancient Order of Oddfellows ' in these 
words: — 

" The candidate for membership, on being led into the Lodge room, 
was carefully blindfolded, and after passing the ( out ' and ' in ' 
guardians, he felt a peculiar and mysterious awe steal over his senses 
in consequence of the solemn and deathlike silence which at the time 
prevailed . . . Anon the perverted sense of hearing became fear- 
fully awakened by the rattling of huge iron chains and the unmeaning 
sound of men's voices. At this stage of the inauguration — (that is, 
provided he was not tossed and tumbled about among brushwood, or 
soused overhead in a large tub) — the bandage was removed from his 
eyes, and the first object that caught his visual organ was the point 
of a naked sword close to his seat of love. As soon as he could draw 
his attention from the worthy warden and his blade, ten to one but 
his eyes would rest upon a large transparency of Old Mortality, whose 
ghastly grin would be sufficient to freeze the warm blood in his veins, 
while every part of the room was filled with symbols, of both holy 
and profane things, the meaning of which few could explain. The 

190 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

dresses of the officers were quite in keeping with the rest of the 
mummery. The making ceremony over, each member pledged the 
newly-initiated brother in a flowing glass for which he had the honour 
of paying. Momus now presided and the deep-wrought-up fears of 
the novice were soon drowned in the loud laugh, the rude jest, or 
the boisterous chorus of a Bacchanalian song." 

In 1837 at the general meeting of the Order it was agreed that the 
1 entire use of Peter and Paul, the faces, and blindfolding in making a member 
should be abolished.' 

As mentioned above, some of the mysterious sounds heard by the candidate 
for initiation were produced by the rattling of a chain, to which a heavy ball 
of iron was attached, dragged backwards and forwards over the floor. The chain 
and ball were called Peter and Paul. The faces would be the masks worn by 
those taking part in the proceedings, which with other gruesome sights, including 
the representation of a skeleton, met the gaze of the trembling candidate when 
the bandage was removed from his eyes. 

The present-day rituals of the English Order have abandoned any appeals 
to the imagination, and in place of the somewhat fantastic ceremonies of the 
eighteenth century have substituted a simple promise upon honour and a series 
of lectures on moral truths. 

The ceremony of opening a Lodge consists in a recital of the duties of 
the various officers. 

The ceremony of initiation is no more than the taking of an obligation — 
or, rather, the making of a promise upon honour — together with a charge on 
propriety and morality. 

The degrees 1 to 4 form a series of lectures given from the chair ; and 
the 5th degree begins with a short obligation followed by a set of questions and 
answers, and ending with a charge on the duties of a Priest of the Order. 

There are ceremonies for the installation of each of 

The Noble Grand 
The Vice Grand 
The Secretary 
The Treasurer 

with an obligation to be taken in each case. The remaining officers 


Outer Guardian 


Inner Guardian 

Supporters R. &. L. of the Noble Grand 

Supporters R. &. L. of the Vice Grand 

Scene Supporters R. & L. 
are appointed. 

The Order has a ceremony for ' Dedicating a Hall or Lodge room ' ; and 
in the ceremony a goblet of pure water, a lighted lamp, a small measure of 
wheat, and a vase of fresh flowers are used. Provision is made for others than 
Oddfellows to attend a ceremony of dedication. There are also ceremonies for 
'Dedicating a Cemetery,' and for funerals. 

An annual travelling password is given to all members of English Lodges. 
This password is of no use to members when resident; but, as is stated in 
flowery language, ' is of great utility in the vast distances over which men may 
roam in search of honest labour.' A brother may carry also a card of verifica- 
tion entitling him to visiting privileges. 

At the present time there are no secrets beyond the password, except in 
the 5th degree, which is restricted to Grand Officers. In this degree there are 
sign, grip, token, and password. But in earlier days it was otherwise. 
Each of the degrees — initiation, white, blue, pink, and R. Arch of Titus — had 
sign, grip, and word peculiar to them. And apparently violations were to be 

Odd fellowship. 191 

found in those days, as there is record of a complaint by a corresponding 
secretary of the Order in early days to the effect: — 

" We have instances of past officers in possession of all the signs, grips, 
and other secrets and tokens, who have so far forgot themselves as to 
expose or give them for the vile purpose of imposition." 

Prior to 1869 a multitude of symbols were exhibited in connection with 
Oddfellowship. Symbolism, by the act of the Annual Movable Committee, is 
with the Manchester Unity practically extinct. In past years it formed a part 
of the instruction given in the various degrees; but now, while some symbols 
remain as a fairly prominent part of the paraphernalia, they are only half 

With the colours — white, blue, scarlet, gold, and purple — the usual 
emblematical meanings were adopted, viz. : — 

White — Innocence of soul 
Purity of thought 
Holiness of life 

Blue — The felicity which the soul enjoys in celestial regions 

Scarlet — Love 

Gold — Wisdom, constancy, and dignity 

Purple — Combination of blue and red. 

The Sun, the Moon, the seven Stars, were derived from earlier rituals, 
and are still respected ; and in due course of time several Christian emblems 
were added; but these are not explained in the modern lectures. 

Several emblems, such as the 

Triad of Faith, Hope, and Charity 

Dove and Olive branch 

Lamb and Flag 

Allseeing Eye 



have symbolical meanings similar to those known to Freemasons. 

There are many others, some merely symbols of office; and among those 
mentioned in Lewis's Manual as obsolete are: — 

Cross swords 

Masks or Vizards 


Three Arrows 

Temple with six steps 

Adam taking the forbidden fruit 

Noah's Ark 

and, strange to say, the Bible. But in connection with this last it is stated 
that as it is an eternal emblem it is quite unnecessary to insist upon its 

The symbolic meanings given to the emblems of the officers are: — 

Sun— The emblem of the Noble Grand, who if he be in true order 
will be the light of the Order. 

Moon — The pathfinder and awakener of sleeping minds, the emblem 
of the Vice Grand. 

Seven Stars — Represent the seven passions of life. Though applied 
as the emblem of the Secretary, this can be equally the 
emblem of also the Warden, Conductor, two Right 

Odd fellows flip. 193 


' Wisdom of secrecy,' suggesting the necessity for keeping silent 
upon and not indiscreetly exposing the inner workings of 
the Order. 
Lion : 

'Honour,' 'generosity,' 'strength,' 'courage'; also it signifies 
' regenerate man,' in reference to the fable that a lion was 
born torpid and awakened by the roaring of its sire. 

Terrestrial Globe : 

' Universality of the spirit of benevolence ' actuating the members 
of the Order. 

Crown on Globe : 
' Charity.' 

Cross on Globe : 

' Truth ' spread over the world. 

Crown Mace : 

' Justice,' the mace signifying the laws of the Order crowned by 
justice in their administration. 

Cross Mace : 

' Honour,' indicating maintenance of the laws of the Order in 
combination with the precepts of Christianity. 

Crown Sceptre : 

' Dignity ' of the Order, combining royalty with greatness. 

Cross Sceptre : 

' Loyalty ' of members of the Order, combining perfect majesty 
with true Christianity. 
Crooks : 

' Kindness ' as symbol of the Good Shepherd. 

Cross-swords : 

' Power and authority,' indicating union to support justice, and 
power to prevent aggression. 

If sword be horizontal, defiance is intended, 

If sword be pointed to the ground, attitude of on guard. 

Masks or Vizards : 

' Caution,' warning not to regard fantastic outside appearances, 
but to consider their eternal meaning. 

Rainbow : 

'Mercy of God,' 'harmony of all good sentiments,' 'brotherhood 

Arrows : 

' True friendship/ 'mutual relief.' 

Temple with six steps : 

'Progression,' 'perfection.' (Note. — Old R.A.T.B.) 

Adam taking the forbidden fruit : 

Allegory of the fall — primitive innocence lost by the seduction 
of sensuality, self-indulgence, or materialism ; and represent- 
ing universal transgression. 

Adam and Eve together represent humanity, including — 
the masculine attributes of intellect, science, and under- 
standing; and the feminine characteristics of love, religion, 
and will. 

Noah's Ark : 
Anchor : 

' Trust/ ' safety/ being the emblem of a well-grounded hope and 
a well-spent life. The Ark particularly represents the soul 

194 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

agitated upon a sea of passions and escaping a deluge of 

In A.Q.G. are to be seen two Oddfellows jewels: — 

1. Vol. xxi., page 271. 

This one is of the form of a shield upon which are three ugly 
faces; the shield is placed upon two crossed swords. The supporters 
are two full-length figures dressed in eighteenth century costume, 
wearing sashes over opposite shoulders. Above the shield is a ' Heart 
in hand ' ; and above this emblem is a scroll bearing the motto : 

' Upon my honour.' 

Below the shield is another scroll with the motto : 

' Quid rides.' 

All the points in this jewel seem appropriate except the three ugly faces 
and the lower motto, which introduce an element of ridicule. 

2. Vol. xxiii., page 337. 

This one is oval and has on the obverse — - 
an oak-tree with over it a scroll bearing the motto : 

' Pro rege et patria ' 

with the words ' Royal ' and ' Oak ' on either side of the tree. 
And on the reverse — 

two right hands clasped with a chain of three links hanging from 
the middle of them, and over them a scroll bearing the word : 

' Concordia,' 

and under them the date — Feb. 7th 1772. 

The Royal Oak may refer to the name of a Lodge of the date on the 

From the motto ' Pro rege et patria ' this is an English jewel ; but from 
the symbolism of English Oddfellowship now known, the emblem of the hands 
and chain is not at once obvious. However, we know that the early symbolism 
was, with the early rituals, imparted to America, and in America the triad 
of — Friendship, Love and Truth — is expressed in the emblem of the Three links 
of a chain, representing the all-encircling chain of sympathy uniting the Order 
in its aims, labours, and abundant rewards. 

It is to be noted, too, that at the Installations of Noble Grands, the 
Grand Lodge, with the M.W. Grand Master, are admitted ' in the name of 
Friendship, Love, and Truth.' Moreover, James Montgomery, the poet, in 
1799 wrote a poem upon this particular triad; and this poem is said to be 
' the earliest Oddfellows song known and accepted as such.' 

The Aristarcus Lodge, already mentioned, is known to have met, in the 
eighteenth century, at 

The Mermaid Tap (or Tavern) at Hackney; 
The Globe Tavern, Hatton Garden; 
The Boar's Head, Smithfield. 

The Mermaid Tavern is mentioned as the meeting place of also another 
Oddfellows Lodge in 1814. 

Freemasons' Lodges also met there. This place, however, was probably 
only an occasional meeting place for Freemasons at any rate, as was the case 
with the Freemasons' Annual Country Feast in 1769, described by Bro. 
Wonnacott in his paper ' Country Stewards' Lodges & the Green Apron ' 
(A.QJJ., vol. xxxvi.). 

Odd fellowship, 195 

At the Globe Tavern, Hatton Garden, — • 

The Freemason Lodge of Utility, No. 164 met in 1760 and 1763. 

Joppa, No. 188 met in 1789. 

At the Boar's Head, Smithfield, — 

The Freemason Lodge Boar's Head met in 1765, 
and also a Lodge which in 1832 became No. 36. 

The headquarters of Oddfellowship in London in 1798 was the Bohemian 
Tavern, Wych Street, Strand. 

I regret that these particulars are so few and disconnected as not to be 
of any value. 

As regards individuals belonging to both Freemasonry and Oddfellowship 
in the early days, except for the one exalted personage, I have failed to unearth 
anything definite, owing to the very slender evidence available. One or two 
names appear to offer some resemblances, but the evidence is too shadowy to 
accept. This may be due to the falling away of London Lodges of Oddfellowship 
when the Manchester Unity was formed, followed by so many other secessions. 

I have not touched, so far, upon American Oddfellowship, which was 
originally introduced from England at a time when Oddfellowship had begun 
to consolidate itself and work as a Friendly Society. 

It may be of interest to note a few of the principal points. 

Oddfellowship in America began an organised existence in 1819, though 
it had been known for a few years before that time. It was not long, however, 
before English and American Oddfellowship drifted apart, said to be due to 
the many innovations introduced by the inventive American mind ; and before 
the middle of that century all connection was severed. 

The American Order was able to continue to work the earlier rituals, or 
at any rate rituals on the earlier plan, while these had to be abandoned by 
the English Order under the stress of legislation. 

In America the sequence of degrees is now somewhat different from the 
English; higher degrees have been invented and added; and a woman's degree 
forms part of the Order. The degrees are: — 


1° or White 
2° or Covenant 
3° or Royal Blue 
4° or Remembrance 
5° or Scarlet 

and the higher degrees comprise: — 

1 . Patri archie al 

2. Golden rule 

3. Royal Purple 

The woman's degree is called ' Rebekah.' 

In each degree there is an obligation and some short ceremony besides 
the lecture; and there are for each degree, signs, grips, tokens, and words. 

The symbols generally are much the same as in England; though there 
are variations and additions; but the arrangement is different. Whereas in 
England the symbols are not particularly allotted, in America they are grouped 
with some regularity amongst the several degrees. 

In David Bernard's Exposure of Freemasonry (1869) is an appendix giving 
the ' Mysteries of Oddfellowship. ' This book is American and gives all the 
secrets for the several degrees of Oddfellowship in America. As the Grand 
Lodge of the United States in 1844 entirely changed all the working, it is not 
clear whether these various secrets are the same as, or even similar to, the 
original secrets transmitted from England when the Order spread to America. 

196 Tra/twctious of the Quatuor (Joronati Lodge. 

But, as a sample, I would mention a key for the five degrees which is quoted 
as being designed to assist the memory in relating the signs of the Order: — 

1. Being in town, the other day, I thought of getting shaved; feeling 

my beard with my right hand. 

2. I started in quite a hurry, for the barber's shop, and on reaching it, 

found I was all in perspiration ; wiping the sweat from my 
forehead with my right hand. 

3. In waiting for my turn, I soon became quite chilly; placing my right 

hand into my left, shivering. 

4. Being short of funds, I studied about the matter; placing two fingers 

of my right hand between my brows. 

5. I concluded not to get shaved, as it would save me a dime, and, 

placing second and third fingers of my right hand upon my left 
arm, I went away without getting shaved. 

And for the passwords : — 

First Quarterly Meeting Remember All 

Fides Quiver Moses Record Aaron 

A hearty vote of thanks was passed to Bro. Richard on the proposition of Bro. 
W. W. Covey-Crump, seconded by Bro. Ceo. Norman; comments being offered by, or 
on behalf of, Bros. B. Telepneff, C. Walton Bippon, W. J. Williams, W. G. Shapley, 
W. J. Hyner, and Geo. W. Bullamore. 

Bro. W. W. Covey-Crump said: — - 

It is my pleasant duty to propose a cordial vote of thanks to W. Bro. 
Rickard for his paper. Its subject is one in which we, as a Masonic antiquarian 
Lodge, have an interest, whether we are or are not members of the Oddfellows' 
Society. I confess at the outset that I am not a member, and therefore cannot 
speak from that inside knowledge of it which our Bro. Rickard possesses. With 
the official secrets of the Society we are not here concerned ; nor yet with its 
beneficiary aspect as a Friendly Society. As such, its evolution is extraneous 
to our scope. To whatever extent provision for old age and funeral expenses 
may have appertained to operative Masons in mediaeval days, it certainly had 
ceased to exist at the period when our speculative Craft took shape and became 
dominant in the early part of the eighteenth century. I do not suppose Bro. 
Rickard intended to suggest that ' benefit clubs ' have had a continuous succes- 
sion from Roman times. Although, from time immemorial, ' relief ' had always 
been one of the grand Masonic principles, such relief was occasional and charitable 
(usually for strangers visiting a Lodge) ; not a systematic and compulsory provision 
for the mutual benefit of all members of the Lodge. So far as can be proved, 
the latter had never been the case in our Craft; though possibly some other 
Gilds may have differed in this respect. 

It is on its ritual side that Oddfellowship may have derived germs from 
Masonry. The working of a fixed ritual obviously suggests an analogy — the 
possibility of a derivation. That derivation might have been direct or mediate. 
But the adoption of such terms as 'Lodge' and 'Grand Lodge,' a separation 
into ' degrees,' the use of a secret cypher, the wearing of aprons, the inclusion 
of the ' All-seeing Eye ' as a symbol, all seem to point conclusively to an 
intentional copying of features prominent in Freemasonry. And whilst we do 
not wish to probe into the precise ritual to which, from what Bro. Rickard has 
told us, the Oddfellows formerly attached importance, the inclusion of emblems 
of mortality in their ceremonial and the claim to venerable antiquity confirm 

Discussion. 197 

this opinion ; for such things could not have been absolute necessities for a 
Provident Society in the eighteenth century. The periodic payments would be 
made always at the same Lodge, where every member w T as well-known, and, 
therefore, grips and pass-words were needless accessories. 

Therefore, the idea of its ritual, and even some of the expressions and 
symbols used in its ceremonies, seem almost certainly to have been derived from 
Freemasonry. Bro. Rickard has cautiously discriminated between Oddfellows' 
Clubs and the present Oddfellows' Society. Clubs were more or less independent 
organizations, with no ra/xon d'etre for uniformity of ritual. Each Club would 
have its own, and some perhaps would have none at all. If any idea of 
antagonism or intentional rivalry existed between them and Masonic Lodges, it 
would in my opinion be merely that of kindred convivial spirits who desired the 
greater freedom resulting from independence. They were ' odd-fellows,' who 
preferred to be not tied to the traditional verbatim ritual prevailing in Masonic 
Lodges, and therefore formed similar societies of their own. That the ritual 
which they substituted was oft-times a travesty and sometimes even a concoction 
of buffoonery, was only what one would, in the circumstances, naturally expect. 

Whatever may be the future of Friendly Societies, any symbolic rites in 
connection therewith must tend to extinction. Therefore, we are grateful to 
Bro. Rickard for placing on record for future reference so complete a review of 
its old ritual (perhaps already obsolete) and the symbols with which that ritual 
was concerned. 

Bro. W. J. Williams said: — ■ 

We are all much indebted to our Brother for his concise, informative, 
and well arranged paper. There are two points only on which I desire to 

In the early part of his paper our Brother writes: — "Daniel Defoe, in 
" his Essay on Projects in 1697 wrote that the Friendly Society was no new 
" thing . . . He is said to have been the first who, in any writing, mentioned 
" Oddfellowship." 

It would have been well if our Brother could have given us the exact 
phrase used by Defoe with an indication of the volume and page in Defoe's 
writings where the alleged mention of Oddfellowship is made. I have referred 
to the New English Dictionary in the hope that the reference might be given 
there, but it does not appear. The matter is of considerable importance if it 
can indeed be shown that Oddfellowship was in fact mentioned, so far back as 
1697, as the name of a then existing Society. 

Later on, our Brother gives an account of the origin of the Order in the 
reign of Nero A.D. 55, but he quotes from The Friendly Societies Manual 
(1859): "it is stated that information regarding the origin of the Order had 
" been obtained from a Past Master of the Order, whose veracity could be 
" vouched for." I think we should all like to know who, if anyone, would be 
prepared to vouch for the veracity of the Brother who vouched for the veracity 
of the aforesaid Past Master ! 

It is evidently quite clear that our friends the Oddfellows have no intention 
of permitting our Brother James Anderson to stand alone on a pedestal as an 
example of unreliability as an historian. 

Bro. W. J. Hynee said: — 

As a life-long Friendly Society worker and a " Past High Chief Ranger " 
(President) of the Ancient Order of Foresters, the Sister Friendly Society to 
the Oddfellows, I have been keenly interested in reading Bro. Col. F. M. Rickard 's 

198 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

I think Bro. Kickard is correct in his assumption that Benefit Societies 
in some form have existed in England from remote ages, and I am strongly of 
opinion, as opposed to Bro. Rickard, that they were mainly Provident Societies, 

The balance of opinion will, I think, be found in favour of the idea that 
the modern Friendly Society (and particularly the one under discussion) was an 
off -shoot from the Medieval Guild. 

I have been reading recently a History of Kings Lynn published in 1812, 
written by William Richards, M.A., in which he writes: "Nothing throws so 
'much light as certain existing documents, relative to our Gilds." He states: 
' They were more numerous in this town than anywhere else in the kingdom. 
f They were friendly associations formed for the mutual benefit of their respective 
' members. Some were large trading companies . . . others were of the 
' humbler sort . . . and constructed on principles, perhaps, somewhat 
' similar to our modern purse clubs and benefit societies. All were calculated 
' to help the individuals who composed them to pass through life more comfort- 
' ably, obtain a more easy and plentiful subsistence, cherish love and goodwill 
( within their respective circles, and promote the peace and welfare of the town 
'or community in general." 

Mr. Richards, quoting from a MS. volume of the History of Kings Lynn 
by Mr. King, compiled about 100 years previously ('i.e., about 1712), and 
containing a " Catalogue of the Gildes in the Towne of Lynn," gives the number 
of these Gilds at this period as above thirty. 

In 1812 there were in Lynn twenty Purse Clubs or Benefit Societies with 
a probable membership of 700 or more. Most of these Societies consisted of 
men, but some few of women. One of these, established in 1795 for sickness, 
old age and death, was supported by small monthly payments and by subscrip- 
tions of honorary members. I can, however, find no mention of " Oddfellows " 
or " Foresters." 

The Clubs apparently, or at least some of them, used some form of 
ceremony of initiation. Mr. Richards states: "They all had a strong tincture 
" of religion or rather superstition according to the prevailing fashion of the 
"times"; but he gives no idea of the form of any of the ceremonies. 

Mr. Richards was, presumably, not a Freemason, as he writes rather 
caustically with regard to what he alleges to be their ceremonies. He gives the 
information that there were in 1812 three Lodges of Freemasons working in 
Lynn, and he had been informed by some Lynn Masons that " the whole 
number of them now in this Town (exclusive as he understood of the irregular 
Lodge) amount to above 500 members." Of the three Lodges in Lynn he states: 
" Two of them deem themselves orthodox but are not willing to allow the 3rd 
" to be so." 

I have come in contact with quite a number of Oddfellows of long standing, 
who are not Freemasons, but who make a sort of claim that their ceremonies, 
if not based upon, have an analogy to the Masonic Ritual, and indeed some 
have made the assertion that " Oddfellowship is the poor man's freemasonry." 
This seems to me to suggest Masonic influence in the compilation of their 

Bro. C. Walton Rippon writes: — 

The Grand United is by no means the oldest Order now existing, that 
right belongs to the Manchester Unity. 

So far as I have been able to trace, " James Thornley who was a P.G.M. 
of the Order " must have been a member of the G.U. or of the Bolton Unity. 
I cannot find his name as a past officer of the Manchester Unity. Regarding 
the G entlemans Magazine of 1745, I have not been able to find any reference 
to Odd Fellows Lodges appearing therein; in fact, on the appearance of 

Discussion. 199 

Moffrey's "Rise and Progress of the Manchester Unity," I wrote to him to this 
effect, and in his "Century of Odd Fellowship," published later, he says: 
" Close research by Bro. . . . and others has proved that the Gentlemans 
Magazine of 1745 is innocent of any such entry." 

When Col. Rickard mentions the Grand United Order and goes on to 
say " there is proof that the Order was in existence some time before the end 
of the eighteenth century " he is liable to mislead his Brethren, as there is 
abundant evidence that the G.U.O.O.F. seceded from the Manchester Unity and 
that the latter was formed circa 1812. 

Sir Edward Brabrook was the Chief Registrar of Friendly Societies, not 
Mr. F. W. Brabrook. 

Moffrey, in his "Rise and Progress of the Manchester Unity," says 
"there is a 'possible substratum of truth"; a very different statement to the 
assertion which is attributed to him. 

In the Minutes of the Aristarcus Lodge it is somewhat interesting to 
note that the Brethren kept respectable hours, the last toast being given in silence 
at 9 o'clock P.M. 

I would suggest that the Patriotic Order is that through which the present 
system of Odd Fellowship has descended from 1792, and not the Grand United 

After referring to a Provincial Grand Lodge at Sheffield (post 1792) Col. 
Rickard speaks of "the aforementioned document of 1798." Where has he 
referred to it, and what was its nature ? 

If the National Independent Order was formed in 1846, how could the 
Nottingham Imperial (founded 1812) follow it ? 

A. Jowett, who wrote the "History of Oddfellowship," is described as 
a P.G.M. of the Order. Which of the thirty-four? 

When dealing with the ritual of the Patriotic Order of 1797 our Brother 
leaves it to be inferred that the Ancient Grand Master, who has to be roused 
from his slumbers, was the ruling master of the Lodge, whereas as a matter of 
fact he was the I. P.M. 

Col. Rickard also says: " At the present time there are no secrets beyond 
the password, except in the fifth degree." 

I had communicated to me sign, grip and password in each of the Lodge 
Degrees — White, Blue, Scarlet and Gold, as well as the Past Vice Grand and 
Past Noble Grand, and had to undergo a strenuous interrogation and examina- 
tion in the whole of them before the conferring of the Purple or Priestly Degree. 

The degree (as distinct from the rank) of Past Prov. Grand Master is 
now generally conferred during the Annual Movable Conference, and, though 
qualified, I have not taken it. 

The motto "Upon my honour," which appears in A.Q.C., xxi., p. 271, 
was abolished as a general password May 19th, 1823. 

The badge of three links is still in use by members of the Manchester 
Unity, being worn on the coat lapel. Regarding Montgomery's poem, Grosh's 
Odd Fellows Manual (Philadelphia 1853) says, on p. 20: — 

"As we learn from the Biography of James Montgomery, the Poet, 
he wrote the song . . . for a society of London mechanics and 
labourers . . . presumed to be a Lodge of Ancient and Honorable 
Loyal Odd Fellows." 

The following extracts from the " Minutes and other documents of the 
Grand Committees of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows connected with the 
Manchester Unity from January 1814 to December 1828 inclusive " — Manchester, 
Mark Wardle, 1829— may be of interest-. — 

January 21 1814. Every brother to provide himself with an apron at his own 

Summer Outing, 209 

uncertain, Doroclna being the invention of later chroniclers. It remained a place 
of importance through Saxon times, and was the scene of the conversion of 
Cynegils, King of Wessex, by the missionary Bishop Birinus in 635. The king 
thereupon made Dorchester the seat of a Bishopric, and the original see was 
thus one of the earliest to be founded in England. It included Wessex, 
Somerset and the Western midlands. Winchester was very soon constituted a 
separate see, and Dorchester was then for a time without a Bishop. After 
various changes it was reconstituted subsequent to the Danish troubles in 870, 
when it included Oxford, Cambridge, Peterborough and Lincoln. But the see 
was transferred to Lincoln after the Conquest. (Oxford itself became a diocese 
in 1542; the Abbey of Oseney being the first cathedral. But the Bishop's Chair 
was transferred to St. Frideswide's, which was now rebuilt as part of Wolseley's 
College of Christ Church, and Oseney was allowed to go to ruin; nothing now 
remains of it but a few fragments of masonry.) 

At Dorchester the Abbey was first erected by Augustinian Canons in the 
reign of Henry I. Of the earlier Saxon edifice no certain traces remain to-day. 
The North wall of the present nave is the wall of the Norman church of the 
Canons, unaltered save for the insertion of two fourteenth century windows. 
In the days of the Canons the nave was the parish church, and early in the 
fourteenth century this was extended on the South side. Soon afterwards the 
Canons extended the Sanctuary, which to-day presents a magnificent example of 
the most ornate period of Decorated, both the Jesse window and the East window 
being quite unusual in design. But the glass has unfortunately been much 
confused, and the original Old Testament subjects of it can only be guessed at. 
The church was very much restored in recent times. 


The name appears to mean " Head of the Sj^rings," and this interpreta- 
tion is consistent with the actual situation of the village on an outlying slope 
of the Chilterns. Its importance dates from the end of the fourteenth century, 
when Matilda Burghersh, the daughter of the then lord of the manor, married 
Thomas Chaucer, But just who this Thomas Chaucer was is somewhat uncertain. 
He may have been the son of the poet ; at all events, he was the son of the 
lady who married Geoffrey Chaucer, and John of Gaunt took a great interest in 
his career. The shield of the Plantagenets appears on the tomb in Ewelme 
church without any very clear genealogical justification ; the arms of the Chancers 
do not. 

Alice, the daughter of Thomas and Matilda, born in 1404, eventually 
became the wife of the Earl of Suffolk, created Duke of Suffolk in 1448. He 
made Ewelme his favourite residence and in 1437 he founded the almshouses of 
which Mr. Field, in Memorials of Old Oxfordshire, writes:- — ■ 

Few villages can show a group of buildings so dignified and at the 
same time so picturesque as these which form the memorial of the first 
Duke and Duchess of Suffolk; first, the schoolroom, with lofty red 
brick walls and the stonework of its windows adorned with shields 
and sculptured angels; beside it, the embattled gateway leading to 
the almshouse; and next, through an entrance of ornamental brick- 
work, the peaceful little quadrangle with half-timber walls and 
protecting cloister around it and richly-carved bargeboards over its 
dormer windows; thence a steep flight of steps leads up to the 
western entrance of the church. 

The church itself is East Anglian in type; there was an older edifice of which 
the present structure is a rebuilding carried out before 1475. Its most con- 
spicuous feature is the sumptuous monument to the Duchess Alice; just beyond 
which lies that of Margaret and Thomas Chaucer. The church is also rich in 
brasses of rectors, masters of the almshouses and others. It was spared from 

Discussion. 201 

Hope Lodge No. 1843 of the Manchester Unity I.O.O.F. was in 1850 
held at the Leopard, Great Hampton Street, Birmingham, and disappeared from 
the List of Lodges before 1864. 

I have asked the Corresponding Secretary if he can furnish any further 

Bro. B. Telepneff said: — 

Bro. Rickard's paper is certainly one of the most valuable contributions 
to the records of this Lodge as well by the interest and depth of Bro. Rickard's 
subject as by the circumspection and lucidity of its exposition. 

To Bro. Rickard's comprehensive survey of Oddfellowship in England and 
America, I should like to add a few words about its spread on the Continent of 
Europe. 1 

The first Oddfellows' Lodge in Germany was opened on the 1st December, 
1870, namely, the Wuerttemberg Lodge N.I.; then followed the Saxonia 
Lodge in Dresden, and on the 1st April, 1871, the Germania Lodge in Berlin. 
The movement was inspired by American Oddfellowship. In December, 1872, 
the Grand Lodge of Germany was constituted; it soon founded District Grand 
Lodges in Brandenburg, Wuerttemberg, Hanover and Saxony; later in Silesia 
and Schleswig-Holstein. 

In 1870 an Oddfellows' Lodge was formed at Zurick, and in 1874 the 
Grand Lodge of Switzerland was established. 

The first Lodge at Copenhagen was founded in 1878, and this led to the 
formation of the Grand Lodge of Denmark, followed by the Grand Lodge of 
Holland, and, in 1895, by the Grand Lodge of Sweden. 

Thus, in 1895, Oddfellowship embraced Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, 
Holland, Sweden and also France. 

It appears that in 1894 American Oddfellowship, with its allied organisa- 
tions in Europe and elsewhere, counted 806,013 members and disposed of over more 
than 8^ million dollars in receipts; about 3,300,000 dollars were distributed as 
relief of different kinds. Truly, an admirable achievement of a remarkable 
movement, fully warranting a paper from the masterly hands of such a scholar 
as Bro. Rickard. 

Bro. G. W. Bullamore writes : — 

Oddfellowship as a parallel to Freemasonry is of great interest for there 
seems no evidence that the one system borrowed from the other. Yet they have 
much in common which may have come from the gilds. 

Mediaeval gilds were insurances against sickness, poverty, loss by fire, etc. 
They buried the dead, acted as trade unions and as loan societies and were clubs 
for feasting, singing and play-acting. It is difficult to suppose that such a 
system was wiped out utterly to be succeeded by organisations fulfilling the 
same purposes yet entirely new and distinct. 

The gilds which survived the Reformation would be compelled to deal 
drastically with their ceremonies or to become Royalist secret societies when the 
solemn league and covenant came into being in Commonwealth days. A London 
gild that eschewed all that savoured of popery or prelacy could not honestly 
retain its ceremonies, and when the London Freemasons changed their name to 
the Company of Masons it requires no great imagination to suppose that the 
ceremonies were revised as well. 

1 My authority for the following lines is: " Ueber Freimauerei nnd Odd-Fellowtmn, 
von Dr. Thcodor Schueler, Mitglied der Justitia : Loge in Berlin; Berlin, 1895." There 
is also a very useful account of the origin and growth of Oddfellowship, in the second 
volume of the Allgemeines Handbuch der Freimauerei (Leipzig, 1865). 

202 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

I suggest that the epidemic of clubs which came after the Restoration was 
a re-appearance and revival of the gild ceremonies, the Hell-fire clubs being a 
burlesque of them by the irreligious element. The Act of William and Mary, 
which restored the fellowships lost under the quo warrantos of Charles II. and 
James II., would account for the convention of accepted Masons at St. Paul's 
in 1691 and perhaps for the formation of clubs of odd members of other fellow- 
ships or odd fellows. 

The secrecy of the gilds would render the fellowship survivals adapted to 
political intrigues, and it is of interest to note that there was a definitely 
Jacobite section of the Oddfellows. The predecessors of the Freemasons who 
asked the Duke of Cumberland to replace Charles Edward Stewart as their 
Grand Master we may look upon as definitely Jacobite also. In 1748 the date 
and place of meeting was communicated to Oddfellows in cypher. In the 
Samber Masonic formulae in the Bodleian we read: "I will not at any time 
hereafter discover to any person or persons whatsoever, the place where I was 
admitted a member or brother of the most holy, most ancient and most honour- 
able society or Brotherhood of Freemasons. " 

Bro. Rickard mentions the gavel as obviously derived from the Freemasons. 
The use of a hammer, however, was common to mediaeval institutions. An 
Elizabethan gild at Exeter has the following: — " Item.— That the governor 
having a small hammer in his hands made for the purpose, when he will have 
scilence to be hadd shall knocke the same upon, the Borde, and who so ever do 
talke after the second stroke to paye without redempcion two pence." I find, 
too, that Cardinal Newman in his life of St. Stephen Harding, the founder of 
the Cistercians, speaks of ' ' the harsh strokes of the wooden mallet used for 
calling the brethren together." 

The N.E.D, gives the word gavel as an American term for a mason's 
setting maul and for a president's hammer. In this latter sense it may have 
been adopted for a hammer already in use by Oddfellows. 

In Freemasonry the gavel has replaced the mallet and is the steel 
hammer-axe used in rough mason work. Its cutting edge renders the chisel 
superfluous. If used in place of the mallet it alters the quality of the blow 
and burrs the head of the chisel, causing rapid wastage. In mediaeval times 
steel was four times the price of brass, so I feel sure the Freemasons used a 
wooden mallet and that its replacement by the gavel is a nineteenth century 

Bro. Hextall's extract from an Oddfellows Lodge cash book shows a pay- 
ment for " mizalto." The mistletoe figures in the old Lodge at York (236). 
The use of mistletoe at Christmas is usually considered to be a survival from 

We have no proof that a complete set of emblems was the distinctive 
property of each gild. The craft emblems would belong to the gild of that 
craft, no doubt, but the steady growth of new "misteries" and the fusion of 
misteries that also took place must have led to the migration and spread of some 
of the symbols. Even the lambskin apron may have been common to a number 
of trade fellowships. 

Bro. F. M. Rickard write* as follows, in reply: — 

I am indeed grateful for the very kind reception given to the paper on 
' Oddfellowship.' It is very gratifying to find that so many of the comments 
are in sympathy and agreement with the views expressed, particularly as, not 
being an Oddfellow, I cannot claim to possess any inside knowledge as so 
kindly suggested by the Worshipful Master. 

I would here repeat that I do not pretend that the paper has covered 
the subject or that it is not open to correction. 

Discussion. 203 

Since completing the paper I have learned from " Tickets & Passes/' 
by W. J. Davies and A. W. Waters (1922), that the two jewels described in 
the paper belong — the first to ' Hand & Heart Society,' presumably of London, 
and the second to ' Oak Society,' of Nottingham. But it is pleasing to know 
that my surmises were excusable, since Bro. Rippon, himself an Oddfellow, 
accepts the emblems as illustrating Oddfellowship. 

As regards the practice in vogue with early clubs, Bro. Covey-Crump 
appears to hold that there was no systematic scheme of benefit, while Bro. 
Hyner is of opinion that the clubs were provident societies. Whichever opinion 
be held must depend on the view taken and whether the evidence to be adduced 
is convincing. For myself, I cannot but think that, though charitable intentions 
have always been an influence, the smallness of the scope of the early clubs would 
not have allowed of more than promiscuous acts of charity. 

Bro. Bullamore enlarges on the point mentioned in connection with the 
gavel; but he appears on the whole to agree that the 'gavel,' and also the 
apron, etc., may have been adopted in imitation of Freemasons. 

The remarks from Bro. Shapley, coming from an Oddfellow, were 
interesting; and I gathered that in general he agreed with the paper. The 
suggestion made by Bro. Shapley that Oddfellowship arose as the result of a 
resolution passed by Freemasons prohibiting London Masons from belonging to 
more than one Lodge, I think requires corroborative evidence. And the idea 
that O.F. system, emblems and ritual can be traced back to Roman and even 
Egyptian times seems at least fanciful. 

I am much indebted to Bro. D. Flather for the loan of a manuscript copy 
of the ' Lectures & Signs of the Ancient Noble Order of Oddfellows ' which were 
confirmed and established in Sheffield in December, 1822, "at a deputation from 
the Lodges of the Grand United Order." The lectures, are peculiar and different 
from any others I have seen. 

The programme of the Manchester Unity Centenary Celebration, October, 
1910, sent by Bro. Lingstrom, contains some interesting information. Among 
the historical references Sheffield is said to have supplanted London, and the 
Order in Sheffield is referred to as the " United Order," while the London Order 
is called the "Union Order." 

The document of 1798 mentioned in the paper is the "Dispensation" 
granted from London to Sheffield in 1798, in which it is stated that the Order 
in Sheffield is. to be under the title of ' Grand United Order of Oddfellows.' 
In a letter from the Grand Secretary of Management, written in 1893 from 
Manchester, in answer to certain queries from America, the following occurs: — 

". . . . The early history of the Grand United Order in England 
is a dead letter. But the contention of older members is that the 
Independent Order of Oddfellows, Manchester Unity, was the first 
split from the Grand United Order in 1813 . . ." 

" The Union Order or Grand United Order embraced all Lodges in 
England until 1813 when the first secession occurred . . ." 

It seems that the Grand United Order existed first in London ; that 
Sheffield presently supplanted London; and that later Bolton supplanted 
Sheffield, after the Manchester Unity had seceded from Sheffield; and that then 
the Order in Sheffield took the name of ' Ancient Noble Order.' 

Apparently I was wrong in saying that the Grand L T nited Order was a 
split from the Manchester L T nity, as it seems to have been more of the nature 
of a revolt from Sheffield and a transfer complete to Bolton; the remains in 
Sheffield assuming a new name. 

Though Bro. Rippon does not agree, I think I may maintain, in view of 
the quotations just given, that the Grand United Order was the Mother of all 
the other Orders. 


Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

However, as regards the inter-relationship of the various Orders of 
Oddfellows, it was not intended in the paper to follow the history of any of the 
bodies, but to deal with only Oddfellowship in general. 

Bro. Rippon must have overlooked the earlier reference in the paper to 
the document of 1798. He will find it in the same paragraph in which the 
G.U.O. is first mentioned. 

As regards, secrets, in my remarks I was following Lewis's manual. 
Bro. Rippon, as an Oddfellow, corrects my statement. But perhaps it may be 
allowed that the following sentence from Lewis's manual grants that my assump- 
was not wholly unwarranted : — • 

" At the present day (1895) however, many Lodges even of the 
Manchester Unity adhere to the older ceremonies and practise them 
in conjunction with the lectures officially promulgated." 

Bro. Rippon adds to his remarks several very interesting extracts from 
Minutes and other documents. 

I would offer my best thanks to the several Brethren who so kindly 
loaned the many interesting exhibits connected with Oddfellowship. 

Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 




XFORD, Cathedral City and University, illustrates as perhaps 
no other city in the kingdom can do the whole history of the 
architecture of our country, from the Pre-Conquest Crypt of 
St. Peter in the East and the Norman work at the Cathedral 
to the perfection of Gothic in Merton Chapel and the glorious 
Divinity Schools, followed by the Tudor of Christ Church and 
the old Court of Brasenose, and the Renascence and later 
work carried out under Bodley and the architects who gave 
us the Ashmolean, or Worcester College. Lodges of Masons there must have 
been from the days of the earliest Gothic building, and we might almost expect 
to find at Oxford a school of Masons influencing the architecture of the neigh- 
bouring counties. But of all this there is no indication, for, as Bro. Vibert 
reminded us in the paper he read on the Saturday evening, there is no record 
of anything except isolated individuals and an incorporation of the Masons with 
three other trades in 1604. 

Accordingly, when the QuaGior Coronati Lodge accepted the invitation to 
make Oxford the scene of their Summer Outing this year, it was realized that there 
was perhaps not much that was strictly Masonic to be shown to our visitors of 
the days before the Grand Lodge era. But our Masonic archseolo gists take all 
architecture for their province, and they certainly can never have chosen a centre 
more adapted to their requirements in that respect, which in addition offered 
them the opportunity of visiting the Bodleian Library and inspecting the 
treasures of art and plate in the Halls and Chapels of the various Colleges. 

The Brethren assembled at Paddington on Thursday, 21st July, and went 
down by the 1.45 train, arriving at Oxford at 3.4. The party was too large 
to be accommodated in one hotel, and they were distributed between the 
Randolph, Clarendon and Mitre, the Randolph being the headquarters, while a 
few were very kindly given hospitality by the authorities of Queen's College. 
The visiting Brethren were ■. — ■ 

Bros. Dr. E. Allan, of Buiiwv-iii-Fm'iiess, P.M., (B.C.); F. J. Aslmry, of 
London, P.A.G.D.C; Win. X. Bacon, of London, P.M., 15, P.G.Stwd.; Rodk. H. 
Baxter, of Rochdale, P.A.G.D.C, P.M., 2076; J. Blackburn, of Birstall, 264; H. 
Bladon, of London, P.G.St.B. ; Dr. C. J. Bourhill, of Warrington, 4233 ; Robt, Bridge, 
of Cohvyn Bay, P.Pr.G.D., E. Lanes. ; H. Broad, of Stratford-on-Avon, P.Pr.G.D.. 
Warwick; Walter H. Brown, of London, P.M., 23, P.G.Stwd.; Dr. T. M. Carter, of 
Bristol, Pr.S.G.W., Bristol, 2076; G. S. Collins, of London, P.A.G.D.C; Robt. Colsell, 
of Chingford, P.A.G.D.C; 11. F. J. Colsell, of Chingford, P.D.M., 12; T. M. Copland, 
of Falkirk, G. Architect ; Rev. W. W. Covey-Crump, of Wisbech, W.M.. 2076; 
Dr. A. J. Cross, of Dalton-in-Furness, P.Pr.G.W., West Lanes.; Dr. O. 
Curd, of Bath, P.A.G.D.C; H. C de Lafontaine, of London, P.G.D., S.D., 
2076; F. J. Dennant, of Dovercourt. 650: Win. Dickinson, of Byfieet, P.Pr.G.Sup.W., 
Surrey; R. A. Dickson, of Loudon, P.Pr.G.D.G, Essex; E. H. Dring, of London, 

206 Transactions of the Qua-taut 1 L'oronati Lodge. 

P.G.D., P.M., 2076; C. Lewis Edwards, of Loudwatcr, Bucks., P.G.D.; David Mather, 
of Sheffield, P. A. G. B.C. ; AV. Gcoghegan, of Loudon, P.M., 620 (LC); J. F. H. 
Gilbard, of London, 56; F. AY. Golby, of London, P.A.G.D.C; Win. Parry 
Gregar, of AYestclifLon-Sea, P.Pr.G.D., Essex; John AV. Hall, of Peterborough, 
P.Pr.G.W., Norths, and Hunts.; Dr. 11. T. Halliday, of Glasgow, P.M., "72; 
Professor AVm. L. Henning, of State College, Pa., U.S.A., 478 (Ohio.) ; Gordon P. G. 
Hills, of Cookham Dean, P.A.G.Sup.AV., P.M., B.C., 2076; John Holt, of Yarni, 
P.Pr.G.AV., Durham; F. Houghton, of London, 1500; A. Hunter, of Falkirk, 
Pr.G.Sup., Stirling; B. \\. James, of Pinner, 2823; G. Y, Johnson, of York, 
P.Pr.G.AV.; A. AV. H. Jones, of London, P.M., 1828; Dr. F. Lace, of Bath, 
P.A.G.D.C; H. A. Matheson, of London, P.M., 2987; H. E. Miller, of Grange over 
Sands, P.Pr.A.G.D.C. ; AVm. P. Morrison, of Stenhousemuir, G.Stew. ; Br. J. Murray, 
of Barrow-in-Furness, P.Pr.G.AV.; C A. Ts'ewman. of Peterborough, Pr.G.AV. ; Dr. 
C. E. Newman, of London, 4453; J. H. Parker, of Norwich, P.M., 1452; H. D. 
Parsons, of Eagleseliffe, P.Pr.G.AV.; Dr. C H. Pen/am, of London, P.G.D. ; Dr. S. H. 
Perry, of Spalding, AV.M., 469; E. Piekstone, of Badeliffe, 9230; Professor C. S. 
Plumb, of Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A., G. Historian ; A. Cecil Powell, of AVeston-super- 
Mare, P.G.D., P.M., 2076; F. A. Powell, of London, P.A.G.D.C; J. H. Pullen, of 
London, P.M., 410; Geo. Sarginson, of West Hartlepool, P.Pr.G.AV.; AV. Scott, of 
Salthurn-by-the-Sea, P.M., 543; Tlios. Selby, of Eagleseliffe, P.Pr.A.G.D.C; AV. J. 
Songhurst, of London, P.G.D. , See., 2076; J. AV. Stevens, of London, P.A.G.Sup.AV.; 
Dr. John Stokes, of Sheffield, P.G.D., P.M., 2076; Ed. Tappenden, of Hiteliiu, 
P.Pr.G.AV.; AV. H. Tiffany, of Cape Town, 12 (D.C.) ; J. E. S. Tuekett, of Bristol, 
P.A.G.S.B., P.M., 2076; Lionel Albert, of Bath, P.Dis.G.AV., Madras, P.M., 2076; 
Ed. H. Watts, of Sideup, P.M., 2882; Geo. C. Williams, of Loudon, P.M., 25; AY. J. 
Williams, of London, S.AV., 2696, 2076; H. R. Wood, of Manchester, P.Pr.G.AV.; and 
A. AV. Youngman, of Lowestoft, P.P.r.G.AT. 

At Oxford several local Brethren, were on the platform as well as some 
of the party who had made their way direct and arrived by road or by earlier 
trains. At 4 p.m. we proceeded to the Town Hall, where we were welcomed 
by the Right Worshipful the Mayor, Bro. AA 7 . H. Perkins, who was accompanied 
by the Sheriff (Councillor F. W. A. Bennett, a P.M. of the Alfred Lodge) and 
the Town Clerk. The Mayor entertained us to tea, and afterwards gave a short 
talk on the City plate, and various articles of interest were pointed out by the 
Mayor's Sergeant, while Mr. B. Walker, of the Town Clerk's staff, explained 
the charters displayed for inspection. Before the party broke up, the W.M. 
voiced the thanks of his Brethren to the Mayor and Sheriff, and commented on 
the very many interesting features of the plate and Charters. The interval before 
dinner was spent in strolling down High Street and the Cornmarket, and giving to 
those who had not before visited the city a first impression of the Colleges and 

After dinner we assembled at the Masonic Hall in High Street, where 
the W.M. of the Alfred Lodge, No. 340, AV. Bro. Rev. R. W. Bennett, and his 
Officers and Brethren gave us a most cordial reception. Other Brethren present 
included twenty-five Grand Officers and about eighty Past Masters and Brethren 
of local Lodges. During the evening W. Bro. A. E. Cowley, P.G.I)., D.Litt., 
Bodley's Librarian, gave a most helpful address describing the city and its 
buildings, and the Bodleian Library, and indicating some of the many points 
to which we should direct our attention during our visit. Of special interest 
was his comparison of the mediaeval schools of study in the University with the 
special branches of study pursued in each degree in Masonry. 

On the Friday, after breakfast, the party divided into groups which 
visited the Bodleian, the University Buildings, the .Divinity Schools, the 
Sheldonian Theatre, the Ashmolean Museum, and the Parks. For this purpose 
various local Brethren generously put their services at our disposal and proved 
to be most efficient and enthusiastic guides. In the Bodleian the authorities 
had very kindly arranged a special exhibit which included the Ashmole and 
Rawlinson MSS., and we were also much interested in the copy of the 

Summer Outing. 


Constitution* of 1723 which had been presented — with a suitable inscription — 
by James Anderson, A.M. We are indebted to the courtesy of Bodley's 
Librarian for permission to photograph it for reproduction. 

It will be observed that Anderson's latinity is not impeccable; he 
appears to be presenting the Library to the book ! It is remarkable that in 
the corresponding inscription in his presentation copy of L'ot/al Genealogies at 
Aberdeen he employs an identical construction. See the Plate at Q.G.A., x., 
196. But it is only fair to him to remember that he had not taken his degree 
at this University. 

The Masonic MSS. in the Bodleian were the subject of a special paper 
by our late Bro. W. J. Chetwode Crawley, printed in A.Q.C, xi., with several 
plates of reproductions. In this there is a complete catalogue of the Rawlinson 
MSS. with comments and explanations. The MS. indexed as C. 918 has as its 
title: — 

The Book of the Provincial Grand Master of the Honourable and 
Ancient Fraternity of Free Masons in the City and County Palatine, 
of West Chester, etc. 

This is followed by elaborate instructions as to its maintenance, and nothing 
more, the rest of the book is blank ; it still remains an unsolved mystery. 
We were able to admire the remarkable caligraphy and ornate headpiece and 
initials of the original, of which Bro. Chetwode Crawley gives a full transcript, 
but only reproduces the last page with the Coat of Arms. 

At the Ashmolean Museum we saw, among other treasures, a specimen 
of the very rare medal of the Alfred Lodge (vide Plate). This medal was 
approved and forty ordered to be struck on October 22, 1772. (See the note 
on it by Bro. Hawkins in his paper in A.Q.C, xxii., on Two Old Oxford Lodges, 
at p. 149, and a further note by Bro. Hughan at p. 181 of the same vol.). 
It is of silver and bears a head of King Alfred on the Obv. with the Legend 

Medal issued by the Alfred Lodge, Oxford. 

From the original in the collection of Bro. Geo. L. Shackles. 

Now in the Museum of the Provincial Grand Lodge of Worcestershire. 

Dominus Ilium inaf to Men, and on the Rv. the arms of the University and 
the Freemasons quartered, with the Legend Sit Lux et Lux Fuit. The bust 
of the king presumably refers to the tradition that he was the first founder of 
the University, a tradition which at all events reminds us of some that Masons 
in the past have much venerated, perhaps with even slenderer justification. 
Although the Minutes of the Lodge record the issue of seventy-two specimens, 
very few are known to-day. There is one in the Shackles Collection now at 
Worcester, another at Rostock, while the Apollo Lodge also has one specimen, 
and the Library of Grand Lodge one and a fragment of a second. When 
Marvin first published his work The Medals of the Masonic Fraternity in 1880 
he attributed the medal to the Lodge, also named Alfred, that was chartered 
in 1814. But Bro. Hughan was not satisfied with this attribution, and had 

208 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

the old Minutes searched, and so discovered the true state of the case. The 
proper attribution is given in the corrections to Marvin's work as finally 

Some of the Brethren found time to visit St. Peter in the East, which 
actually contains the oldest masonry in Oxford to-day, in its Pre-Conquest 
crypt. Indeed, it is one of the earliest churches in the kingdom, since this 
crypt is attributed to a ninth century monk named Grymbald. It was 
originally connected with the nave by flights of stairs on the north and south, 
to enable the worshippers to descend, file past a shrine, and ascend again, in 
this reminding us of St. Miniato, and other early churches in Italy, while the 
plan also resembles those of the crypts of Ripon and Hexham. {Vide the 
Guide to the church by R. N. Lyne, F.R.G.S.) One of the pillars has a 
dragon carved on it either as a sign of Christianity, or — perhaps more plausibly — 
as the emblem of the kingdom of Wessex. The church has its especial interest 
for us as being the burial place of John and Michael Bentley, " Freemasons," 
as they described themselves, " of the City of Oxford," and John was one of 
the chief masons at Merton new buildings and elsewhere; he died in 1615. 
But their tombs are not now discoverable. 

After lunch we resumed our perambulation, and visited as many Colleges 
as the time at our disposal would allow. To many they came with all the 
charm of novelty; to others they served to recall those days when they were 
" called emphatically MEN," while to a few, and among those we may include 
our W.M., they suggested the inevitable comparison with the sister institutions 
which had welcomed the Q.C. Lodge at Cambridge sixteen years ago. 

On Friday evening an entertainment was arranged by the local Reception 
Committee at the Masonic Buildings, when a delightful programme of music 
was provided by the Elizabethan Glee Singers, and light refreshments were 
served. A welcome was given by the Chairman of the Reception Committee, 
W. Bro. F. F. Vincent, and a large number of Brethren of the local Lodges 
were present. 

Bro. Coxhill has in his possession an interesting set of old Tracing 
Boards, which were at one time the property of the late Bro. H. Dartnell, of 
Seven Oaks. They are figured at Plates 43, 44, 45, on p. 288 of Vol. xxix. of 
A. Q.C, and there is a note on them at p. 279. The III Board in particular 
has various peculiarities, and we were glad to have this opportunity of making 
an actual inspection of them. 

At the Cathedral our attention was directed to the Pre-Conquest arches 
in the exterior walls of the East End of the Lady Chapel and North Choir 
Aisle, which, after being disregarded for years, were at last established b^ 
excavations made in the adjoining Canons' Garden as the arches of two of the 
three apses which originally formed the East end of the church built in 727 
by St. Frideswide; portions of their foundations are still in situ. For fuller 
details see Mr. Dearmer's account of their discovery at p. 33 of Oxford, in Bell's 
Cathedral Series. 

On the Saturday morning we went in motor Char-a-bancs to Dorchester 
where we visited the church and admired the celebrated Jesse Window. Time 
did not permit of our inspecting the earthworks on the river bank, variously 
attributed to Roman and British agency. We went on to Ewelme, where we 
were shown round the picturesque old almshouses, and saw the church with its 
interesting tombs and brasses. 


Dorchester is a very old site, and the fortifications that can still be traced 
at the confluence of the Thames and Thame, which were at one time supposed 
to be Roman, are now considered to be connected with the British works 
on the Wittenham Hills on the Berkshire side. There was a Roman town 
here, or a village at all events, and several Roman remains have been 
discovered at various times, including a fine altar, but its actual name is 

Summer Outing, 209 

uncertain, Doroclna being the invention of later chroniclers. It remained a place 
of importance through Saxon times, and was the scene of the conversion of 
Cynegils, King of Wessex, by the missionary Bishop Birinus in 635. The king 
thereupon made Dorchester the seat of a Bishopric, and the original see was 
thus one of the earliest to be founded in England. It included Wessex, 
Somerset and the Western midlands. Winchester was very soon constituted a 
separate see, and Dorchester was then for a time without a Bishop. After 
various changes it was reconstituted subsequent to the Danish troubles in 870, 
when it included Oxford, Cambridge, Peterborough and Lincoln. But the see 
was transferred to Lincoln after the Conquest. (Oxford itself became a diocese 
in 1542; the Abbey of Oseney being the first cathedral. But the Bishop's Chair 
was transferred to St. Frideswide's, which was now rebuilt as part of Wolseley's 
College of Christ Church, and Oseney was allowed to go to ruin; nothing now 
remains of it but a few fragments of masonry.) 

At Dorchester the Abbey was first erected by Augustinian Canons in the 
reign of Henry I. Of the earlier Saxon edifice no certain traces remain to-day. 
The North wall of the present nave is the wall of the Norman church of the 
Canons, unaltered save for the insertion of two fourteenth century windows. 
In the days of the Canons the nave was the parish church, and early in the 
fourteenth century this was extended on the South side. Soon afterwards the 
Canons extended the Sanctuary, which to-day presents a magnificent example of 
the most ornate period of Decorated, both the Jesse window and the East window 
being quite unusual in design. But the glass has unfortunately been much 
confused, and the original Old Testament subjects of it can only be guessed at. 
The church was very much restored in recent times. 


The name appears to mean " Head of the Sj^rings," and this interpreta- 
tion is consistent with the actual situation of the village on an outlying slope 
of the Chilterns. Its importance dates from the end of the fourteenth century, 
when Matilda Burghersh, the daughter of the then lord of the manor, married 
Thomas Chaucer, But just who this Thomas Chaucer was is somewhat uncertain. 
He may have been the son of the poet ; at all events, he was the son of the 
lady who married Geoffrey Chaucer, and John of Gaunt took a great interest in 
his career. The shield of the Plantagenets appears on the tomb in Ewelme 
church without any very clear genealogical justification ; the arms of the Chancers 
do not. 

Alice, the daughter of Thomas and Matilda, born in 1404, eventually 
became the wife of the Earl of Suffolk, created Duke of Suffolk in 1448. He 
made Ewelme his favourite residence and in 1437 he founded the almshouses of 
which Mr. Field, in Memorials of Old Oxfordshire, writes:- — ■ 

Few villages can show a group of buildings so dignified and at the 
same time so picturesque as these which form the memorial of the first 
Duke and Duchess of Suffolk; first, the schoolroom, with lofty red 
brick walls and the stonework of its windows adorned with shields 
and sculptured angels; beside it, the embattled gateway leading to 
the almshouse; and next, through an entrance of ornamental brick- 
work, the peaceful little quadrangle with half-timber walls and 
protecting cloister around it and richly-carved bargeboards over its 
dormer windows; thence a steep flight of steps leads up to the 
western entrance of the church. 

The church itself is East Anglian in type; there was an older edifice of which 
the present structure is a rebuilding carried out before 1475. Its most con- 
spicuous feature is the sumptuous monument to the Duchess Alice; just beyond 
which lies that of Margaret and Thomas Chaucer. The church is also rich in 
brasses of rectors, masters of the almshouses and others. It was spared from 

210 Transactions of the Q until or Coronati Lodge. 

mutilation by Cromwell's troops through the zeal of Francis Marty n, a colonel 
in the Parliamentary army, whose memorial fitly closes the long list. The 
remarkable canopy surmounting the font can be seen in one of the accompanying 
Plates; for permission to reproduce these four photographs, which give a very 
good impression of a place perhaps more off the beaten track than usual, we 
are indebted to the courtesy of the Oxford City Library, the. owners of the 

We returned to Oxford for Lunch, after which we proceeded by launch 
from Folly Bridge to Nuneham. On our way, as an unrehearsed incident, we 
witnessed a boat race between crews of schoolboys, a spectacle to which some of 
the Brethren were able to bring no slight measure of expert appreciation. The 
only really heavy rain that we encountered during the Outing selected for its 
onset the precise time when we were out in the open on a river launch opposite 
Nuneham, most of us on the deck. But it did not damp our ardour. 

On the return journey we stopped at Iffiey to inspect the famous church. 
The West Front is generally claimed as exhibiting some of the best Norman 
work in England. The Porch has six orders, the outermost of which has 
representations of the Signs of the Zodiac and the Seasons, and, with the upper 
windows, it dates from 1160. But the circular window is a restoration, and 
the gable was lowered in the seventeenth century and restored to its original 
position in 1823. Much of the original Norman masonry is still preserved in 
the body of the church, including four ornamental shafts in the Choir. The 
original Font is still in position. The Choir was extended in the thirteenth 
century and the church generally a good deal modified by additions in Decorated 
and Perpendicular style at later dates. 

After Dinner we were At Home to the local Brethren, and during the 
evening Bro. Yibert, P.M., read the following paper: — ■ 


Oxford is one of the few towns in England where we might expect, on 
general principles, to find a body of mediaeval Freemasons permanently established 
in a regular Lodge. From the fourteenth to the seventeenth century work must 
have been almost continuously in progress on churches, libraries and schools, or the 
various colleges as one after another was founded. Yet we have no record of 
anything except isolated individuals, save for the bare mention of the incorpora- 
tion of the Masons and three other trades in the City in 1604. 

In 1449 Thomas Elkyns, of Oxford, in his Will, describes himself as a 
Freemason, and William Este, Freemason of Oxford, is recorded in 1494. But 
this name seems to be foreign. We have the name of the Freemason, so 
described, who built Christ Church, John Adams, and he employed on the work 
others also described as Freemasons, 1512-1517. In 1604 the Company of 
Freemasons, Carpenters, Joiners and Slaters of the City of Oxford was incor- 
porated; it will be noted that these are all building trades. But I have not 
been able to obtain any details of this incorporation, the rules of which might- 
be of interest if they could be come by. 1 The accounts at Wadham, 1610-1613, 
describe the stone cutters as Freemasons, or Free stone Masons, and one of them 
made the three statues over the entrance to the Hall and Chapel. Bro. W. J. 
Williams has discovered the Wills of two brothers, John and Michael Bentley, 
who call themselves Freemasons of the University of Oxford, though this probably 
means no more than that they lived in the city. John was one of the chief 
masons at the building of the old schools and Merton new building. Their 
Wills are dated 1614 and 1618, and they were buried at St. Peter's in the East. 2 

1 The full text of this Charter has now been transcribed for A.Q.C. through the 
good offices of Bro. W. J. Williams, and is printed next after the account of the 
Outing. — Ed. 

2 We have again to thank Bro. W. J. Williams for a very interesting list of 
Wills and Administrations of Oxford Freemasons, extracted by him from the Oxford 
Registry, which is printed as an Appendix to the account of the Outing. — Ep. 

Sum in cr Outing. 211 

At A.Q.O. xxvii., 67, will be found a reference to Nicholas Stome, Master Mason 
to King Charles L, from which we learn that he executed the gates and porch of 
St. Mary's Church, and also the monument of Sir Thomas Bodley. His youngest 
son John was educated at Oxford, being designed for the Church, but during the 
Civil War ho took arms for the King, and on the failure of the Royalist cause 
he went abroad. The last reference I have is to Richard Maude, Hugh Daives, 
and Robert Smith, Freemasons of the City of Oxford, who were the contractors 
for the new biiildings at St. John's College in 1633. No doubt many more such 
references could be discovered, but they all merely indicate, what we might have 
assumed, that all through the Gothic period, and beyond it, there were Freemasons 
in the City of Oxford, who, early in the seventeenth joined with other building 
trades to form a Gild. Of the history of that Gild I can learn nothing. 

No version of the Old Charges has any association with the City except 
the Rawlinson text ; and in that case the link is merely that it is now in the 
Bodleian. Dr. Rawlinson possessed a version which he let his friend Mr. Towle, 
of Shoreditch, transcribe, and later on, the Doctor acquired this Brother's 
Masonic miscellany which included this transcript, and that is now among the 
liaivlhison MSS. But the original has not come down to us, and it is probable 
that it was not copied in full ; in any case it was not a text of any great 
antiquity as it belongs to the Roberts, a late family. 

The notices that we have of Freemasonry in the City and University 
before the days of Grand Lodge will thus be seen to be meagre in the extreme. 
But it is quite possible that research might add materially to our information. 
There is hardly a town in England where, 'prima f<wie, there is more likelihood 
of results of value if only someone will be at the pains, and devote the time, 
to make the necessary research. 

Coming now nearer to the epoch of Grand Lodge itself, it should not be 
forgotten that the Royal Society which at a later date furnished so many of the 
leaders in the new developments in the Craft was itself the outcome of a move- 
ment that began in Commonwealth days at Wadham, the college which also gave 
us Sir Christopher Wren. Wren was the architect of the Sheldonian, and of 
some details at Christ Church, and Anderson in his zeal also claims the Ashmolean 
as his work. But, while it is no doubt in his manner, it is in fact the work 
of a local architect, Thomas Wood. Nevertheless, while there is no lack of 
evidence that Oxford men were prominent in Masonry in London, there is record 
of only one Lodge at Oxford itself until the latter half of the eighteenth century. 
In 1729 there was constituted a Lodge to meet at the Crown in the Cornmarket, 
which had ceased to exist by 1736, and of its membership nothing appears to be 
known. Rawlinson was at this time a member of three Lodges in London, and 
apparently a founder of a fourth, that meeting at the Oxford Arms in Ludgate 
Street, constituted on 29th Jime, 1732. He could hardly have been a member 
of the contemporary local Lodge without some trace, of it appearing among his 
MSS. We can only suppose that its membership was drawn from the City rather 
than from I T niversity circles. It is possible that the members of the L T niversity 
preferred to join the Lodge in Ludgate Street. There is a list of its members 
at p. 128 of Rend 'nix/jit MS., C. 136. It should not be difficult from an 
examination of this list to decide if the Lodge had any such association with the 
LTniversity, but the point does not seem to have been investigated. The 
University Lodge, the first Lodge with an individual name, had been constituted 
14.12.1730 at the Bear & Harrow, Butcher Row, Temple Bar. I have no 
information as to its membership. There is no reference to it in the Baivlinson 
MSS. It was erased in 1736. 

In 1769 "we do get a Lodge intended expressly for members of the 
University, the Lodge of Alfred in the University of Oxford, which met at the 
King's Head in the Cornmarket. The King's Head, subsequently the Starr Inn, 
is now represented by the Clarendon. There was a special membership medal, 
now very rare, of which we have seen a specimen during this visit. The Lodge 
ceased to exist in 1783. Another Lodge was founded in 1770, to meet at the 
house of Tom Langford in the Turl, with the name Constitution Lodge; it 

212 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

ceased to meet in 1788 and was erased in 1789. These were both Modern 
Lodges; their Minute books have been preserved and there is a full account of 
them in A.Q.C. xxii., written by Bro. E. L. Hawkins, who also wrote a history 
of the Province in 1882. In 1773 there was an Antient Lodge constituted at 
the Cross in the Cornmarket, which only lived three years, and in 1781 another 
Antient Lodge was constituted to meet at the Duke of Atholl's Arms, which 
was known as the City of Oxford Lodge. Bro. Coxhill, in A.Q.C. xxxviii., 
at p. 105, points out that the description should properly be the Atholl Rooms 
at the Maidenhead Inn in the Turk The only other Lodge formed during the 
century was another Antient Lodge, to meet at the Cross in the Cornmarket, 
in 1792. Later Lodges such as the Alfred, No. 340, and the Apollo University, 
No. 357, have their archives and historians, but of these three eighteenth 
Lodges Bro. Hawkins was unable to get any information or trace any records. 
Yet we need not conclude that there is no more to be learnt of them. If no 
other source is available a search through the files of contemporary newspapers 
might bring together much of more than local interest. But such a search 
needs much patience and leisure. 

In a city like Oxford, however, the possibilities of research are not 
exhausted by newspaper files. The Bodleian has already yielded us much of 
interest, and is claimed to have done still more. Taking its undoubted con- 
tributions first, we have three sources of information, the Ashmole diaries, the 
Aubrey MSS., aud the Rawlinson collections. Ashmole and his Masonic- 
references are so well-known that they need only be mentioned here. They 
have been quoted by many and misquoted by more. Aubrey lands us in the 
threadbare controversy about Wren and his Masonic career. The Smith in 
2 Henry VI. knew that Cade's father was a bricklayer: "The bricks are alive 
at this day to testify it; therefore deny it not." Wren's maul and candlesticks 
would appear to be in the same case to-day — provided it is conceded that they 
were Wren's. With Rawlinson we are in a different position. He was all his 
life a collector, and the masses of MS. that he bequeathed to the Bodleian 
remained almost untouched for over a century. The particular volume that we 
are interested in, C. 136, was only discovered to have been brought together 
by another hand when Bro. Chetwode Crawley examined it in 1898. It 
preserves contemporary matter, lists of members and Lodges, copies of by-laws, 
prayers used in the Lodges, rare pamphlets, newspaper cuttings, the transcript 
already referred to of a version of the Old Charges, and so on. The whole will 
be found detailed in A.Q.C. xi., and further on in the same vol. is a transcript 
of what would seem to be a draft ritual also found among the Rawlinson papers. 
On p. 132 Bro. Armitage observes that a more diligent search in the Bodleian 
might well be repaid by the discovery of still more Masonic material ; the same 
remark can safely be applied to every other Library in the University. Bro. 
Poole only recently came across some new information relating to Benjamin 
Cole, the engraver, by such search. The Bodleian also came into possession, 
in 1924, of an immense collection of Stukeley's papers and correspondence, and 
whether that contains anything of Masonic interest not already known to us 
has still to be ascertained. 

Turning now to less well-authenticated discoveries in the Bodleian, one 
that was taken very seriously at the time will be found described in A.Q.C, 
vol. i., 34. It was there reported that a profound Hebrew scholar, Dr. Marks, 
who was, however, not a Mason, remembered that many years previously he 
had come across an Arabic MS., in which was an acrostic sentence on the word 
MACH, the meaning of which he stated to be: "We have found our Master 
Hiram." He could not remember the purport of the MS., he was uncertain 
as to its date, and that it was in the Bodleian that he came across it he was by 
no means confident. The Bro. who introduced the discovery to the Lodge said 
that he had traced what might be the actual MS. in the Cambridge University 
Library, which was hardly helpful. Some years later Bro. Yarker, who cannot 
be accused of unwillingness to believe, pointed out, at A.Q.C v., 228, that 
almost the precise phrase was a recognised form of salutation among dervishes, 

Ars Quatuor Coroxatorum. 

=4-1 • .-< 
o n> 


Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. 

Ewelme. The Hospital Chapel in the South Aisle. 

Ewelme. The Church, looking East. 

Ars Quattjor Coronatorum. 

Ewelme. The Hospital Quadrangle. 

Ewelme. The Chaucer Tomb. 

Summer Outing. 213 

but that its correct significance is: " We have found Cherim [i.e., rest] in Allah." 
It will be prudent to wait for further light before founding any conclusions on 
this discovery. 

The other Masonic antiquity for which the Bodleian has been made 
responsible is the famous Ldand- Locke MS. Its history has been given in detail 
at A.Q.C. xxxii., 174. It was first printed in the Gentleman's Magazine in 
1753. It was there stated to have been published as a pamphlet in Frankfort 
in 1748, but this has never been traced. The MS. itself is alleged to be the 
work of Leland, and to be in the Bodleian. The transcript purported to have 
been made by Locke and to be accompanied by a letter written by him, and 
the whole was found in the desk of an unnamed brother, recently deceased, a 
familiar locality in Masonry. In 1753 it was pretty safe to say that anything 
was in the Bodleian. Net till the time of Mr. M.acray were the MSS. in the 
Library examined and classified; vide his Annnh of the Bodleian, 1890. Mr. 
Madan had no hesitation in saying that the Library harbours no such text. 
The document itself bears on its face its own condemnation. The spelling is 
absurd, and the introduction of such words as Chymistry, unknown before 1600, 
and " gudder," scd . better, never English at any time, are fatal, nor are 
they disposed of by calling them " alleged impossible archaisms." (A.Q.C. xxxii., 
166.) Tt is, however, still possible that they were imported into some text or 
other by a misguided and ignorant eighteenth century enthusiast. But in that case 
we can make no assertion of any kind as to that suppositious original text. Till 
it is discovered we can be content to say with Gould and most other students 
that the Leland-Loeke, as it stands to'-day, is an impudent forgery, and the 
only doubt we shall entertain will be as to the extent to which possible earlier 
material, not at present to be identified, may have been utilized in its con- 

But because in this particular case the name of the Bodleian has been 
misused, we must not suppose that there is no more to be done in the way of 
examination of MSS. in that or the other Libraries in Oxford. I am confident 
that there are still immense possibilities of Masonic discovery before students 
in the University who will be content to undertake on behalf of the Craft work 
that will entail much drudgery perhaps, and occupy a deal of leisure, but that 
may at any moment give us some text or piece of evidence that will make 
Masonic history. 

For any such discovery the pages of A.Q.(L are always open, and local 
Brethren who take interest in the archaeology of the Craft, and who have not 
already joined our Correspondence Circle, have now an opportunity of doing so 
of which I do hope that many will avail themselves, and so enable both the 
Lodge members and themselves to bring away not only the most pleasant 
recollections, but may I say, Masonic benefits from the Q.C. visit to Oxford. 

Later on in the evening the W.M., speaking on behalf of the Lodge and 
Correspondence Circle, expressed their thanks to all the Brethren who had so 
enthusiastically contributed to the success of the Outing and to our comfort 
during our stay in the city. 

On the Sunday morning we attended Morning Service at the Cathedral, 
and some of the Brethren found time to visit the Library of St. John's College 
and its celebrated Botanical Garden, or the parklike grounds of Worcester, 
while others paid a final visit to one or other of the Colleges. Eventually the 
4.35 train brought the London Brethren home, with many pleasant memories 
of an Outing of exceptional interest and charm. 

214 Traiiwtctionx of the Qiuifuor Corona fi Lodge. 




Freemasons' Wills and Administrations registered in the Oxford Registry. 

In order of date. 

Compiled by Brother W. J. WILLIAMS. 

The letter A. refers to the Archdeaconry Records and C. to the Consistory 

Records. W. stands for Will. 

The dates given are those of Probate or Administration. The Wills 

themselves are nearly always dated a short time before the grant. 

3rd October, 1581. WETHEIIA II (Wethrall) Thomas. Mary 

Magdeleyn, Oxford. Freemason. C. W. Ser. 1. Vol. 9, 187. He asked 
to be interred in the Churchyard of Marie Magclaleine parish. He was of the 
age of " fower score and upward." 

10th October, 1590. D1COSOX (Dixson), Robert. Shereburne. Fre- 
mason. C. W. Ser. 1. Vol. II., 114. (To be buried in Sherebourne Church- 

3rd November, 1597. liAUBEIlT (Harbart), John. St. Mary 
Magdelene in the suburbs of Oxon. Fremason. C. W. Ser. 1. Vol. 10, 

12th April, 1609. < 1 11 All BUR LEA' (Chamberlin), William. Headington. 
Freemason. Inventory. Act Book A. 29. 

10th October, 1609. BCLUIAH, John. Rockston. Freemason. C. W. 
Ser. II. Vol. 1. 357. (Note. — William and Ralphe Durbar are named in 
Conder's Hole Craft, p. 300, A.D. 1620.) I have referred to the registered 
copy Will and find it names his sons Rafe Durbar and William Durbar. To each 
of them he gave xx s . and some household articles and to his son William " all 
my tooles." 

22nd September, 1610. CHAMIEY, John. Lewe p Bampton. Free- 
mason. C. W. Inventory. Ser. II. Vol. 2, 160. (To be buried in Bamp- 
ton Churchyard.) 

11th January, 1613. II EX SLO alias Buncker, Thomas. Chippingnorton. 
Freemason. C. W. Ser. IT. Vol. 3, 147. (To be buried in Chippingnorton 

10th June, 1615. SHEEEMAX , William. Bissiter. Freemason. C. 
Bond. Inv. Act Book A. 82. 

27th September, 1617. PAESOXS, John. Fifield. bur. Elsfield. Free- 
mason. C. W. Inv. Ser. II. Vol. 4, 177. (To be buried in Elfield Church- 

27th April, 1620. WATSON, Humfric. Michell Tew. Freemason. C. 
W. Ser. II. Vol. 4, 256. 

22nd August, 1621. EAETETDGE, Thomas. Bloxham. Freemason. 

13th May, 3622. BAIITOX, Thomas. Oxford. Freemason. C. W. 
Ser. II. Vol. 5, 6. He names his sons George Barton and William Barton and 
gives his house between them. (See also Barton 1638 and 1643.) 

8th April, 1624. FOEMAX, Thomas. Roxton, Freemason. Inventory. 
Act Book A. 136. (There was also John Forman of Roxton, a Mason, C. W. 
Inv. 28th Sept., 1624.) 

13th October, 1627. GVEDKX, Owen. Heddington. Freemason. C. 
Bd. Act Book A. 153. 

14th January, 1628. lAXGL'hJY, John. Elisfield. Freemason. C. W. 
Inv. Ser. II. Vol. 6, 90. 

16th April, 1629. JACKSON, John. Bloxham. Freemason. A, W. 

Summer Outing. 215 

12th March, 1630. JfJXCKES, Thomas, sen 1 ". Burford. Freemason. 
Inv. Act Book B. 3. (Xotc. — Thomas Hmcks of Burford, Mason, 23rd Oct., 
1630. Act Book B. 1.) 

18th January, 1632. GREGORY, Symon. Tainton. Freemason. C. 
W. 18th January, 1632. He refers to his sons William and Symon Gregorie 
and gives them the lease of Tainton Quarr '' and all my working tools belonging 
to my occupation but I give my sledge to my sonne Symon Gregorie." (There 
is an entry of William Gregorie, sen'., Tainton, Mason. C. W. 15th April, 
1616. Ser. TI. Vol. 4, 134.) 

13th April, 1633. EDWARDS, Richard. St. Aldato, Oxford. Free- 
mason. C. W. Inventory. 

18th April, 1635. SARXEY, Thomas. St. Peter in the East, Oxford. 
Freemason. C. Bd. Tuv. Act Book B. 31. 

11th December, 1638. BARTOX, George. St. Martins', Oxford, Free- 
mason. A. W. Inv. Ser. II. Vol. 8, 145. (See. 1622 and 1643.) 

11th April, 1640. PiCKE (Pyke), William. Fringford. Freemason. C. 
W. Inv. Ser. II. Vol. 8, 383. He bequeathed 3 s / 4 d to the repairs of Fring- 
ford Church " wherein I have received so much comfort " to be payable when the 
Church is repaired. 

6th July, 1643. BARTOX, Jesper. Alkerton. Freemason. C. W. 
Ser. II. Vol. 9, 176. (See 1622 and 1638.) 

22nd January, 1647. G A31MOX , John. St. Ebbes, Oxford. Freemason. 
C. W. Inv. Act Book B. 95. 

16th November, 1648. RICH AJIDSOX , John. Hcddington. Freemason. 
C. W. Inventory. 

8th February, 1665. SESSIOXS, Robert. Tainton, Freemason. C. 
W. Bd. Inv. Act Book B. 130. 

28th December, 1666. USHER, John. Millton p Shipton under W ch . 
Wood. Freemason. C. W. Inventory. 

22nd April, 1669. WAYXE, John (Senior). Milton p. Shipton under 
W c]1 . Wood. Freemason. A. W. Inv. 22nd April, 1669. (See also 1699 
and 1708.) 

14th January, 1670. DEW, George. Marston, Free-mason. C. W. 

27th January, 1670. CLUMEXTS, Tristram. St. Ebb, Oxford. Free- 
mason. C. Bd. Inv. Account. Act Book B. 160. (Xote. — Also Stephen 
Clement, St. Ebbs, Oxford, Mason. A. Bond. Inv. 22nd Sept., 1683, Act 
Book B. 226.) 

30th October, 1675. II AXGKS , Edmund. Hensingtoii p. Bladon. Free- 
mason. C. W. Bd. Act Book B. 180. (See also 1680 and 1701.) 

17th January, 1679. C1I ILLIXGW ORTIl ', Thomas. Barton p Heading- 
ton. Freemason. C. W. Inv. Reg. A. 170. He appears to have signed 
by his mark " T." 

20th April, 1680. IIAXKES (Hancks), William, Senior. Oxford, Free- 
mason. A. W. Tnv. Ser. TI. Vol. 11, 103. (See 1675, 1701 and 1711.) 
He made his sons John, James, Nathaniel and Simon and his daughter Anne 
Howlett joint executors and required them that they live peaceably and quietly 
in brotherly love and concord and to be assistants each to other. He left 
certain messuages in Broken Hayes in the suburbs of the City of Oxon. 

4th December, 1680. BATH, Thomas. Kirtlington. Freemason. A. 
Bond. Inv. Act Book B. 209. 

5th and 27th May, 1682. COX, John. Oxford. Freemason. Inv. 
Act Book B. 217 bis. 

6th April, 1685. GR REX, John. Headdington. Freemason. C. W. 
Inv. Act Book B. 238. (See 1717, 1725 and 1727.) 

20th May, 1686. TOMLIXSOX, Phillip. St. Mary Magdalen, Oxford. 
Freemason. Inv. t. 

15th February, 1692. RI'JTSLRY (or Peasley), Bartholomew. St. Gyles 
in the Suburbs of Oxford. Freemason. C, W, Reg- B. 209. He disposed 

216 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

of several houses including one in St. Ebbs and some held of St. John's College. 
He gave all his tools and clothes to his two sons to be divided between them. 
He named his son Bartholomew as Executor " not to make a prey of his Brother 
and Sisters but to deal fairly without quarrelling." He asked to be buried in 
St. Gyles' Churchyard "close to my wife's grave as can be laid." 

27th October, 1693. FLEXXEY, Richard. St. Gyles in ye suburbs of 
Oxford. Freemason. C. Bond. Inv. acct. Act Book B. 270. 

9th May, 1693. PA TY, William. Chipping Norton. Free macion. C. 
Bond. Inv. Act Book B. 268. (See 1698 and John Paty "mason" 1718.) 

10th May, 1698. 'PATY, Thomas. Chipping Norton. Freemason. C. 
W. Inv. Regr. B. 381. He refers to his Brother John Paty and gives him 
10/ s . for a pair of gloves. Gives residue to his loving son John Paty. (See also 
1693 and also Paty, John, Chipping Norton "mason." A. W. 22nd Sept., 
1718. Ser. IT. Vol. 15, 172.) 

13th April, 1699. IV A YXE, William (Senior). Milton p. Shipton TJnd r . 
Wch Wood. Freemason. A. W. Inv. (See also 1669 and 1708.) 

2nd April, 1701. JfAXCKS, William. Oxford. Freemason. A. W. 
Regr. C. 176. Testator disposed of his interest in four messuages in Parish of 
St. Peters in ye Bayly, Oxou. Names his brother Nathaniel; his own sons 
Anthony and John and his grandchild William Hancks. (See also 1675, 1680 
and "mason" 1711.) (Hanks, Nathaniel, Oxford, "wason." A. W. 29th 
Jan. 1711. Ser. II. Vol. 14, 80.) 

1st May, 1707. EAIXSFOED (Ransford), John. Oxford. Freemason. 
A. W. Inv. Ser. II. Vol. 13, 280. Testator disposed of messuages in 
St. Michael's parish in Oxon. Names as an Overseer of his Will " Mr. 
Bartholomew Paisley the elder of the City of Oxon Freemason." 

17th September, 1708. WA7JK, William. Milton p. Shipton und r . 
Wch Wood. Freemason. A. W. Inv. Ser. II. Vol. 13, 307. (See 1669 
and 1699.) Disposes of messuages &c, at Milton and names his sons William 
and Richard, John, Thomas, and disposes of lease of Quarries held from Rowland 
Lacy Esq 1T . 

17th July, 1712. BOX, Richard. Wroxton. Freemason: yeoman. C. 
W. Inv. Ser. 2. Vol. 14, 118. Bequest to John Kenning mason of 
Banbury of forty shillings" for to set me Tip a good pair of gravestones." 

23rd January, 1712 (=1712/3). ROBIXSOX, Thomas. Oxford. Free- 
mason. A. W. Ser. II. Vol. 14, 165. Disposes of a messuage and premises 
in which he dwelt in the Parish of St. Mary Magdalen in the suburbs of the 
City of Oxon. 

15th January, 1714. ROBIXSOX, Robert. Horspath. Freemason. C. 
W. Ser. IT. Vol. 14, 249. Asks to be interred in parish Churchyard of Forest 
Hill in the County of Oxon and for a sermon to be preached at his funeral. 
He disposed of an orchard at Horspath ; a cottage at Wheatly : and the Bell Inn 
at WTieatly in the County of Oxon. Also of Wheat, Barley, Beans, Wood and 

22iid January, 1717. GFEEX, John. Ileadington. Freemason. A. 
Bond. Inv. Act Book B. 332. (See 1685 and 1727.) 

17th February, 1724. PIDDIXGTOX, Richard. Oxford. Freemason. 
A. W. Reg. E. 35. (iT^c— Mary Piddington of Holywell, nr. Oxford, 
Widow and Executrix to Richard Piddington, freemason. A. W. 20th Oct., 
1729. Regr. E. 204.) 

27th September, 1727. GBE'EX, John, Senior. Heddington. Freemason. 
A. W. Ser. II. Vol. 17, 151. (Also 1685, 1717 and Green John Senior 
Swatclirle " masson." A. W. 25th Oct., 1725, Regr. E. 54.) He gave his 
wife a house leased from Corpus Christi College : also a tenement held from 
manor of Heddington. To his son John Green he gave " all my stock, working 
tools and implements belonging to my trade and the business he to pay 8/ s . per 
week to the widow. 

17th April, 1730. MATHEWS, William. Balscot. Freemason, A. 
Bond. Inv. Acct. Act Book B. 379, 

Transactions of the Quutuor Coronati Lodge. 217 




12 November 1604. 

[At II., 151, of the History, Gould refers to this Incorporation, but all 
he was able to cite was the bare reference to a preliminary docquet 
entry dated 31st Oct. 1604 in the printed Calendar of State Papers. 
Through the industry of Bro. W. J. Williams a full transcript of the 
actual document has been traced in the Patent Rolls, and the present 
copy has been specially made from that for our Transactions. The 
italics represent abbreviations in the original, expanded in transcription.] 

Patent Roll 2 Jas. I., pt. 4, mm. 13-16. 

m. 13. 

De concessione sibi Rex Omnibus ad quos etcetera sali/teni Sciatis quod nos 

et suecesioribi(s ad humilem petic/o/iem dilectorum Subditor»//i nostrorwm 

pro magistro Gar- existent /'(/mi de soperali sorietate misteiv'on/m sive Artibi;s de 

dianis et Communit&tc lez Freemasons lez Carpenters lez Joyners et lez Slatters 
de lez Freemasons Civitatis nostra Oxotr/e de grae/a nostra, special;" ac ex certa 

et aliis Civitat/s seiencia et mero motu nostris voluimws ordiiiauimus con- 

Oxonie. stituim»s concossimi/s et declarauimt/s ac per presentes pro 

nohis hercdibus et successoribus uosfris volumes ordinamus 
constituents concessimt/s et declaruimus ac -per presentes 
pro nohis heredibi/.s' et successoribus nosfris volumus 
ordinamus constituimi/A' eoneediiiius et declaraiuiis quod omnes et singuli liberi 
homines existcntes ant qui imposterum existent de seperali&us Societat/6»s 
mister its sive Artibws de lez Freemasons les Carpenters les Joyners et les Slatters 
Civitatis nostre Oxonie aut infra suburb/*; libertates et precinctus eiusdem Civitatis 
aut exercent sive occupant aut qui imposterum exercebunt seperah'a mister;'*;, sive 
Artes de les Freemasons les Carpenters les Joyners et les Slatters infra predict*; /«■ 
Civitatem Oxonie sive infra suburb /a lib[er]tates et precinct!/* eiusdem Civitatis et 
successors sui de eetero hnperpetuuni sinfc et erunt rmitu corpus corporatum et 
politico //i. in re facto et nomine per noinen mag/,S'tri Gardiatiorum et commit nittitis 
de les Freemasons les Carpenters les Joyners et les Slatters Civitatis Oxon/e Et cos 
per nomen mag/stri Gardianori/m- et Co mm unit&tis de les Freemasons les Carpenters 
les Joyners et les Slatters Civitatis Oxon;e vnum corpus corpora titm et politicum in 
re facto et nomine realiter ft ad plenum- pro nobis heredibus et successoribi/s nostris 
eriginiMs f acini i/s ordinamus coustituimi/s et declaramus per presentes Et q»od per 
idem nomen hobeant successioncm perpetuam Et quod ipsi et successores sui per 
nomen magistri Gardianoram et Communitntis de les Freemasons les Carpenters les 
Joyners et les Slatters Civitat/s Oxome sint et erunt perpetuis futuris temporibus 
persone haMles et in lege capaces ad habendum, perquirend/(m recipiendum et 
possidendttm maneWa messuagm. terrr/,s teuer/(e;ifa libertates privileg;«. J urisd ice/ones 
franchestns et hereditament cuiuscumq»e fuerunt gener;s nature vel speciei sibi et 
successoribws suis in feodo et perpetuitaf c sive pro termino Anni vel Annorwm ac 
alitcr quocumqi/e modo Aceciam bona et catalla et quascumqwe res cuiuscumqife 
no minis nature qualitatis vel speciei fuenrnf Necnon ad dandi/m concedendum 
dimittendum alienandum- assignaiidirm et disponend</m maiierm mesuag/a terror 

218 Transactions of the Qtiatuor (Joronati Lodye. 

tenementa hereditament// bona et eatalla ef ad omnia et singula alia- facto et res 
faeiendo et exequendo per iiomen predicting Et quod per idem iwraen 
m. 14 magistri Gardiauorio/t- et Co////// uu itatis de ]es ! Freemasons les Carpenters 

les Joyners et les Slatters Civitatis Oxonic pb/eitare et impl [oe] ita.ri 
respondere et responcleri defendere et defend! valeant et possint in quibuscumq»e Curiis 
piaeeis et lot- is ac coram quibuseuinqi/e Judieib//s et Justiciar/'/* ac alijs personis ef 
Omciariis nosfris ac hered//»t et successor///// nostron//// iu om/iib//s et singulis 
Aceio//ib//s p/oeitis seetis querelis causis materijs cf demandis quibuscumq//e 
euiuseumq//e .sint aut erunt goner/.* nature qualitatis sive -specie! eisdem modo ci 
forma prout alique alij ligei nosfri huius regni nosfri Anglie persone h//6iles et iu 
lege eapaees sive aliquod aliud Corpus corporatum et politicum infra l\egnu»! nostrum, 
Anglie huoere perquirere recipere possidere gaudere retin.ere dare coneedcvo diinittoro 
alienare assignare et disponere pioeitare et implocitari respondere et responderi 
defendere et defendi facere permitte/e sive exequi possint et valeant Et qi/od magister 
Gardiani et Co mm unit na de lez Eree masons les Carpenters les Joyners et les Slatters 
Civitatis Oxou/'c predict e et sueeessores sui imperpef i/i/m liabeaut commune Sigdlum 
pro causis et negociis suis et successor// m -suon/m- qui.buseumq//e agendis desreuitur///// 
Et quod bene liceat et licebit eisdem magistro Gardianis et Com m ////itati de les 
Freemasons les Carpentes les Joyners et les Slatters Civitatis Oxonie predicts et 
suceessoribt/s suis Sigilli///t ill/oi ad libitum suu/// de tempore in tempus frangrre mutaro 
et de novo face-re prout eis melius fieri et fore videbit/zr Et quod hooeant et hooeri 
possint infra Civitate//t predicts //t. aut Suburb/a eiusdem, Civitatis vnam domum vel 
Cameram prout eis melius fore videbitt/r que voeabiti/r le Halle or Chamber de les 
Freemasons les Carpenters les Joyners et les Slatters Civitatis Oxonie pro negociis et 
rebus suis tractandis et alijs rebi/s in eadem peragendis Et vlterius volum/os ac per 
presentes pro nob /a - heredib//s et successor ibi/.s- nosfris concedinn/.s peefatis Mag/sfro 
Gardianis et Com m imitate de les Freemasons les Carpenters les Joyners et les Slatters 
Civitatis Oxonie predicte et successoribi/s suis quod de cete/o imperpef num. sit et erit 
vnus de eisdem les Freemasons les Carpenters les Joyners et les Slatters Civitatis 
[an erasure] predict? in forma in hijs presentib/zs mencioiiata eligend(/s qui 
erit et nomi/iabitt/r magister de les Masons les Carpentersi les Joyners et, les Slatters 
Civitatis Oxonie Q//odq//c similiter sint et erunt tres de les Freemasons les Carpenters 
les Joyners et les Slatters Civitatis Oxonie predicte in forma inferius in hijs prosentibi/s 
mencionata- eligendi qui erunt et no;/i u/abunti/r Gardiani de les Freemasons les 
Carpenters les Joyners et les Slatters Civitatis Oxonie Aceciam quod similiter sint et 
erunt sexdecem de eisdem les Free masons les Carpenters les Joyners et les Slatters 
Civitatis predicte in forma in hijs presentib//s mencionata eligendi qui erunt et 
nomi/iabuntwr Assistenf rs ]\lag/stri et Gardianor///// de les Freemasons les Carpenters 
les Joyners cf les Slatters Civitatis Oxonie predicte et de tempore in tempus erunt 
a-ssistenfes et auxiliaries eisdem magistro et Gardianis pro tempore existanf ibus in 
omnibus causis rebus et materijs d/'efos magistrum Gardianos et Com munitatem. 
tangenfious sive ooncerneiifio»s J^t vlterius volumi/s ac per presentes pro nobis 
heredibus et successoribus nosfris concediim/s peefatis magisfro Gardianis et Com- 
»!U)/itati de les Free masons les Carpenters les Joyners ef les Slatters Civitatis Oxonie 
et suecessoribz/s suis quod magister Gardiani et Assisten/es (predict/' pro tempore 
existenies) 1 vel maior pars cort/m quorum magister ef vnus Gardiano/ um pro 
tempore existenf iu-m- duos esse volumes super sumonieio/iem publicam Hide fiends hi. 
ad hoc congregati he/ scant et haoebunt plenam potestatem et auctoritatem con- 
stitueirdi ordinandi et facieudi de tempore in tempus leges statute ordinaciories dec-veto 
et co-nstitucio/ies rsfionabilia in scripts quecumq/zr que eis aut maiori parti eon/ /idem 
quorum prefat//m magistnem et vnum Giivdinnorum pro tempore existenfi((m- duos 
esse volumes bona salubre/ vtilis honestr/ et necessario iuxta eorum san as disereciones 
fore videbuntur pro bonis regimine et gubernacio//e magistri Gardianorwm et Com- 
mwnitatis predictorum ac onirtiiun al.ii///i les Free masons les Carpenters les Joyners 
et les Slatters Civitatis predicte ac om/iii/v/i aliari/j/i reri///i eadem Artes sive misteri«»(. 
de les Free masons les Carpenters les Joyners ef les Slatters infra Civitatem p re dicta m 
Suburbio et libe/tates eiusdem tangenf turn- sive concevnenf in in Ac pro declaracio//e 

1 Interlineated. 

The Incorporation of the Company of Freemasons, &-c. 219 

quo modo et ordiiu' ijdem. magister Gardiani et Commu/iitas ac om/ies et singule 
persone exereenfes aut occupant predictor Arte/> sive mister iw hi de les Free masons 
les Carpenters lcs Joyners ct les Slatters sive eorum aliquam infra predict/urn. Oivitate//!. 
Oxon i'c sese haoebunt gerent et vtentur pro vlteriore bono publico et communl vtilitati 
eori/ndem ■mag/'.yfri Gardianoru/n et Co»i»i«/utat/s ac pro alijs rebus et causis 
quibuscumque dictos mag/stru/u Gardiaiiu/// et Commmunitatem tangent/6 us sive 
quoquo modo coiice me nti bus Quodque ijdem magister Gardiani et Assistenfes et 
successores sui pro tempore existcn/es vel maior pars eorum. quorum prefatum 
magistrum et vmim, Gardianorum, pro tempore existeniium. duos esse volumus 
quociescumque huiusmodi leges Jura Statuto. instituciones ordinac/ones constituc/o/ies- 
in forma pred/c/a feeerint condiderint ordinaue/iiit vel stabiliuerint huiusmodi et 
tales penas punic/o/ies et penalitates per imprisonamenf u//i corporis vel per fines et 
amerciamenta vel per eoruui vtrumqxe erga et super omnes delinquenfes contra 
huiusmodi leges Jura statute instituc/'oues ordinae/or/es et constituc/oues sive eoru»i 
aliquod sive aliqua qualm et que eisdem mag/stro Gardiani et Assistent/'ous pro 
tempore existenf/ou.s vel maior/ part; eoru/idem quorum prefarum- magistrum et \num 
Gardianor</m, pro tempore existenf/'um, duos esse volumus necessar/' um. oportunum et 
requisition*, pro observaci'o«e earu/ulem legum ordinac/'onum, et constituc/'onum melius 
fore viclebitur facere limit-are et providere Ac quod ijdem magister Gardiani et 
Oommu-nitas de les Free masons les Carpenters les Joyners et les Slatters Civitatis 
Oxonie predicte eadem fines et amerciament// hooere levare et recipere possint et 
valeant ad vsum prefatoru/» [sir] magistri Gardiuarwm et Communitatis et successor urn 
suoruwi absque impedimeiito nostro heredum vel successor// m nostrorum aut alicuius vel 
aliquort/m Officiarioru//i, vel ministroru//i. nostroruui heredum vel successor;/ m nostrorum 
Et absque aliquo compoto nobis heredibus sen successoribus nosrrls inde reddendo 
Que omnia et singula ordinaeio/ies leges statute et eonstitucioues .sic vt p/efert/rr 
fiendei observari volumus sub penis in eisdem continendi.s' Jta tamen quod leges 
ordinacio/ies eonstitucio/ies imprisonamenta fines et amerciamenta huiusmodi sint 
rationabiliter et non sint repugnant iu vel contraria legibus statut-is c onsuetud in ib us 
sive Juribus Rogni nostri Anglie Et pro meliori execucio»e voluntatis et concessionis 
nostve in hac parte assignauimus nominauimus creauimws const ituimus et f'ecimus ac 
per presentes p/'o nob/'s heredibus et suecessorious nosrris assignamus nominamus creamus 

eonstituimus et faeimus di/ecfum nobis Thomam Key Joyner Civitatis pre- 
ni. 15 dicte fore et esse primum et modern um magistrum de les Free masons j les 

Carpenters les Joyners et les Blatters Civitatis Oxonie predicte volentes 
quod idem Thomas Key erit et continuabit in eodem Officio a data presenciu/u vsqi/e 
ad festu/u sancfi Jacobi Apostoli prox/mum sequenfem et ab eodem festo quousque 
vni/.s' alius ad dictum- Officii/ m magi.sfri de les Free masons les Carpenters les Joyners 
et les Slatters Civitofis predicte debito modo elect us et prefect;//; fue/'it iuxta 
ordinacioues et provisiones inferius in hijs presontibus expresses et declarators' si idem 
Thomas Key tamdiu vixerit Assignation//* eciam nominauimus et constituinu/s ac per 
presentes pro nobis heredibus et successor ibi/s nosfris assignamus norni/iamus ct con- 
stituimi/s dilecto.s nobis Thomam Edwardes mason Civitat/'.s p/edicte Edwardum Teasler 
Carpenter Civitatis predicte et IMwardum Triplett Slater Civitat/'s p/'edicte fore 'ct 
esse tres primos modernos Gardianos predictors ?». les Free masons les Carpenters les 
Joyners et les Slatters C'ivitat/.s Oxon/'e continuandos in eisdem Officijs Gardianoru/u 
predict/s a data presentiu/u vsque ad predict!//// fesrum soncfi Jacobi Apostoli 
proKimurn futur?i»i- et ab eodem festo quousque tres alii ad Offic/os illos Gar- 
dianortt.rn de les Free masons les Carpenters les Joyners ct les Slatters 
Civitatis predicte elect i et prefect/' fuer/uf iuxta oixlinac/oiu's ct ])/-ovisione,s 
in. hijs p/esentibu.s cxpressas ct declarator si ijdem Thomas Edward (/n 
Edwardus Tesler et Edwardus Tri]dett tamdiu vixerint Nisi inte/im pro mala 
gubernac/o/ie sive male gerendo in ea p/(/'te pro aliqua causa rafionabili ab Officiis 
Hits amoti erunt aut covutn aliqui vel aliquis amot/ erunt vel amotus erit Et 
assignauiniu.s' nominauimi/.s' creauimu.s' et c/mstituimus et per presentes pro nob/'s 
heredfb/fs et successoribus no-s/ris assignamu,s nominamus const it uimi/.s 1 et facimu.s' 
dilectoA- nob/'s Thomam Barton leonaidum mathewe Kican/um Edwardes et Joha?i/iem 
Palmer Free masons Civitat/'.s predicte, Joha/i/ieni ladman seniorem- Joha/e/iem ladman 
Jiuilovem Thomam May et Joh</u//em Ives Carpenters Civitat/'s i>redicte Thomam 

220 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 

Maddockes Charolum Rainsford "\Yille?mum Bennett ef Barth[o/om]eum Emery Joyners 
Civitat/s predicte et Thomam Hall Johonmem Brighte AVillefmuni Pierson ct Joba/t/icm 
Hayes Slaters Civitatis predicte fore ct esse sexdecem primos et modernos Assistenfes 
magi.strj Gardianorum et Commuuitat/s predictonrm Contimiandos in eisdem Officijs 
duranf/s vitis suis naturalibus nisi interim pro mala gubernac/one sive male se gerendo 
in ea parte nut pro aliqua alia causa rofionabili amoti fuerint aut eorum aliquis 
amotus fucrit Et vlterius volunni.s ac per presentes pro nobis heredibus et successoribus 
nosfris concedimus prefat/s mag/sfro Gardian/s et Communitati de les Free masons les 
Carpenters les Joyners ef les Skitters Civitat/s Oxon/e ct successoribus suis quod ijdem 
magister Gardiani et Assistenfes pro tempore existentes sive maior pars corum quorum 
magi sir ani, pro tempore existenfem viui/ti esse volumes de tempore in tempus perpetuis 
futur/s temporibus potestatrm et auctoritatem hrroeant ct hooebunt quol/oet Anno 
imperpefuum in festo soucfi Jacobi Apostoli vel in Crastino die proximo sequenfc 
post pred/cfum festum eligendi ct nominandi Et quod eligere ct no m in arc possint ct 
valeant vnum de Assistenf /ous Artium sive mister/orum predictors in qui erit magister 
de les Free masons les Carpenters les Joyners et les Slatters Civitat/s Oxon/e pro 
vno Anno integro tunc proximo sequenfc et tres alios de Assistenf ibiis Artium sive 
misterjorum. predictorum. qui erunt Gardiani de les Free masons les Carpenters les 
Joyners et les Slatters Civitatis Oxon/e predicts pro vno Anno integro tunc proximo 
sequent?: dummodo ijdem magister et predict/ tres Gardiani de seperalibus Artibus 
prediet/s videlicet vims de qual/oet earu/idem alterm/s vicibus eligantur vt preficiantur 
Et quod ille qui in predicto Officio magistrj sic vt prefertur elect 1/ .9 et prefeetus 
fucrit dictum, offic/um. magistrr exequi valeat ct possit Et quod ill i qui in predictos 
Officios Gardianonrm. sic vt prefertur elecf/ ct prefect/ fuerint Offic/o Gardianorum, 
predictos pro vno Anno integro tunc proximo sequenfc excqui valeant ct possint ct 
eorum qui?/ fret exequi valeat ct possit Sacramento corporal/ coram vltiuio mag/sfro ct 
vltimis Gardian/s predecessoribus suis ct tot Assistenf /6 us aut coram aliquibus octo 
p?'edicto rum. magistr/ Gardianorum. ct assistenf/um qui tunc inferfuerint ad seperal/o 
Officio; mag/sfri et Gardianorum predictorum bene recte et honeste in omnibus Officijs 
illis tangenf/feirs * et exequemlo prius prestito Et insuper volumus ac per presentes 
pro nobis heredibus et successor ib us nosfris concedimus prefaf/s mag/sfro Gardiauis et 
Communitati de les Free masons les Carpenters les Joyners et les Slatters Civitat/s 
Oxon/e predicts et successoribus suis quod si contigerit magistrum at Gardianos 
predictos pro tempore existenfes aut eorum aliquem vel aliquos aliquo tempore infra 
vnum- Annum, postquom ad Offic/um mag/stvi aut l ad Officio Gardianorum predictorum 
sic vt prefertur elect/ et prefect/ fuerint aut eorum aliquis fucrit obire aut ab Officio 
illo amoueri Quosquidem magistrum- et Gardianos ct eorum. queml/oet pro mala 
gubernacione aut pro aliqua causa rofionabil/ per magistrum Gardianos et Assistenfes 
pro tempore existenfem vel maiorem. portem eoru/o/em, quorum magistrum et vnum. 
Gardianorum. pro tempore existenfium duos esse volumus (amobiles esse volumus) 2 
Quod tunc et tocies bene liceat ef licebit residu/s eoruu</em, magistri Gardianorum 
et Assistenf /um qui adtunc superuixerint vel remanserint vel maior/ port/ eoruudem 
quorum magistrum et vnum Gardianorum pro tempore existenf /urn, duos esse volumus 
ad libitum suum vnum al/um in magistrum aut vnum al/um aut plures alios in Gardianum, 
vel Gardianos de les Free masons les Carpenters les Joyners ef les Slatters Civitat/s 
Oxon/e predicte eligere ef preficere secundum ordinacumes et provisiones supcrius per 
;jresentes declarators ad exeqiiendn et exercendo. predictum Offic/um magistri aut 
predictum Offic/um aut Officia Gardiani aut Gardianorum predictorim vsque ad festum 
soucfi Jacobi Apostoli tunc prox/mum sequenfem sacromenfo corporali in forma 
predicto sic vt prefertur prestito Et sic tocies quocies casus sic acciderit Et vlterius 
volumus ac per presentes pro nobis heredibus ef successoribus nostris concedimus 
prefat/s magisfro Gardian/s ef Comnnmitat/ de les Free masons les Carpenters les 
Joyners ef les Slatters Civitatis Oxon/e predicte ef successoribus suis quod 
quandoeumqire contigerit aliquem vel aliquos de Assistenf ib us eoruudem 
magistri Gardianorum ef Commuuitat/s predictorum obire aut pro aliqua 

* Sic ; presumably some word omitted. 

1 Interlineated. 

2 Interlineated. 

The Incorporation of the Company of Freemasons, djc. 2^1 

causa rotionabili amoveri Quosquidem Assistenfes et eorum, queml/oet pro 

mala gubernae/o>ie aut pro aliquo alia causa rufionabili per magistrum Gardiauos 
et Communitatem predict/;.? pro tempore existentes vel per maiorem partem eorundem 
quorum magistrum et vnum Gardiauorum pro tempore existent ium duos esse volumus 
amobiles esse volumu.s quod tunc c.t tocics bene et licebit eisdem mag/stro 
Gardianis et Commu/iitati qui adtunc supervixermt et remanserint vel maiori parti 
eorundem quorum mag/str»m et vnum Gardianonnu pro tempore existenr/um duos 
esse volumus' vnum alium- vel plures alios de Commu/iitate Artium- sive mister i or u-m 
predictorum in A,ssisten/em. sive Assisten/es Artium sive misterio/ um predictor um 
eligere et preface re Continuand/s in eisdem Offieijs duranr/s vitis suis naturalibus 
nisi interim (secundum ordinac/ones et provic/ones) ! in hijs presentibus menc/onatos 
■amoti erunt aut eorum aliquis amon/s erit sacrmiieiifo corporals ad Ofiicia ilia recte 

bene et honeste in omnibus Officiis ill is tangent ibits coram I Magisfro et 
m. 16 Gardianis pre diet is prius prestito et sic tocies quocies casus sic aeeiderit 

Et vlterius de vberiori gratia nostra.- speeiali ac ex certa sciencia et mero 
motu nosfris pro meliorc regimine et guberiiae/one omnium- eorum qui modo exercent 
aut imposts rum exercebunt pred/cfn ,seperal/() misterm sive Arte.s de les Free masons 
les Carpenters les Joyners et les SI a Iters aut eorum aliqua aut aliquam rem sive 
aliquas res eadem mister/o sive Aries aut eorum- aliqua tangente.s sive concernentes 
infra Civita/rm predietom libertates aut precinctus eiusdem dedimus et concessimus 
ac per presentes pro nobis heredibus et suoeessoribus nos/ris damns et coneedimus prefat/s 
mag/siro Gardianis et Com mu" /tat/ de ]es Free masons les Carpenters les Joyners et 
les Slaters Civitati* Oxonie predicts et suecessorib us suis quod predict us magister 
Gardiani et Assistenfes et sueeessores sui pro tempore existenfes perpetuus futuris 
temporibus lu/oeant et ho^ebunt super visum scrucinium correce/onem et gubrrnacionem 
omnia et singula Artium et mister/or urn- predictorum et om/ua. alia- personarum 
quorumcumque x tent in m ye] exercenr/ it in aliquam eorundem misteriorum- sive Artium 
infra dicta m- Civitntem Oxonie suburb/a libertates et precinctus eiusdem ac plenam 
potestatem et auetoritatem punieiul/ omnes delinquent es pro eorum delict ib us iuxta 
eorum- sanas discreciones et ordinaciones per ipsos vel successores suos sic vt prefertur 
fiendas. volentes et per presentes pro nobis heredibus et successoribus nos/ris nrmiter 
iniungen/es precipientes et inandantes omnibus et singulis maioribus Justiciariis 
Balliuis Constabular//s et alijs Cfficiarijs ministris et subditis nos/ris quibuscumque 
quod sint auxilianfes assistenfes et confortan/rs prefat/s magistro Gardianis et. 
Communitati de les Free masons les Carpenters les Joyners et les Skitters Civitat/.s 
Oxonie prcdicte et eorum cuil/orf ad faeiendo gandeudo habendu et exequenda ea 
omnia et singula per nos prefat/s magistro Gardianis et Commit nitati per has lit t eras 
no.srras patentes preeoneesso. Kt vlfcrius de am])lion gr(/c/a no.s/ra spfriali ac ex 
ccrta sciencia et mero motu no.sfris volumw.s ac per jircsentes pro nob?'* heredibi/s et 
successorib(/,s no.vfris concedimi/.s prefab's mag/.stro Gardian/'.s' et Comm u nitati de les 
Free masons les Carpenters les Joyners et les Shifters Civitat/.s Oxon/e prcdicte 
et successorib«,s suis quod si contigc/'it magiptrum- aut Gardiauos de les Freemasons 
les Carpenters les Joyners et les Slatters Civitat/.s Oxon/e prcdicte pro tempore 
existenfem aut eorum aliquem vel aliquos sic egritudine laborare q»od necessar/uni 
negoc/um ad predicts seperal/o OIHc/o sua spectan.s intendere non possint aut eon;«i 
aliquis non possit vel (!i\itatc el libertat/oif.s ])rcdict/,s pro aliquibif.s causis rationabil/oi/.s 
egredi quod tunc et tocies quil/ort eoruiidem magister et Gardiani pro tempore 
existences sic vt prefertu/ 1 absens vel egritudine laborans absentes vel egritudine 
laborantes respective facere et constituere valeat et- possit valeant et possint de 
tempore in tempus viufin de Assistenf/o»x Artiuni sive mhteriorum- predictorum pro 
tempore existenfem fore et esse Deputatum ipsius mag/s/ri et vnum vel plures de 
eadem Comm u/iitatc pro tempore existenfeui fore et esse Deputatum sive Deputato.s 
ipsius Gardiani vel ipsor»m Gardianornui sic egritudine laboranf/s vel absenti.s 
aut egritudine laboranriifui- vel absentixm Et quod ille sive illi sic in Offic/u 
Mag/sfri aut Gardiani sive Gardianorum deputatus et constitutus deputati et. constituti 
eadem seperalia Officio magisrid Gardiani sive Gardianoruni p?-edictorum pro tempore 
existente respective faciet et exequetur facient et exequentu/' duranrc egritudine vel 

1 Interlineated. 

^i! Transactions of the Qttutaur Vuronatt Lodyc. 

absencia eiusdem mag/Vri vel eiusdem Gardiani sive eon//idem Gardianor 1/7/1 et sic 
tocies quocies casus sic accident Et vlteeius do vberiori gi(/e/a iw/,s/ra speriali ac 
ex cert a, sciencia. et mero niotii lu/.s/ris dedimies e£ coneessimi/.v et const ituimu.s ac per 
presentes pru nob/.s heredibi/.s et successoribus nos/ris damies concedimi/.s el c-on- 
stituimu,s predict/* mag/'sfro Gardianis et Com-imuntati de les Free masons les 
Carpenters les Joy tiers et les Slatters Civitat/.s Oxon/e predicts e£ suceessoribus yui.s 
qirod ipsi prefati magister Gardiani et Co//i mi///itatas et successores sui qui admissi 
sint aitt fuerint in Corporacio/iem predictru/i et iuerint membr/ eiusdem Corporac/o/iis 
corporate et servien/e.s et Apprentice' sui et eor it m euiusl/t/et solumodo et nulli alij 
qui 11011 submitterent seip.^os et devenerint membr/ eiusdem incorporac/o/iis et liber 
Gilde predicts et obedien.s onuiibi/s legittimus ' constituc/o/iifri/s ovdinacionibus et 
ratlonabil/6i/,<> oner i bus eiusdem 1'aciant et perficiant 0111/1 i a et singula que queeumqi/e 2 
ad seperalia mister/// sive Arte.s de les Free masons les Carpenters les Joyners et les 
Slatters ant ad eori/»i aliquod spectant vel pertinent infra Civitate/;i prediete/m 
libertates et p/vcinctie-; eiusdem de tempore in tenipus aecidenf tet. sive contingen//// 
Prohibentes om/ies alias personas quascumq//r preter p/rfatos mag/,stn/m Gardiano.s 
et C0//1 7/1 i/iiitatem et successores snos et eor///;; servienfe.i et Apprentices solumodo 
q//od nee ipsi nee eon/ hi aliqui 1'aciant aut face re p/esumant aliquam rem aut aliquas 
res quascumqi/e infra Civitafem predict///// suburbs/ libcrtatcs et precinetn.s eiusdem 
que ad predict// mister/// sive Artes de les Free masons les Carpenters les Joyners 
aut les Slaters aut ad eoviim aliquod spectant vel pertinent fiend i/m- sub pena huiusmodi 
forisfacturi imprisonamen// fin/.s ac alie penalitat/s qualm, et que per aliqua Statuti/»i, 
sive leges huius regni nt/.srri Anglic aut per ordmacie//ie/Ji, seu constitucione//i per 
magistri/7/i. Gardiane/.s' et Comniunita/em predictor et .successores suos vt supradicti/m 
est virtnte presencium faciend//,v et eonstituend//*" imponi aut affligi possint super 
huiusmodi deliqucnfe/n propte/' eovtnn. contempt!//// et in obedienc/c///i in non 
perimplendt/rti- et pe/formaiidi///i mandati/m no,s/rum lU'gium in bae parte Volumi/.s 
eciam etcetera Absque fine in hauape/io etcetera Eo quod expressa mene/o etcetera 
In cuius rei etcetera Teste apud ^Xchtmo no steri tun chiodecimo die Xovembris. 
per hie tic de priuato Sigillo etcetera. 


(Title in margin) Of the Grant for themselves and their successors of a Master, 
Wardens and a Commonalty of the Freemasons and others in the City of Oxford. 
The King, allowing the humble petition of his faithful subjects at Oxford 
by these presents grants that all freemen of the misteries and arts of Freemasons, 
Carpenters, Joiners and Slaters exercising their calling in Oxford or its suburbs 
shall for the future be one body corporate by the title of the Master, Wardens 
and Commonalty of the Freemasons, Carpenters, Joiners and Slaters of the City 
of Oxford, with all legal rights as a corporation in respect of owning property and 
chattels, and maintaining and defending law-suits, with a Common Seal, and a 
Hall. They shall have a Master, three Wardens and sixteen Assistants to the 
Alaster and Wardens. The said Master, Wardens and Assistants, or the majority 
of them, shall, provided the Alaster and one Warden be of the number, have 
full pow r er to summon a meeting of the Commonalty and make ordinances and 
regulations for their better government, and for the ordering of all matters that 
concern them and their trades, with power to fine and imprison for breaches of 
such rules as they shall determine, and they may take the proceeds of fines 
levied to the purposes of the Commonalty, provided always that such finings and 
imprisonments are reasonable and not repugnant to the laws of the Realm. 
And we hereby appoint our well-beloved Thomas Key, Joiner, to be the first 
Alaster, and to continue until the next Feast of St. James the Apostle, when 
they shall themselves elect his successor in accordance with the rules enacted to 
that end. And we appoint our well-beloved Thomas Edwardes, Mason, Edward 
Teasler, Carpenter, and Edward Triplet!., Slater, to be the first Wardens to hold 

1 S/e ; for '' legittimis." 

2 Interlineated here; it should probably have preceded 'que.' 

The Incorporation- of tht (.'oinpantj of F rcemaxotiSy cO. 223 

office in like manner, unless they or any of them be removed for misconduct. 
And we appoint our well-beloved Thomas Barton, Leonard Mathewe, Richard 
Edwardes and John Palmer, Freemasons, John Ladman xen-ior, John Ladman 
junior, Thomas May and John Ives, Carpenters, Thomas Maddockes, Charles 
Rainsford, William Bennett and Bartholomew Emery, Joiners, and Thomas 
Hall, John Brighte, William Pierson and John Hayes, Slaters, to be the first 
Assistants and to hold their office for life unless they be removed for sufficient 
cause, and all future officers are to be elected on the Feast Day of St. James the 
Apostle or on the day next following, the Master and the three Wardens being 
elected from among the Assistants for the space of one year, but so that the 
four shall severally belong, one to each of the said arts and misteries. And 
the newly-elected Master and W'ardens shall take an oath before the Assistants 
and the Master and •Wardens their predecessors, or before any eight of them, 
faithfully to discharge their duties, and the Court, of Assistants shall have power 
to fill vacancies caused by death or removal for misconduct, until the next Feast 
of St. James, such court to include a Master and one Warden, and they may 
similarly elect from among the Commonalty one or more Assistants, to hold their 
office for life, as vacancies occur, and they shall take oath to carry out their 
duties properly. And of our favour and grace we direct that the Master, 
Wardens and Assistants shall have full jjowers of scrutiny, correction and 
governance in their arts and misteries over all persons exercising them in the 
City and its suburbs and full power of punishing all delinquents, and we order 
our Mayors, Justices and all other Officers to give all assistance required by the 
said Master, Wardens and Commonalty. And they have power to appoint from 
among the Assistants a Deputy for a Master or Warden unable through sickness 
or absence from Oxford to carry out his duties. Further the Master, Wardens 
and Commonalty and their servants and apprentices who shall be members of 
the incorporation and free gild aforesaid, shall have freedom to do all other acts 
that may be needful from time to time for the purposes of the misteries and arts. 
Prohibiting all other persons whomsoever under penalties from interfering in any 
manner with the said misteries and arts, (Formal ending, witnessing, etc.) 

A few points call for comment. The phrase as to the Hall may be 
translated: "They shall have ... a house or room as may seem best to 
them which shall be called ' le Halle or Chamber de les Freemasons' | etc. ]." 
These last are the actual words of the original. This reminds us of the Chamber 
or Hall of the Rcr/ius, and suggests that the term "Hall" specifically implied 
a house with several rooms. 

The Charter has no reference to a livery; and the phrase "free gild " 
(" eiusdem incorporacionis et liber gildae predict ae ") which only occurs once is 
not very easy to explain. Tt seems to be unusual in charters of this type. No 
chaplain is referred to, and there is no indication of religious activities of any 
kind . 

Thomas Edwardes is called a Mason, although the Corporation is invariably 
referred to as that of the Freemasons, etc. On. the next page Richard Edwardes, 
presumably a relation, and his colleagues are Freemasons. This suggests that 
at this date there was no very definite distinction made between the two 
designations. The Wills of Thomas Barton (1622) and Richard Edwards (1623) 
are among those found by Bro. Williams and referred to in the Appendix to the 
account of the Summer Outing. 

It will be noticed that the Corporation are given a free hand to make 
their own rules, to which no detailed reference occurs, presumably because they 
were not yet in being. Is it at all possible to find some record of them in 
Oxford itself, and can the subsequent history of the Corporation be traced ? 
W T here was its Chamber or Hall ? 

I have not thought it necessary to mark all the small errors of spelling 
and syntax in the original ; they are very few and quite obvious. 



Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 


Past Matter liillinys (Montana) Chapter Rose Croix. 

AM indebted to my very good friend and Brother, Willem 
Wildschut, 32°, who brought me this patent as a gift from 
Holland, whore he obtained it during a visit there in 1926. 
Ou examining any old document the first question that 
naturally arises is the date of issue, and here, we are informed 
that it was issued on " the fifth day of the first month in the 
year 26 of our Grand Master 55." That date was, and still is, 
very much of a ' poser,' but inasmuch as it is stated to have 
been issued by the Master and Chiefs of the Most Holy Chapter of the Higher 
Degrees in the Society of Freemasons, seated in and by the supreme authority 
of the Republic of Batavia (Dutch Republic), wc know the date in the vulgar 
calendar to have been between the years 1795 and 1806. 

The first impression ou taking up the document is that of the thickness 
of the parchment; the next, the impressiveness of the seals which are three in 
number. Without stopping to examine in detail, and viewing the body and 
design, one notices at once the compasses and triangles on the three columns, 
one of the latter of which is broken, and these facts with the prominence of 
the representation of the phoenix and pelican at once convince us that it is a 
Masonic document. Inspection of the seals confirms this, and closer inspection 
reveals that it is a patent of the Rose Croix degree, now the Eighteenth .Degree 
of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, or Ancient and 
Accepted Rite of England. 

Taking the design in detail. At the head we have the All-Seeing Eye 
in a triangle with radiant light stretching therefrom and a classical figure, 
evidently in conjunction with the All-Seeing Eye, representing Light. The 
figure of Light is supported on the left and right by the phoenix and pelican. 

At the bottom we find the Altar having upon it the Holy Bible with 
crossed swords, with which all Knights Rose Croix, as well as those who have 
taken other Scots degrees, are familiar. 

The Altar stands on a black cloth on which are depicted tears and the 
motto " Vincere Aut Mori " (Conquer or Die); on this are two crowns, celestial 
and temporal, sword, skull, crossbones, lamp, trowel and wand. All these we 
can understand. The black cloth with tears is not only associated with the 
Scots degrees, but also the Craft degrees in Holland, the apron of a Master 
Mason, to this day, in that country, having them displayed. 

The seals next command our attention, in order to see by what authority 
the document is issued. The main seal below the signature to the bottom right 
is attached, by incision, to the parchment, by crimson silk ribbon. The ribbon 
passes through a circular box-wood cup, on which the red sealing wax has been 
poured and the seal impressed, which is two inches in diameter. The design of 
the seal includes implements used by the operative Mason, which have been 
adopted by the speculative Mason to symbolise lessons, such as the square and 
compass, rule, trowel, and mallet ; together with other symbols of the Blue 
Lodge, the two pillars, sun, moon and stars, blazing star with the letter ' G,' 
cord, sprig of acacia, perfect ashlar with pyramidal top, and in the bottom 

Butch Rose Croix Patent. 225 

appears a skull with sword and thigh hone crossed with sprigs of laurel; these 
also are peculiar to Continental Blue Masonry. Around the edge half way is a 
tasselled cord and the words " Parfaite Union," found on many Masonic seals 
on the Continent in the eighteenth century. One is somewhat surprised to find 
none but Blue Lodge symbols and one looks above to the signature expecting to 
find the title of the signer as " Master " or "Grand Master" or some other 
Grand Officer, but the title " Cancellarius " is found. This we assume to be a 
local or subordinate title pertaining to the Lodge at Dordrecht, and is " our own 
proper seal " referred to in the patent. 

The seal to the left, over which appear the signatures of the Masters and 
Moderators, after whose names the letters "S.P.R. + ." are affixed (Sovereign 
Prince Rose Croix), is equally imposing, being three inches in diameter, and it 
is suspended by a bright red silk ribbon by incision in the parchment, and is 
impressed on white paper stuck over ether papers, red on white, through which 
the ribbon has been run. The design on the seal is a phoenix. On the rock 
on which the bird stands is a radiant oval with the Hebrew letters Yod, Heh, 
Vau, Heh. Around the seal are the mottos "Peril ut Vivat " (He dies to 
live) and " Feliciter Ardet " (For Happiness he burns) which are understandable 
in their association with the phoenix. The paper on which the seal is impressed 
bears the signature " Pietor Brouwer," who at the top left of the document 
describes himself as Grand Chancellor, so the seal must be " the Great Seal " 
referred to in the patent. 

According to a tale quoted by Mackey in his En <■//<■!() pa <-t~iin of Freon/i^onr//, 
" Aumont, the first Grand Master of the Templars after the martyrdom of de 
Molay, and called the ' Restorer ' of the Order, took, it is said, for his seal a 
phoenix brooding on the flames with the motto ' Ardet ut Vivat ' (She burns 
that she may live)." 

The third seal is adhesively attached to the top left hand corner against 
the words in Hutch: — 

Registration ) In the Golden Book 

Fo. 21. J By order of the Superior Officers 

Pieter Brouwer. S.P.R.+. 
Grand Chancellor. 

This is the same signature as appears on the white paper seal showing 
the phoenix immediately above referred to. 

It is noticeable that the dominating characters of the new seal are those 
of the Rose Croix; the three designs on the larger seal being those of the Scots 
degrees. Taking the design in detail: — 

In an indented border 'composed of white and shaded triangles; at top 
a celestial crown; a shield on which is shown, top left quarter, hand and dagger 
with the letters 'N.C.': top right quarter, circle and double triangle with the 
letter 'G.' in centre; bottom half, sun with letter ' L.' over, shaded portion 
with letter 'D.,' sword and sceptre with letter 'P.' under; with design of the 
Rose Croix in centre impaled. To the bottom left, a phoenix; to the bottom right, 
a pelican. Round the shield the collar or cordon of the Rose Croix degree; 
beneath the shield, a book with seven seals. At the top of the seal are four 
letters in cypher. One might expect to find four letters in Hebrew, but those 
depicted are not Hebrew. As the first and fourth, letters are the same, we may 
be safe in assuming that they represent 'I.N.R..T.,' which we should expect to 
find there. 

About the symbol of the Rose Croix degree there is no question. The 
book of the seven seals is interesting and can refer to none other than the degree 
"Knight of the East & West," now the 17th of the A.A.S.R., S.J. : U.S.A. 

The hand and dagger is the symbol of the 30th degree or Knight Kadosh ; 
it may also depict the "Degrees of Vengeance" generally; the letters ' N.C 
over the dagger are doubtless initials of Latin words whose purport we can easily 

226 Transactions of the Qnatanr Coronati Lotlrje. 

Of the letters 'L.P.D,,' the 'L.' being placed over the sun, one would 
guess Lucis or Light; ''I).' over the sliaded part as Darkness, and 'P.' to 
signify the equivalent of Harmony or Victory- this, however, is not so; it is 
one of the, designs or symbols which purposely have a different meaning from 
that which at once suggests itself, the same as ' I'.N.R.I.' The letters ' L.P.D. ' 
are associated with the 6th degree of the French Rite (Chevalier d' Orient) — 
Knight of the East or of the Sword, which in itg modern form is the 15th degree 
of the A.A.S.R., and are the initials of words signifying Liberty of Passage and 
Liberty of Thought, or Freedom of action and thought. The letters are dis- 
played on a bridge of three arches, and in connection with the degree is a banner 
representing the lion, the ox, the man and the eagle. Much could be said about 
these letters and symbols, but this is not the place, and there is no need in 
reviewing this seal. To the initiated they are self-evident. They are of interest 
here as showing the degrees which were worked by the authority under which the 
patent was issued. 

Taking a general survey of the patent, we see that it is not essentially a 
form of patent for the Rose Croix degree, as that name is written in at a space 
provided ; reference is made to the Ll Great Seal " and their " Own proper seal " 
as being affixed; and the date can only be between 1795 and 1806, during 
which period the Dutch Republic was in existence. Investigating these matters 
we shall find that here is evidence supporting the contentions of Gould, Mackey 
and others regarding Continental Masonic history during this period. Quoting 
from these authorities we find the following: — 

The years in question cover a period immediately following the French 
Revolution and the rising of the Napoleonic Empire, during which time Masonry 
in France and the Grand Orient of France had practically ceased to exist. We 
have to go to France to trace the legitimacy of the Scots degrees. Among 
the Paris Lodges dependent upon the Grand Orient at the beginning of 1784 
there were nine possessing a Rose Croix Chapter. It is unknown where those 
Chapters obtained their warrant — they had nothing to do with the Chapter at 
Arras and it is probable that they were self-constituted, and Gould shows that 
the Grand Orient of France had no real authority to control the R.C. degree. 
At this time we find the Baldwyn Encampment of the Knights Templar of the 
city of Bristol working the three symbolic degrees; the R.A. ; Knights Templar 
of St. John of Jerusalem, Palestine and Malta ; Knights R.C. of Heredom ; 
and Grand Elected Knights Kadosh. 

Mackey says that " in 1798 the Grand Lodge (of the United Provinces) 
adopted a Book of Statutes by which it accepted the three symbolic degrees and 
referred the four high degrees of the French Rite to a Grand Chapter." 

Gould in his (.'oncise J/ tutor// (1903, English Edition), page 387, says: — 

'The High degrees of the Netherlands, also called 'Red Masonry,' acquired 

their name in 1803. They consisted of 1st, Elu or Secret Master; 2nd, the 

three Scots degrees; 3rd, Knight of the Sword or of the East; and 4th, Sovereign 

Prince Rose Croix." 

I have endeavoured to show that there was in Holland during the time 
of the Republic a legally organized Grand Chapter of Rose Croix, controlling 
that and other degrees of the French Rite or Scots degrees — or some of them — 
which, of course, had subordinate chapters such as that at the town of Dordrecht. 
But is it known what system of dating such Grand Chapter had ? The patent 
we are reviewing claims a succession of fifty-five Grand Masters. That certainly 
was not the Templar dating, for de Molay was the 23rd. Dating back we could 
not find 55 having been in office in 1798 and the 55th having been in office 26 

The two seals at foot of the patent are without doubt those of the Grand 
Chapter and the local Chapter at Dordrecht, but we are not certain of the one 
in the top left hand corner where Pieter Brouwer testifies to a record in the 
Golden Rook and signs as Grand Chancellor. Unfortunately he gives no date 
of such registration. " Opper Bestuur " may mean Grand Officers or perhaps 
it may mean Supreme Council. And we have no knowledge of the existence of 

Dutch h'oxe Croix Patent. 22; 

any Supreme Council; the evidence, in fact, is that none such existed until 
about 1807. It is possible that this is the seal of such Supreme Council and 
that the Grand Chapter Rose Croix was absorbed into it and all patents issued 
by that body were thus recognized and legalized. 

E. E, Murray. 





Nos Magister atque Prima ri i Saerosaneti Capitis Graduum Superiorum. in Soeiotate 
Caementariorum Liberorum. fixa, et ex auctoritate Kupremi. in Bepublioa Batava. 
Graduum Superiorum Capitis, nostrao Regiac Arti operam danto in Uivitate 
Doritriircrui [Dordrecht]. 


Capitibus omnibus, Sedilibus ac Fratiihus, quae quive Summae Luei>\ justuni in 
inodum, evaserunt participes. 

F S * C 

Siquidem earns noster Frater JOII A XX E-S KAl'S 1)01' !' natus Durdnui Anno [blank] 
Status atque condition is Alercator cujus maims ad doles evitandos in Marline adparct, 
a Nobis Testimonium, se solito atque legitimo modo esse aeeeptum et initiatmn 
Gradibus Superioribus. 

Ita est, ut, aequae huic rogation i satisfaeientes, Statuamus lioc Re.=eripto, nee lion 
Manifestemus supra-dictum Fratrem, Sinmlatque ilium Maoist rum Miirarium agnovis- 
senuis. nee non ille Nobis palam professus iuisset progressus et alacritatem suam in 
Kegia nostra Arte, reeeptum e-\se a NobF et initiatum Sumnw Onahti l'ri ticii'ix 1'nsac 
t'rus/x i tiel i/ttic . 

Pogantes, qiium etiam earn ob eausaiu Nos simus, ut omnia Capita et Fratres, per 
Terrae tot ins Orbis superficiem dispersi, ilium Fratrem J Oil AX X EM KAHSDOltl' 
talem agnoseere velint, Operibus .suis admittcre. eundemque, uti nostra decent ofheia, 
consilio ac re adjuvare, et tandem prospicere, ut omnibus fruatur PR I VI LEG! IS. 
JFRIBFS atque EXCELLENT! IS. jam antiquitus hisce Gradibus annexis, atque i!li 
jure et legitime eompetentibus. 

Quorum omnium in fidem lioc Diploma, Nostra Mann subscript-urn, magnisque Sigillis, 
nee non Sigillo Capitis nostri proprio oorroboratum. Nos Magister et Primarii ipsi 
Datum Dordraci Die V. Mensis /. Anno A'AT/ Mayn't Moglstcrii XI'. 


To him that overeometh to him will I give a white stone and in the stone a new 

name written which no man knoweth saving lie that receiveth it [part of v. 17 of 

Itcv., eh. ii.] 

"With highest honour and veneration to the Supreme Creator of the whole world, the 

one only and most perfect source of light. ! ! ! 

From the place exceeding exalted and strong with mighty power where virtue and 

peace hold sway (and where) deceit craft lying and deeds of shame are repressed. 

We: the Master and Chiefs of the Most Holy Chapter of the Higher Degrees in the 

Society of Freemasons seated in and by the authority of the Supreme Chapter of the 

228 T ran Hticf inns of the Qitatuor f'oronati Lodge. 

Higher Degrees in the Batavian Republic exercising our Royal Art in the City of 
Dordrecht. 1 

By the Holy and Perfect Number ! ! ! 
To all Chapters Chairs and Brethren who have attained to be sharers in the Highest 
Light in a regular manner (send) 

"Faith .v. Hope ■'■'■ Charity 

Inasmuch as our dear Brother Johannes Karsdorp born at Dordrecht in the year 

a Merchant by status and condition whose handwriting appears in the margin for the 

avoiding of fraud has demanded from us a Certificate that he has in a due and lawful 

manner been accepted and initiated into the Higher Degrees 

Therefore we satisfying this reasonable request establish by this document and declare 

that the aforesaid Brother so soon as we had recognised him as a Master Mason 2 

and so soon as he had afforded clear [lit open or public] proof of his progress 

and keenness in our Royal Art was received by us and initiated into the Highest 

Degree of Prince of the Illustrious Rose Croix. 

Requesting, since moreover 3 we exist for that purpose, that all Chapters and Brethren 

scattered throughout the surface of whole terrestrial globe be willing to recognise the 

Brother Johannes Karsdorp as such to admit him. to their labours and help the same 

[brother] as our duties [i.e., our principles] teach L by counsel and by deed 5 and in 

fine to see to it that he enjoys all the privileges rights and precedences belonging 

from of old to these Degrees and rightly and duly pertaining to him. 

In testimony of all which we the Master and Chiefs have ourselves given this Diploma 

Signed with our hand and confirmed by our Great Seals and by the distinctive Seal 

of our Chapter. 

Dated at Dordrecht on the o t]l Day of the l si Month in the 26 th Year and the oo"' 

of the Grandmastership. 

Joannes Kramers 


J. C. Bendorp SV.P.'.R/. + .'. 

Moderators P. Ad 1 ', do Haas S/.P/.R .\ h 

A. A. van [ ? ] S.'.P.'.R .\ + . 

Thesauri Custos 

[Keeper of the Treasury 

or Treasurer] 

Xotes on the above Translation. 

1 The meaning is clearer in the following order: — 

. , . the Most Holy Chapter of the H.D. in the S. of F.M, (i.e., La 
Furfaite V)iion) seated in. the City of I), and (there) exercising our Royal 
Art bv authority of the Sunreme Chanter of the Higher Degree in the 
Bat. Rep. 

This (I suggest) shows that the Certificate is later than Oct. 1803. 

2 ' recog' 1 . him as a M.M.' This shows that the Certificate was isstiecl after 
the decision of the Scots Lodges and Chapters to discontinue the conferring of the 
Degrees of Croft Masonry, 

3 'since moreover &c.' The meaning is: — 

since in addition to other reasons for the existence of our Chapter 
it is the duty of the Chapter to ensure the just recognition of our 
members outside its own doors. 

4 'as our duties teach,' meaning: — - 

as we are taught to do by the precepts &c. &c. of our Order. 

5 Meaning (presumably) help both in the way of counsel and also material or 
pecuniary aid if reouired. 

In vol. xvi. of A.Q.O. is a Paper by Bro. F. J. W. Crowe, 'Masonic 
Certificates of the Netherlands,' and at p. 23 is an illustration of a Certificate 
of exactly the same form as Bro, E. E. Murray's except that ' in Regno 

Aes Quatuor C'oronatorum. 


|. ■ - T&ttttvS't »V- .:■.' '«t > : .'.." ttiCav y.rm}*; ^ fyi j-^ fyjffi&f 4he/x tcei*to fifa^t^io*, f 


i:x UKyj Ju'ircmi ja sr«r,{Jii,KT y&i.jz»x& y;r ibiih i'OTl2STi < CTJ: vijm*K kt fax ■ 
hkotm v:jk\"v ; i uxrti, A.s^rx»A.;JtKWJA.ciA ?:r roua'iJMxiuLV. rosarjKjj xira 

- ' Per Sanctum «l iPerfWtiiisu 'i&uaaeriti*!!!' 

./y//-.-,,;^/ • -****• Jfcvtfw-*??!**^ *-, C.« "A*> • /•*. rt* .-/j fi #8^ -i , ,, -. • « Arts, 



v A^y,?* , .^y ^t v^l* a'tW^ ( 

I' ,??-vs.*J '' /,V ' - / -> : '"- V 'V 



. , /,-./ ,/A. 


~^M " " 



DTitcli Rose Croix Patent. ^'Z 



Wafer Seal affixed to Dutch Rose Croix Patent. 

Dutch Rose Croix Patent. 229 

Hollandiae ' is engraved instead of 'in Republica Batava.' The 'Batavian 
Republic ' existed from 1795 until 1805 when the Emperor Napoleon I. created 
Louis Bonaparte King of Holland. It follows that the date of Bro. Murray's 
Certificate is not earlier than 1795 and not rmich later than 1805, for the words 
Batavian Republic in Latin or Dutch were certainly used on Masonic documents 
during the early years of the reign of K. Louis. The Scots Lodge or Chapter 
La Varjaite I'm' on at Dordrecht was founded in 1791. 

In 1755 two Scots Lodges were formed in Holland — in April Concordia 
Thick An tin ox, and in December La Bun Aimer — both at Amsterdam. The 
second of these worked a number of Scots Degrees not including the Rose Croix, 
and Bro. Bunel was appointed CM", of Scots Degrees for Holland. In 1756 he 
turned La Lien Ainu'e into a Very Illustrious Scots Lodge, and in 17S4 vested 
the powers of G.M. of Scots Degrees in the Master of the Lodge La Lien Ainiee. 
But in 1776 a Grand Scots Lodge for Holland had been formed with van 
Boetselaer for Grand Master, and this also had no Rose Croix. The other 1755 
Amsterdam Scots Lodge Concordia founded a Rose Croix Chapter Credentex, &c, 
in 1784 (or according to some authorities 1788), and in 1788 or a little later its 
powers were vested in the Master of Concordia . Tn 1803 there was a union 
between (1) The Scots Gr.L. of 1776; (2) The V.lllus. Scots Chapter La Bien 
Aimee; (3) The Chapter Credcntcs Tirent ah Ulo of 1784, and (4) other Scots 
Lodges in Holland, including La Varfaite Union of Dordrecht of 1791, nearly 
all of them already being under No. (1). La L'arfaitc Union came from No. (2) 
I thin!,-. When this Union of 1803 came about the R.C. Chapter Crcdentcs 
voluntarily vested all its powers in the Scots Grand Lodge of 1776. 

I therefore suggest that the date of Bro. Murray's Certificate is 1810. 
Anno XXVT. would be counting from 1784 the date of the founding of the 
senior Rose Croix Chapter in Holland Credent ex. Magni Magisterii LV. would 
be counting from 1755 the year when the first Scots Grand Master for Holland 
(Bunel) was appointed in what was (I believe) the Mother Lodge of La Peirfattc 
Union, at Dordrecht. Please note that this is a, suggestion . I do not state it 
as a fact. Bro. Crowe, p. 17, says that he had not met with an engraved 
certificate with Kingdom instead of Republic earlier than 1810. 

Bro. Crowe notes that the Certificate plate was designed and engraved by 
J. C. Bendorp, but does not mention that " J. Ilalk gratis scripsit.' Bro. 
Murray's Certificate also has 'J. C. Bendorp gratis invenit et sculpsit,' and 
'J. Hallv gratis scripsit.' These names might help to fix the date. 

I am not sure of the words over Pietor Brouwer's signature: — 

op Lan [ '? ] van. Est [or Net] Opper Bestuur 

and so do not know what they mean. ' Opper Bestuur ' clearly is Superior 
Officers and does not in the least (l imagine) indicate any suggestion of ' Supreme 
Council ' in any A. & A.R. sense. 

Early in 1801 as a preparation for the Union of the various Scots Lodges 
or Chapters in Holland a conference was held and a Committee appointed to 
consider what Degrees should be retained and form the ' Rite ' to be adopted. 
This Committee finished its labours in the middle of 1802 and in October of 
1803 the Union was carried out and the following 'Rite' accepted by all: — 

The 3 Craft Degrees (not to be worked by Scots Lodges) 

1° Elu. 

11° Three Ecossois Degrees. 

TTT° Knighthood of the East and Sword. 

IV° Sov. Prince Rose Croix. 

These are the four shown on the Seal and the letters are quite intelligible to 
some of us. 

Baldwyn at Bristol never -worked the Kadosh Degree. At least there is 
no evidence that it did. The Kadosh never formed part of the Rite of Baldwyn 
of VII T.I, 

J. E. Shum Tuckett, 

230 Transaction* of flic Qiuifnor Coronati Lodge. 


{('out i n tied from pat/e Ids'). 

Queensborough, Duke of. (}.(■. A., x., 6 and 23. 
His Grace the Duke of Queensborough is named as a Member of the Lodge at 
The Home Tavern at Westminster in the 1723 List; and of the same Lodge as 
Duke of Queensbrough in the 1725 List. 

Douglas, Charles. Third Duke of Queensberry and second Duke of Dover 
(1698-1778). D.X.B., xv., 288. (His Father, the 2nd Duke of Queensberry,. 
died in 1711). Was Privy Councillor and Vice-Admiral of Scotland. Took up 
the cause of Gay, when a license for Gay's Opera " Polly " was refused 1728. 
In the same year he quarrelled with George II., resigned his appointments, and 
attached himself to Frederic Prince of Wales. Keeper of the Great Seal of 
Scotland in 1760, and was Lord Justice General 1763-78. His Portrait, engraved 
by V. Green, after G. Willison, is in the British Museum. 

Quinn, Mr. Q.C.A., x., 178. 
Lodge: Bear and Harrow in the Butcher Row (1730 List). 

Quin is referred to in Aliiman li'e\on, 3rd edit., 1778, as quoted by Gould 
in his History of Freernasoriri/, vol. ii., 287. 

Quin, James (1693-1766). D.X.H., xlvii., 107. Actor. Was born in 
King Street, Covent Garden, and taken to Dublin in 1700. After leaving 
Dublin he appeared at Drury Lane about. 1714 and came into note in 1716. 
Acted at Lincoln's Inn Theatre, taking leading parts in tragedy 1717-1732. 
Also acted at Covent Garden where he rivalled Garrick with, whom, after retiring 
in 1751, he lived in friendship. Walpole preferred him to Garrick. He was 
buried at Bath Abbey. 

(There can be little doubt as to his identity. Mr. Gibber, Junr., Mr. 
Leveridge, and Mr. Laguerre were all actors and members of the same Lodge.) 

His Portrait, engraved by J. Faber, Junr., after T. Hudson, and six other 
engravings are in the British Museum. Two portraits of Quin ascribed to 
Hogarth are in the Garrick Club. 

Radcliff, Dr. Q.C.A., x., 34. 
Lodge: Ship without Temple Barr (1725 List). 

liadcliffe, John (1690-1729). ''D.X.Ii., xlvii.. 132. A Physician. M.A. 
St. John's College, Oxford, 1714 M.D. 1721. F.R.C.P. 1724/ Physician to 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London. 

Rawlinson, Richard. Q.C.A., x., 164, 167, 180, 191. 
Lodges: (1) Three Kings in Spittle Fields removed to the Sash and Coco© Tree 
in Upper Moore Fields; (2) St. Paul's Head in Ludgate Street; (3) Bricklayers 
Arms in Barbican now removed to the Rose in Cheapside (he was Senior Warden 
of this Lodge); and (4) Oxford Arms in Ludgate Street (described as ''Richard 
Rawlinson L.L.D.," he was Master of this Lodge). All these four Lodges are 
in the 1730 List. 

Rawlinson, Richard (1690-1755). D.X.B., xlvii., 331. His Father was 
Lord Mayor of London in 1705. Was a nonjuring Bishop (consecrated 1728). 
M.A. 1713. F.R.S. 1714. Created D.C.L. Oxford in his absence 1729. " He 
always concealed his episcopal and even his clerical character." Edited Ashmole's 
diary. Left valuable manuscripts to the Bodleian Library. Topographer. Died 
at Islington. Buried at St. Giles's Church, Oxford, 

Masonic Personalia, I7J.i-.iO. 231 

He is the subject of references in A. Q.C, especially vols. xi. and xxv. 
See also Gould's History of Ftny., vol. ii., p. 168 et sc-q. 

For Portrait see A. Q.C, xi., 13. There are two engraved Portraits in - 
the British Museum, one by W. Smith, after G. Vertue, and the other engraved 
by M. vr. Gucht. 

Rich, Sir Robert. Q.O.A., x., 523. 
Lodge: The Home Tavern at Westminster (1723 and 1725 Lists). 

Rich, Sir Robert, Fourth Baronet (1685-1768). D.X.B., xlviii., 134. 
Entered the Army and served under Marlborough. M.P. for Dunwich 1715-1722. 
A consistent supporter of Sir Robert Walpole ; fought at Dettingen 1743; General 
1747; Field Marshal 1757. In 1718 was appointed Groom of the Bedchamber 
to the Prince of Wales on whose accession to the Throne as George II. he became 
Groom of the Bedchamber to the King, which office he resigned in 1759. 

Richardson, Richard. Q.C.J. , x., 33, 191. 

Richardson, Richard, Senr. 17. 
Lodges: Richd. Richardson, Senr., Dicks Coffee House near the New Church in 
the Strand (1723 List), (Richd. Richardson, Junr., was of the same Lodge); 
same Lodge (1725 List) Rich. Richardson, Snr., is named (Mr. Rich, Richardson, 
presumably Junr., is named as Warden); Mr. Richard Richardson, King's Arms 
on Ludgate Hill (1730 List). 

Richardson, Richard (1663-1741). D.X.B., xlviii., 240. An eminent 
Botanist and Antiquary: of University College, Oxford; Strident at Gray's Inn 
1712. F.R.S. 1712. He contributed to Transaction* of the Royal Society. 
Practised as a Physician mostly gratuitously at North Bierley. His botanical 
and historical books ultimately passed to Miss F. M. Richardson Currer. She 
published extracts from correspondence of Richard Richardson, M.D., 1835. 

His Portrait, engraved by J. Basire from a painting, is in the British 
Museum. It appears in Nichols's Illustrations of Literary History. It would 
seem, however, from the D .N Ji . that the Botanist could not have had a son old 
enough to be a Mason in 1723. 

Richmond, Duke of. 
There are numerous entries in Q.C.A., x., relating to this Brother. 
He was Grand Master elected 24th June 1724, it having been agreed, 
on 28th April 1724, that he be declared Grand Master at the next Annuall 
meeting (pp. 57, 58). He is named in the 1723 List (page 5) as Master of The 
Home Tavern at Westminster. The Minutes show that he was one of the most 
active Freemasons of the period covered by Q.(.'.A., x. The last entry is at 
p. 300 recording his attendance at Grand Lodge on 27th April 1738. 

Lennox, Charles, second Duke of Richmond Lennox and Aubigny (1701- 
1750). D.N. Li., xxxiii., 42. Grandson of Charles II., his Father being a son 
of the Duchess of Portsmouth. (It was stated in Grand Lodge on 2nd March 
1732, when the 2nd Duke was present, that a Petitioner for relief recommended 
by him had been made a Mason at Chichester by the late Duke of Richmond 
six and thirty years ago=1696). Martin Folkes in 1747 described him as the 
most humane and best man living. Captain in Royal Horse Guards 1722. 
M.P. for Chichester 1722-3. Succeeded to Dukedom 1723. F.R.S. 1724. 
K.B. 1725. K.G. 1726. Lord of the Bedchamber 1727. LL.D. Cambridge 
1728. Master of the Horse 1735. Privy Councillor 1735. Present at Dettingen 
1743. Lieutenant-General 1745. M.D. Cambridge 1749. P.S.A. 1750. 

His Portrait, engraved by J. Faber, Jr., after Sir G. Kneller, appears in 
Q.C. St. John's Card, 1904. Bro. Henry Sadler in the same " Card " gives a 
short biographical note. See also A. Q.C, xxx. There are five portrait drawings 
of him in the British Museum. 

Rogers, Chas. Q.C. A., x., 289. 
On 29th June 1737 he moved a Resolution as to the dispatch of Summonses to 
every Committee of Charity to Masters of Lodges, 

232 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 

Roger*, Charles (1711-1784). D.N.B., xlix., 114. Art Collector; in 
Custom House 1731. F.S.A. 1752. F.R.S. 1757. Some pictures, prints and 
illuminated manuscript collected by him passed on his death to William Cotton 
and were ultimately bequeathed to the Plymouth Proprietary Library. He 
published a collection of engraved facsimile drawings and other works. Buried 
in St. Lawrence Pountney Churchyard. 

His Portrait was painted by Joshua Reynolds. Two engravings of it are 
in the British Museum. 

Rowtilliac, Louis Francisco. Q.C.A., x., 185. 
Lodge: White Bear in King's Street, Golden Square (1730 List). 

hioubiliac or liouhillac, Louis Francois (1695-1762). D.X.B., xlix., 310. 
He was born at Lyons. Settled permanently in England after 1730. He was 
the sculptor of many important monuments, among them those to John 2nd 
Duke of Montagu G.M. and his Duchess at Warkton. Clay models of these 
are preserved in the triforium at Westminster Abbey. Models and casts of 
Busts of Chesterfield, Folkes and others, by Roubiliac, are in the glass and 
ceramic gallery of the British Museum. Six of the finished marbles were 
presented to Pope by Frederick, Prince of Wales, and were bequeathed by Pope 
to Lord Lyttleton. He executed the monument (dated 1751) to Henry Chichele 
founder of All Souls College, Oxford. This Henry Chichele was Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and Dr. Anderson accords him posthumously the rank of Grand 
Master, an honour well merited if not technically authorised. (See 1738 
Constitutions, p. 73 and p. 75.) He was buried in the Churchyard of St. 
Martin's in the Fields. 

His Portrait, painted by A. Carpentiers, is in the National Portrait 
Gallery. It shows him standing modelling a statute of Shakespeare. There is 
also a portrait of him, by Grignon, in the Dulwieh Gallery. 

The Times of 18th December 1926 states that a Marble bust of Roubiliao 
by himself was about to be presented to the National Portrait Gallery. 

Rutty, Dr. Q.G.A., x., 26. 
Lodge: Bedford Head, Covcnt Garden. 

Rutty, William (1687-1730). D.N.B., 1., 32. Born in London. 
Physician. " M.D. Christ's College, Cambridge, 1719. F.R.C.P., 1720. 
Osteology lecturer at Barber-Surgeon's Hall 1721. Viscera lecturer 1724 and 
muscular lecturer 1728. Gulstonian lecturer 1722. F.R.S. 1720. Became 
second Secretary to the Royal Society 30th Nov. 1727. Died 10th June 1730. 

St. Albans, Duke of. Q.C.A., x., 37. 

Lodge: Queens Head at Bath (1725 List). He was Master of this Lodge. 

Beauderh, Charles. First, Duke of St, Albans (1670-1726). JJ.J.B., iv., 
34. Son of Charles 11. by Nell Gwynn. Born at his mother's house in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields. Created Dnke of St. Albans 1684. Served against the 
Turks in 1688 and under William III. in Landen Campaign 1693. Dismissed 
from Captaincy of Pensioners by Tory Ministry 1712, but restored by George L, 
who made him K.G. in 1718. 

His Portrait, engraved by R, White, is in the British Museum. It shows 
him when Earl of Burford as a boy in Peer's robes standing with his Brother, 
Lord James Beauclerk. (Plate to Guillim's Eeraldr//, 1679.) 

Sandys, Mr. Q.r.A., x., 33. 
Lodge: King's Head in Pall Mall (1725 List). He was then Senior Warden. 

All the thirteen members of that Lodge are in the list without any 
Christian names, hence any identification must be unsatisfactory. 

Sandys, Samuel. First Baron Sandys of Ombersley (1695 ?-1770). 
D.N.B., L, 293. Educated at New College, Oxford. He was M.P. for 
Worcester 1715-43 and opposed Walpole. Was Chancellor of the Exchequer 
and Privy Councillor in 1742. Created Baron Sandys 1743. Speaker of 
House of Lords 1756, 

Masonic Personalia, 1723-31). 233 

Schomberg, Dr. Isaac, Jim. Q.G.A., x., 254. 
17th April 1735. Named as Steward. (This is the only mention of him in 
Q.C.A., x.) 

Schomberg, Isaac (1714-1780). D.J.B., 1., 432. Physician (Son of 
Meyer Low Schomberg, M.D., F.R.S., &c). Born at Schweinberg. His Father 
came to England in 1720. Educated at Merchant Taylor's School. Practised 
medicine in London. Studied medicine at Trinity College, Cambridge, and by 
Royal Mandate obtained the degree of M.I). 1749. Summoned by president 
and censors of College of Physicians to present himself for examination as 
licentiate, he declined. His practice was interdicted till 1765, when he was 
admitted licentiate. F.R.C.P. 1771 and Censor in 1773 and 1778. Was 
baptised at St. Mary Woolnoth Church, London, on 7th August 1747. Attended 
Garrick in his last illness. Was a Legatee under Hogarth's will. His Portrait, 
engraved by W. P. Sherlock, after T. Hudson, is in the British Museum. It 
appeared in the European Magazine 1799. 

His Brother was Six Alex. Schomberg, Captn. R.N., whose portrait 
Hogarth painted. 

Schomburg, Dr. Q.C.A., x., 166. Dr. Meyer Schomber (p. 240). 
Lodge : Swan and Rummer in Finch Lane (1730 List). 

1734, 30 March. Dr. Meyer Shomberg was appointed Steward. 

Schomberg, Meyer Low (1690-1761). D.JJL, 1., 436. Physician. Was 
of Irish descent, and born at Fetzburg, Germany. M.D. Giessen, 1710; came 
to England c. 1720; L.R.C.P. London 1722; F.R.S. 1726. Practised in the 
City of London. A Hebrew manuscript in his hand dated 1746 was exhibited 
some years ago at the Anglo-Jewish Exhibition. He was Father of Dr. Isaac 
Schomberg above-named. 

Senex, John. Q.C.A., x., 41, 52, 53, 54, 56, 67, 197. 
Lodge: Fleece in Fleet Street (1725 List). 

On 24th June 1723 The Duke of Wharton in name of the New Grand 
Master (the Earl of Dalkeith) named him as one of the Grand Wardens pursuant 
to a letter from the Earl. The Duke of Wharton withdrew from this meeting 
without ceremony, being displeased with the election and appointment of Dr. 
Desaguliers as D.G.M. Consequently on 25th Nov. 1723 Bror. Senex was 
confirmed in his office. He attended Grand Lodge on 19th Feb. 1724, 28th 
April 1724, 24th June 1724. 

Senex, John (d. 1740). D.N.B., li,, 243. Cartographer and engraver. 
Bookseller in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, London, 1719. F.R.S. 1728. Read 
a paper before the Royal Society in 1738. 

Note, — The 1723 Constitutions were printed by William Hunter for John 
Senex at the Globe and John Hooke at the Flower de luce over against St. 
Dunstan's Church in Fleet Street. 

The last page of the 1723 t'o/tstif utioits is headed: — 

Some Books printed for J. Senex and J. Hooke. 

The First of these is a treatise of the five orders in Architecture translated 
into English by John James of Greenwich from Claude Perraults French (2nd 

Perhaps John Hook named in the 1725 List as Junior Warden of the 
Lodge at thei Fountain Tavern in the Strand is the same person as the John 
Hooke who was associated with John Senex. 

Senex is also one of the Signatories to the Approbation at page 74 of 
the 1723 Constitutions as Senior Warden of the Lodge there numbered XV. 

Sharp, Mr. Saumel. Q.C.A., x. 3 158. 
Lodge: Queens Arms in Newgate Street (1730 List). 

Sharp, Samuel (1700 ?- 1778). D.N.B., li., 414. Surgeon; apprenticed 
in 1724 to William Chaselden (who was a celebrated Surgeon and anatomist and 
F.R.S.). Freeman of Barber-Surgeons' Company in 1731. Surgeon to Guy's 

234 Transactions of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. 

Hospital 1733-57. F.R.S. and member of Paris Royal Society 1749. He linked 
up the old surgery represented by Cheselden with the new represented by 
Win. Hunter. 

(Xote. — William Graham, M.D., was a member of the Lodge at the 
same time.) 

Shaw, Mr. Joseph. Q.C.A., x., 47. 
Lodge: Wool Pack in the Town of Warwick (1725 List). 

Shaw, Joseph (1671-1733). D.X.B., li., 441. Educated at Trinity College, 
Oxford. Entered Middle Temple 1695. Published legal writings and letters to 
his patron, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury. 

In later life he settled at Epsom and died at Clapham. His Father was 
John Shaw, of London. No reference is made in the B.A'.B. to any connec- 
tion of Joseph Shaw with Warwick, and it would be unsafe to assume that the 
Joseph Shaw mentioned in the 1725 List is the person who is recorded in the 
D.X.B., unless some such link can be supplied. 

Shelvock, Mr. Q.C.A., x., 5. 

ShelvOCk, George. Q.C.A., x., 23. 
Lodge: The Home Tavern at Westminster (1723 and 1725 Lists). 

Shclvocle, George (fl. 1690-1728). D.X.B., Hi., 46. An abbreviated 
account of his career teems with adventure. Privateer ; served some time in 
the Navy ; given by London merchants command of the privateer Speedwell ; 
under orders of Clipperton in the Success 1719; designedly separated from his 
consort for two years and conducted independent cruise ; under ambiguous 
colours extorted ransom from Portuguese ship on coast of Brazil; caused a black 
albatross to be shot in rounding Cape Horn (the incident w r as suggested by 
Wordsworth to Coleridge in 1797 and resulted in the A'ntient Marine/-). Sacked 
Payta ; wrecked on Juan Fernandez; built new ship and captured the Jesu 
Mana; captured the Santa. Familia and La Conception, 1721; sailed in former 
for China; sold her there and divided the treasure; acquitted on technical 
grounds when charged with piracy, but fled the country; published 1726 account 
of his voyage mentioning gold of California and guano of Peru; his account 
partially discredited by that of Betagh 1728. 

It seems, however, that he is not the person named in the Minutes. He 
took with him on his voyage his Son, also named George Shelvocke. 

A notice of this Son also appears in D.N.B. at the end of the note on 
his Father. 

The Son translated in 1729 Simienowicz's Great Art of Artillery and in 
1736 contributed to the Universal History. In 1757 he edited a new edition of 
his Father's Voyage, From 1742 until his death in 1760 he was Secretary to 
the General Post Office. 

Shipton, Mr. John. Q.C.A., x., 24, 166. 
Lodges: (1) Fountain Tavern in the Strand. He was Senior Warden (1725 
List). That Lodge is now Royal Alpha No. 16. (2) Swan and Rummer in 
Finch Lane (1730 List). 

Shipton, John (1680-1748). D.N.B. , lii., 120. Surgeon: consulted in 
case of Queen Caroline. He was a Member of the Barber Surgeons' Company 
and lived in Brooke Street, Holborn, Lord Hervey said of him, " He was one 
of the most eminent and able of the whole profession." 

Xote. — Dr. Meyer Schomberg was also a member of the Swan and Rummer 

Short, Thomas. Q.C., x., 37. 
Lodge: Queens Head at Bath (1725 List). 

Short, Thomas (1690 M772). D.X.B., lii., 154. Medical writer ; practised 
at Sheffield. Published General Chronological History of the Air, 1749; Xetr 
Observations on the Bills of Mortality, 1750; Treatise on Cold Mineral Waters, 
1766; and other works. 

Jla-so/tic /'crsut/aJtu , li .-■i--'>-> . 235 

The Lodge at Bath was a meeting place for Masons from various parts 
of England, and having regard to the special interest taken by Thomas Short 
in mineral waters and to his professional capacity, the fact that he practised at 
Sheffield does not negative the suggested identification. 

Shuttleworth, Obadiah. Q.C.A., x., 175. 
Lodge: Queen's Head at Hoxtoii (1730 List). 

Shuttleworth, Obadiah (1675-1734). D.A'.B., lii., 175. Organist of the 
Temple (to which crowds were attracted by his playing) and St, Michael's 
Cornhill, London, 1724-1731, and violinist. He composed violin music. 

Smith, George. (),<'. A., x., 13, 24, 29. 

Lodges: The Swan at Ludgate Street (1723 List); The Griffin in Newgate 
Street (1725 List); Three Tuns, Newgate Street (removed from the Swan, Ludgate 
Street) (1725 List). 

There is no other George Smith named in the D.A'.B. who could be a 
Mason in 1723-5 than the one now to be named. Tt seems impossible to say 
whether he is identical with the one (or two) named in QJJ.A., x. 

Smith, George (1693-1756). D.X.B., liii., 36. Nonjuring divine: of 
Durham: son of John Smith (1659-1715), whose work on Bede he completed in 
1722. Studied at Queen's College, Oxford, and Tuner Temple. Student of 
early English history and antiquities. Consecrated nonjuring Bishop in 1728. 
((/. Rawlinson.) He resided at Durham from 1717 onward, but that is not 
inconsistent with occasional residence in London for his study at the Bar and 
publication of his books. 

Smith, ('apt. Thomas. QJ'.A., x., 154. 
Lodge: Kings Arms in New Bond Street (1730 List). 

Smith, Thomas (d. 1762). D.N.B., liii., 133. Appointed Junior Lieut. 
in R.N. 6th Feb. 1727-8. Obtained popularity by compelling a French corvette 
to salute British Flag near Plymouth, 1728 ; became Commander in Chief in 
the Downs 1755, and next year presided at court-martial of Admiral Byng. 
Admiral of the Blue 1757. 

His Portrait, engraved by J. Faber, Junr., after R. Wilson, is in the 
British Museum. The painting itself is in the Painted Hall at Greenwich. 

Smythe (or Smyth), James. Q.C.A., x., 177, and thirteen other pages. 
Lodges: (1) Bear and Harrow in the Butcher Row (1730 List) (p. 177). Six 
Grand Officers, of whom Jas, Smythe is named as Grand Warden, head the list 
of this Lodge, now represented by St. George's and Corner Stone No. 5. (2) 
University Lodge (1730 List) (p. 182). (He was Senior Warden there.) (3) 
Castle in Highgate (1730 List) (p. 186), now represented by the Lodge of 
Friendship No. 6. 

S»>//the, James Moore (1702-1734). D.X.B., liii., 195. A well known 
fop of the Queen Anne period. Wrote a dull comedy, The liiual Mode* 
(January 1727) which brought him £400 (for his creditors) and the resentment 
of Pope. 

Further particulars of Smythe in relation to Freemasonry and Pope are 
given in A.Q.C., xxxviii. 

Stanhope, Hon. Charles. Q.V.A., x., 177. ''The Honble. Charles 
Stanhope Esqr." 
Lodge: The Bear and Llarrow in the Butcher Row (1730 List). 

Stanhope, Charles (1673-1760). D.X.B., liv., 40. Of Elveston, elder 
brother of William Stanhope, first Earl of Harrington. M.P. Milborne Port 
1717-22; Aldborough 1722-1734; Harwich 1734-41. Undersecretary for Southern 
department 1714-1717. As Secretary to the Treasury 1720-1 was charged with 
illegitimate dealing in South Sea stock but acquitted. Treasurer of the Chamber 

236 Transactions of the Qaatunr Coronatt Lad ye. 

Swift, Mr. John. Q.C.A., x., 156. 
Dr. Chetwode-Crawley and others have suggested that this entry should have 
been written by the scribe who wrote the 1735 List as " Jon. Swift " and that 
it refers to the celebrated Dr. Jonathan Swift. 

Mr. Alexr. Pope is named in the list of members of the same Lodge, 
namely, "Goat at the Foot of the .Hay Market." A long article on Jonathan 
Swift is in D.X.B., lv., 204. 

For further materials for arriving at a decision, see Dr. Chetwode Crawley's 
Introductory Chapter to Masonic Reprints and Historical Revelations by Bro. 
Henry Sadler, 1898. Also A.Q.C., xi., 194. Also Bro. W. J. Williams' 
Paper on Pope, and the discussion following in A.Q.C., xxxviii. 

Suffice it to say here that a "John Swift " is named in the Ratebooks of 
St. Paul's, Covent Garden, as residing in Charles Street, Covent Garden, during 
the whole of the material period. The same John Swift was a Churchwarden 
of the same Parish, and was married and buried in that Church. 

Taylor, Dr. Q.C.A., x., 26. 

Taylor, Brook. Q.C.A., x., 60. 
Lodge: Bedford Head in Covent Garden. Named as \)r. Taylor lie was Senior 
Warden there (1725 List). 

Brook Taylor, LL.D., was on 17th March 1725 appointed by G.M. the 
Duke of Richmond to be a member of the Committee of the General Charity. 

Taylor, Brook (1685-1731). D.J.B., lv., 404. Mathematician. LL.D. 
St. John's College, Cambridge, 1714. Corresponded with John Keill (who 
was the predecessor of Dr. Desaguliers as scientific. lecturer) and published 
Mathematical writings, some of which were contained in his M ethodns tncrenien- 
torum Di recta et In versa, 1715. lie was F.R.S. and first Secretary of the same 
Society in 1714 and until 1718. 

The British Museum has an engraved Portrait by R. Earlom. which formed 
a frontisjuece to Taylor's Co ntcm plat, is RJiilosopliica, published 1793; also another 
portrait representing his Statue (engraved by Rylancl). 

Theobalds, Lewis. Q.C.A., x., 237, 272, 287. 

13th Dec. 1733 (p. 237). The Grand Master (Earl of Sirathmore, G.M.) 
recommended to the Brethren Br. Theobald's Play and desired that they would 
all come clothed. 

At the foot of p. 237 is a note by W.Bro. Songhurst as to some of the 
achievements of this Brother. On 15th April 1736 Lewis Theobalds, Esqr., was 
named as Steward for the then ensuing year. On 28th April 1737 he chose his 
successor, namely, Bro. Wm. Popple, Esq., who, however, declined to act. (See 
A.Q.C., x., 302.) 

Theobald, Lewis (1688-1744). D.X.B., lvi., 118. An Attorney who soon 
abandoned the law for literature. He was a prolific writer and edited 
Shakespeare. The edition he published in 1734 raised him to the front rank 
of Shakespearean commentators. Also wrote various tragedies and operas. Pope 
antagonised him in the JJitnciad, but helped himself to many of Theobald's 
corrections when Pope brought out a Second Edition of his own work on 
Shakespeare. Theobald died on 18th Sept. 1744, and was interred at St. Pancras. 

Thornhill, Sir James. Q.C.A., x., 40, 96, 98, 99, 120, 198. 
Lodge: Swan in East Street, Greenwich (1725 List). He was then Master. 

27th Dec. 1728, Appointed Senior Grand Warden by Lord Kingston, G.M. ; 
6th Feb. 1729, Signed the Deputation for constituting a Lodge at Fort William 
in Bengali; 9th March 1729, The like for a Lodge in ' Gibr alter ' ; 27th Mar. 
1729, Attended Grand Lodge; 21st April 1730, The like. P. 198 gives his name 
in the list of Grand Masters and Wardens. 

Thornhill, Sir James (1675-1734). D.X.B., lvi., 295. This well known 
painter studied under Thomas Highmore (Uncle of Joseph Highmore) and 
travelled abroad. Was employed by Queen Anne at Hampton Court, Greenwich, 

'}f<i*ontc Personalia, 172-i-AAK 237 

and Windsor. Designed paintings for the Dome of St, Paul's. Decorated 
Greenwich Hospital and many country buildings. Portrait painter. Serjeant - 
Painter to George I. in succession to Highmore and was knighted 1720. Re- 
purchased the old family seat at Thornhill, in Dorset. M.P. for Meleomb? 
Regis 1722-1734 when he died. 

Thornhill designed an allegorical drawing which was used for some years 
in certain of the old Engraved Lists of Lodges. There are nine engraved 
portraits of him in the British Museum. Seven of them are after a painting 
by Highmore (J. Faber, Junr., engraved two); one was painted by Hogarth 
(his son-in-law) and engraved by S. Ireland, and another painted by T. Worlidge 
and engraved by H. Robinson. It should perhaps be mentioned that the 
portrait of Sir Richard Steele which appears at the head of the well known 
engraving in Picart's Ceremonies, 1738, is (with the rest of the plate) engraved 
by J. P. (perhaps Faber). The portrait is after a picture by Sir J. Thornhill 
which is stated in the British Museum Catalogue to be at Cobham Hall. 

Thurmond, John. Q.C.A., x., 28. 
Lodge: Sun Tavern in Clare Markett (1725 List). 

The D.yji. gives particulars of Mrs. Thurmond (fl. 1715-1737) (l).X.B., 
Ivi., 350), an actress nee Lewis who married John 'Fliurmoiul the younger, 
dancer in Dublin. She played important parts in London 1715 to 1737. Her 
husband's chief fame appears to be that he was her husband. His name was 
frequently on the bills until 1726. 

Tinney, John. Q.C.A., x,, 188. 
Lodge: King's Arms on St. Margaret's Hill in Southwark (1730 List). 

Tinne//, John (d. 1761), Engraver. D.X./i., Ivi., 408. He engraved 
the Portrait of Sir T. Parker referred to in the note on that Brother. 

Townshend, Charles, Esq. QJ'.A., x., 20. 
Lodge: The Old Devill at Temple Barr (1723 List). 

Totr/ix/te/ul, Charles. .Third Viscount Townshend (1700-1764). D.X.B., 
lvii., 116. Son of Charles, second Viscount Townshend, who was K.G. in 1724 
and one of the most prominent statesmen of his time. 

The Freemason did not succeed to the peerage until Iris Father died in 
1738. He was Lord of the Bedchamber and Lord-Lieutenant of Norfolk 1730-8. 
M.P. for Great Yarmouth 1722-3. His Portrait (painted by G. Kneller), 
engraved by John Smith, and an engraving by W. C. Edwards are in the British 
Museum . 

Verelst, William. Q.C.A., x., 231. 

VaralSt, William. Q.C.A., x., 174. 
Lodge: Hoop and Griffin in Leadenhall Street (1730 List) (there named Varalst). 
The entry on page 231 is of the appointment of Mr. William Verelst Gent, as 
Steward on 7th June 1733. 

Verelst, Willem (fl. 1740). D.XJL, lviii., 250. Portrait painter in 
London. Hamen Verelst (1643 ?-1700 ?) and Simon Verelst (1644-1721?) were 
also painters, and Harry Verelst, who died 1785, was brought up by William 

Viner, Mr. Q.C.A., x., 8. 
Lodge: The Rummers at Charing Cross (1723 List). 

Viner, Charles (1678-1756). D.XJL, lviii., 365. Jurist, of Hart Hall, 
Oxford, 1695. Author of Viner 's abridgment of L<ur and Equity, published in 
twenty-three vols. 1742-53. Had chambers in the Temple. He founded the 
Vinerian common law professorship, scholarships, and fellowships at Oxford. 
The celebrated Sir William Blackstone (Author of Blackstone's Com tne//taries) 
was the first Vinerian Professor. 

The Lodge at the Rummers was composed of members of high social 
status, including two noblemen, seven colonels, six members with the prefix Sir, 
besides Majors and Captains, Esquires, &c. 

264 Transaction* of the Quatuor Coronatl Lodge. 

Toronto in 1844. About 1846 the Irish Black Lodges repudiated their allegiance 
to the Parent Black Encampment and set up a Grand Body of their own, by 
the style of the Royal Arch Chapter and Black Knights' Encampment of Royal 
Knights Templar ; and we find from now on that the Scotch body and its 
descendants are Knights of Malta and the Irish are Knights Templar. But a 
certain Mr. Jones, who was writing on the subject in the middle of the nineteenth 
century, observes: "I look upon all this as balderdash, and lay no claim to any 
descent from a Popish institution like the K.T. but the word crept in 
having an object to propagate the system by high-falutin names." From now 
onwards, especially in America, the Scotch and the Irish Grand Bodies represent 
two mutually hostile associations, both depending on Orange Lodges for their 
membership, and both professing identical aims. 

The system developed a multiplicity of degrees with elaborate ritual, but 
a specific degree of Knight of Malta cannot be dated satisfactorily earlier than 
1849, and how it was conferred prior to 1854 we do not know. The aim of the 
Association was ostensibly the protection of the Protestant religion, but it is 
quite clear that they interpreted this to mean opposition to the Roman Catholics 
in every possible field of activity, including the political. However, by 1869 
the whole system in Canada was derelict and its membership was reduced to six 
individuals. The same would appear to have been the case everywhere except 
in Scotland itself. In 1870 there was a revival and in 1871 a Grand Encamp- 
ment of America was formed bringing Canada and the U.S.A. under one 
supreme body. Various attempts to unite with the Irish Black Lodges having 
proved abortive, in 1875 the condition requiring that candidates should have 
taken the two Orange degrees was abrogated, although as, previous to this, it 
was permissible to waive the condition by dispensation in Canada, one gathers 
that it had long since been disregarded whenever convenient. The next step 
was to revise the ritual, and this was done drastically, some of the degrees 
excised being described as puerile, greatly to the annoyance of Scotland. But 
the great change was made in 1879, when the Society added to its quasi- 
benevolent aims the functions and business of a Benefit and Insurance Society. 
It also now dropped the sectarian basis. But that is not to say that it 
abandoned the restriction as to the membership which was still strictly 
Protestant. It merely meant that it would nominally drop anti-Catholicism as 
part of its policy. But even this moderate change caused much offence. In 
1881 the Order was once more all but derelict, and it finally broke off relations 
with Scotland. 

The next step was to transfer the headquarters of the Order in America 
to New York. There was constant friction among the officers, and in 1910 the 
Association was officially declared insolvent by the State insurance examiner. 
In the U.S.A. a new Council was organized with a definite undertaking that 
it would not undertake Insurance business. In Canada Mr. Land, who had 
been the moving spirit ever since his admission in 1873, organised a Grand 
Chapter of the Knights of Malta for the Dominion, which did continue the 
Insurance business and is still doing so, maintaining the original restriction as 
to its members being Protestants. In the author's own phrase it has also re- 
adopted the sectarian platform. At this point, 19th November, 1910, the 
history closes. 

Mr. Land naturally treats the Oratige body from its original conception 
as a patriotic and law-abiding society, and as to the first Orange Lodges his 
words are: "During the first forty years of its career it became a power for 
good in the suppression of treason and the support of the civil power. As such, 
it received the countenance and patronage of the Crown. To the devoted 
loyalty of its members is largely owing that Canada remains one of the brightest 
jewels in Britain's diadem. There is no truth whatever in the slanderous 
diatribes of its enemies. The principles and practice of the order are open to 
the world's inspection, for its approval or condemnation." (Vol. I., p. 275.) 

So much for the history as far as it can be said to be documented. But 
the author's claims are more far-reaching. Tie begins his work with an account 

MdMwiv. Personalia, ITJ-i-iO. 239 

Webb, Philip Carteret (1700-1770). D.X.B., lx., 107. Antiquary and 
Politician. A London Attorney, but afterwards admitted to the Middle Temple 
and Lincoln's Inn; Secretary of Bankrupts in Court of Chancery, c. 1746-66. 
F.S.A. 1747. F.R.S. 1749. M.P. Haslemere, 1754-68. Joint solicitor to 
Treasury, 1756-65. Acted in prosecution of John Wilkes, 1763. Published 
pamphlets against the Pretender, 1745, and against Wilkes, 1763; and legal tracts. 
Collected copies of public records, coins, and antique marbles and bronzes. 

Webster, Revd. Mr. QJ'.A., x., 26. 
Lodge: Bedford Head, Covent Garden (1725 List). 

Webster, William (1689-1758). D.X.B., lx., 127. M.A. Caius College, 
Cambridge, 1716. D.D., 1732. Curate in London (St. Dunstan's in the West) 
from 1716 to 1731. Rector of Depden, 1733. Vicar of Ware and Thundridge, 
1740. Published remarks on Warburton's Divine Letjation , 1739, and on 
History of Ariait/.st/i, 1735. Put into Pope's Dune tad Edition 1742, Book II. , 
1. 258. Christopher Smart addressed a complimentary ode to him. He fell 
into great poverty. 

As no Christian name of our Brother is given in the 1725 List it can 
only be said that there is a probability of identity. The Curacy in London 
supports that view, and Pope, as shown in my paper, pilloried several Free- 
masons in the Dunciad. 

Wemyss, Earl of. QJ'.A., x., 253, 281, 286. 
Took part in the Grand Masters' procession from Viscount Weymouth's house 
in Grosvenor Square to Mercer's Hall (17th April 1735). Attended Grand 
Lodge on 13th April 1737, being described as " The Rt. Honble. The Earl of 
Wymes " and bracketted with The Earl of Home as "from different Lodges." 
Joined in procession of 28th April 1737 ("Earl of Weymes "). 

U.S. B., lx., 247. This entry deals more particularly with David Wc»i//xx, 
Lord Elcho (1721-1787), who was a Jacobite agent and commanded Prince 
Charles Edward's Lifeguards 1745-6. He wrote a narrative of the rising and 
was attainted and excluded from titles and estate. 

The Freemason, his Father, is stated in the D.Xji. to have been James 
J/th Karl of Wevii/ss, who was born in 1699 and died in 1756. He married in 
1720 the only daughter and heiress of the infamous Colonel Francis Charteris. 

Wharton, Dr. QJ'.A., x., 28. 
Lodge: Swan Tavern, Fish Street Hill (1725 List). (At page 10 in the 1723 
List George Wharton is named as of the same Lodge.) 

Wharton, George (1688-1739). D.X.B., lx., 417. Physician. M.D. 
Cambridge, 1719. F.R.C.P., 1720. Censor, 1725, 1729, 1732, and 1734. 
Treasurer, 1727-39. Died at his house in Fenchurch Street. 

Wharton, Duke of. Q.C.A., x., 31, 49, 52, 64, 196. 
Lodge: Kings Armes, St. Paul's. His Grace the Duke of Wharton, Master, 
presided at Grand Lodge 24th June 1723. Questioned correctness of election 
or approval of Dr. Desaguliers as D.G.M. and being in effect over-ruled left the 
Merchant Taylor's Hall without ceremony. 

The date of the meeting was 24th June 1723, and it is noteworthy that, 
on this occasion not only was there the dissension above referred to (the voting 
was Ayes 43, Noes 42) and the consequent abrupt termination of the meeting, 
but the Resolution which was moved for confirming the General Regulations 
failed to be carried though an amendment was carried " That it is not in the 
Power of any person, or Body of men, to make any Alteration or Innovation 
in the Body of Masonry without the conssnt first obtained of the Annual Grand 

The Manuscript of the Minutes (or perhaps the 1723 List is meant) was 
only begun 25th November 1723, and the first meeting recorded therein (though 
apparently belated) was this somew T hat lively one of 24th June 1723, 

240 7 'f: III xr/rf ioll x of the Qlldtlior (UjfOIHfti Lo(/(/C. 

The entry on. page 84 refers to the Lodge at Madrid which he purported 
to constitute as D.G3L on 15th Feb. 1728 N.S. The entry en page 196 is in 
the List of Grand Masters (1722), where his Titles, &c, are given at length. 

Other particulars of the Duke of Wharton are given in the 1738 

Wharton, Philip, Duke of Wharton (1698-1731). D.X.B., lx., 410. It 
has been said that the Dukedom (28th January 1717-8) apart from Dukedoms 
conferred upon illegitimate children of Charles IT. " was certainly the most, 
extraordinary creation of an English dukedom on record." His erratic career, 
both as a Mason and otherwise, demands full and separate treatment. His 
writings were published 1731-2. There are four engraved portraits of him in 
the British Museum (all after C. Jervas). His portrait is in A.Q.C., viii., 116. 
illustrating an article on The Duke of Wharton by Bro. R. F. Gould. See also 
A.Q.C, xi., 86, 159: xii., 106. 

Woodward, John. Q.C.A., x., 30. 
Lodge : Crown behind the Exchange (1725 List). 

Wood, John (1665-1728). D.J.J}., lxii., 423. Geologist and 
Physicist. Professor of Physic at Gresham College, 1692. F.R.S., 1693; M.D., 
1695; F.C.P., 1703. Gulstonian Lecturer, 1710-11. Served on Council of Royal 
Society, but was expelled in 1710 for insulting Sir Hans Sloane. His Essay 
toward a natural history of the Earth, 1695, was a pioneer among geological 
writings. Interred in Westminster Abbey close to Sir Isaac Newton. His 
Portrait, engraved by W. Humphrey and published in 1774, is in the British 

Worleidge, Thomas. QJ'.A., x.. 189. 

Worlidge, Thomas. ( t ).C.A ., x., 193. 
Lodges: (1) Black Boy and Sugar Loaf in Stanhope Street (1730 List) "Mr. 
Thos. Worleidge" was Warden. (2) Rummer at Charing Cross (1730 List). 
"Mr. Thos. Worlidge." (Of the fourteen names in the latter Lodge five also 
appaar in the List of Members of the Black Boy "Lodge. It is clear there was 
some special connection between the two Lodges.) 

Wor/uli/r, Thomas (1700-1766)., Ixiii., 28. Painter and Etcher. 
Pupil of L. P. Poitard. Practised portrait painting at Bath. He painted 
portraits of Wm. Hogarth and Sir J. Thomhill. In 1763 he settled in Great 
Queen Street in a large house built by Inigo Jones. It adjoined the site of the 
Freemasons' Tavern. He executed many plates in the style of Rembrandt. 
His works include a series of etchings from antique gems first published in 
parts and in 1768 in a volume. 

He painted and engraved two portraits of himself of which specimens 
are in the British Museum. Among his engravings is one of James Ashley, 
who at the London Punch House on Ludgate Hill, 1731, first reduced the price 
of Punch and raissd its reputation. This engraving includes Masonic Emblems, 
namely. Level and Plumb Ride, Square and Compasses (reproduced in Authors' 
Lodge TnuiK-ivtioim, vol. iii .). lie was interred in Hammersmith Church, where 
there is a plain marble slab as his memorial. 

Wray, Sir Bouchier. Q.C.A., x., 272, 287. 
15th April 1736 Sr. Bouchier Wray Bart, was named as a Steward. 
28th April 1737 Bro. Sr. Bouchier Wray Bart, chose Bro. Moses Mendes as 
his successor. 

In most (if not all) cases where names are first mentioned after 1730 the 
Lodges to which the Brothers belonged are not recorded in the Mimites contained 
m Q.C.A ., x. 

W ntf, Sir Bourchier (1714-1784). D.X.B., lxiii., 99. Dilettante. 
Grandson of Sir Bourchier Wrey, Bart., who died in 1696. Of Winchester 
College and New College, Oxford. M.P. Barnstaple, 1748. Member of Society 
of Dilettante, 1742. Buried in Tawstook Church, where there is a pyramidal 
monument to him and his two wives. 

^Jcsttintl of tl)c iroitv (&vowx\$b ptavtijvs. 


HE Podge met at Freemasons' Hall at o p.m. Present: — Bros. 
Bev. W. \V. Covey-Crump. AY.M.; George Norman. P. A.G. IPC 
S.AY. ; John Strikes. P.G.D.,, as J.YV.: AY. J. Songhurst. 
P.G.D.. Secretary; Gordon P. G. Hills. P. A .G.Sup. AT. . IMP. 1).(\ ; 
IP ('. de Pafontaine, P.G.P.. S.D.; J. Walter Hobb>, P.A.G. P.P.. 
J.G.; Lionel Yibert, P. Dis.G.AY., .Madras P.M.; J. Heron l.eppcr. 
P.Pr.Ins.. Antrim. P.M.: P. H. Bring. P.G.P.. P.M.-. Sir Allied 
Bobbins, P.G.YV.. Pres.r..G.L'.. P.M. ; W. J. Williams: ami 
Thos. AF Carter, P. Pr. G.St. IP, Bristol. 

Also the following members of the Correspondence Circle : — Hro-. IP ,) . Sadleir. 
S. A. Sillem, G. AY. Stupes. (Pas. Paid. P.A.G. IPC. J. {'. APP'uilagh. Map-Gen. 
James D. AfcFaehlan, P.G.S.P., C Komiercrwski, P. J. Asbury, A. G.I). P.. P. YV. 
Gaskin. AY. IP Hornby Steer, P. G. Wearing, Ivor Grantham, P. Lace. P. A.G.I). P.. 
J. Swan Mtuvson, E. AY. APirson, G. \Y. South, (.'has. S. Ayling. John YV. Hall, 
J. AY. V. Mason, G. AY. Pnllamore, A. E. Gurney. J. AY. Stevens. P. A. G.Sup. AY.. 
J. Johnstone. E. Glaesor, A. P. Hall, J. S. Smart, P. A. Fttley. P.G.i).. Erie Alvem 
\Y. E. T. Peake. A. Bahman, \Y. IP Swan, P. E. Newman, A. Y. Alayell. Herbert 
AYarren, Jas. PI. Shipman, Geo. P. AYilliaiiis, IP Johnson. G. P. Parkhnrst Kaxter, 
P. K. Jewson. AY. Brinkworth. J. H. Clark. IP Telepr.eff, I). Forbes, and J. Allon 

Also the following!; Visitors: — Pros, Rev. Thos. S. Pettit. YV.AP. St, Alary 
Balham Lodge No. ;3GbT ; Fred. G. Cockey, AY.AP, Evening Star Fudge No. 171!); 
Plarry Ager, AY.AP, Cassiobury Podge No. :#3 ! : IP Aiay. P.AP. Taplow Lodge 
No. 3111; IP J. Duthio. P.M.. Puerorum Lodge No. :«77 ; H. 1). Shrimptom AY.AP, 
Pnitcd Northern Counties Lodge No. 212H; and S. I,. Smart. Equity Podge No. HtJJPi. 

Letters of apology for non-attendance were !e;>orted from ISros. E. Armitage. 
P.G.D., Treasurer; E. Ponder, L-.TP. P.AP; S. T. Klein, P.P., P.AP -. I lev. LP 
Poale, J.AY. : J. E. S. Tuckett, P.A.G.S.B.. P.AP; G. AY. Paynes. J. P.: P. J. AY. 
Crowe, P.A.G. IPC, P.AP; IP H. I'axter. P. A.G. P.P.. P.AP; J. T. Thorp. P.G.I)., 
P.AP; AY. AYatson, P. A.G. IPC. : and A. Cecil Powell. P.G.J)., P.AP 

One Lodge, (me Conclave, and sixteen Brethren were admitted to membership 
of the Correspondence Circle. 

Pro. George Norman, M.D., P. A.G. IPC. the Alastor-Eleet, was presented lor 
Installation, and regularly installed in the Chair of the Lodge by AY. Pro. \Y. YV. 
Covey-Crump, assisted by Bros. Lionel Yibert, John Stokes, aiul Gordon P. CP Hills. 

Transaction* of the Quatuor Corunati Lodge, 





N Pine's engraved list for 1725 is to be found the following: — 
''The Queen's Head, Hath No. 28," and as all the previous 
Lodges mentioned are in the London district. Lath can claim 
the honour of having the first Lodge that was constituted in 
the Provinces. 

There being no Minutes in existence we are dependent 
for what information is obtainable upon the early records of 
Grand .Lodge as made available by Bro. Soughurst's Reprints and by reference 
to contemporary newspapers. We learn from the HVr/,7// J on rind or Bi'itixh 
Gazetteer that on May 11th, 1724, there was an Eclipse of the Sun and that 
Bath being a favourable place from which to observe it Dr. Desaguliers and 
some other members of the Royal Society went there to make observations. 
Before the Eclipse took place Dr. Desaguliers gave a Lecture on the subject 
to between thirty and forty gentlemen who gave him Three Guineas each to 
hear him, and he gave those gentlemen great satisfaction for their money. 

The same night at the Queen's Head. Dr. Desaguliers received into the 
Society of Accepted Free Masons, Lord Cobbani, Lord Harvey. Beau Nash, 
Mr. Mee, and others — the Duke of St. Albans, Master of the Lodge, being 
present. The Lodge probably w r as founded towards the end of 1723, and 
considering the rank of the first Master and the distinguished position of many 
of its members, such as the Duke of Bedford, the Earl of Lichfield, Baron 
Craven, Sir John Buck worth. Sir Robert Waller, Sec. in addition to those 
previously mentioned, it seems not unlikely ihat Dr. Desaguliers may have 
constituted the Lodge himself, as he w T as at that time Deputy Grand Master. 

But the Lodge did not last long — there were no returns made after 1730 
and it was erased in 1736 — the probability being that the aristocratic members 
were only occasional visitors to Bath, either for the Waters, or just for t he- 
season's gaieties (Bath being then at the zenith of its career), and consequently 
there was a difficulty in keeping up the Lodge working. 

At the end of 1732, however, we find another Lodge at work at the 
Bear Inn, as recorded in the first existing Minute of the Lodge?: — "The Lodge 
met at Bro. Robinson's and regularly formed themselves"; and from the 
description of the Masonic standing of those present, it would seem as if this 
was by no means their first meeting. 

As there were in the Queen's Head Lodge no fewer than five Brethren 
who became Mayors of Bath and were therefore prominent citizens, there must 
have been a sufficient nucleus to enable a new 7 Lodge to be formed ; and this 
is rather borne out by a note in Bro. Songhurst's Reprints, where he points 
out that the new Lodge with the number 113 is entered in the Grand Lodge 
Minutes in the place that was formerly occupied by the Queen's Head Lodge, 
thus suggesting continuity between the two bodies. 

244 Tra/t-itrcf/o/ix of the Qtntttior L'oroixtti Lothjr. 

The Lodge at the Bear lmi met regularly at fortnightly intervals from 
December 28th, 1732, to May 18th, .1733, but the latter was the frst date on 
which the Lodge met under the Warrant granted by Lord Montague, which 
was dated April 26th, 1733, and empowered Bro. Hugh Kennedy to constitute 
the Lodge. The Brethren at this meeting are classified as follows-. — Officers, 
Pass'd blasters. Masters and Fellow-Crafts, but at succeeding meetings the 
Pass'd Masters and Masters are usually placed together. The term Pass'd 
Master did not imply that the Brother had been Master of the Lodge, for 
there are in the Minutes the names of many Pass'd Masters who never filled 
the Chair. There were from time to time Extraordinary Meetings of the Lodge, 
when it is stated that certain 'Brethren Pass'd Masters. Possibly the attraction 
was the attainment of further status, and the acquisition of further 'Masonic 
knowledge, but what the latter may have been it is difficult now to jay. 

An interesting Minute at this meeting is the following: — 

'' For ye many good offices, useful instructions and unnumbered favours 
the Lodge has received from their worthy Brother Charles de Labely, 
through his zealous endeavours to promote Masonry, they unanimously 
desir'd the R.W. Master to return him their Hearty Thanks in 
Form . ' ' 

Pro. Labely was at this meeting appointed S.W., but soon after, owing 
to pressure of engagements in London, felt obliged to resign his office, as well 
fs membership of the Lodge. Labely was made a member of the Solomon's 
Temple Lodge, Hemmings Row, London, in 1725, of which Desaguliers was 
Master. In 1727-28 he was in Madrid, probably on business (he was an 
engineer), and whilst there founded a Masonic Lodge and was its first Master. 
He was back in England in November, 1728, and was present at the quarterly 
communication of Grand Lodge, when he was thanked for his services in Madrid. 

Desaguliers may have suggested Labely joining the Queen's Head Lodge, 
thinking he would be helpful to them, and if so he might have become a 
joining member of the new Lodge at the Pear on its formation, and this would 
explain the otherwise somewhat exuberant vote of thanks accorded to him. 
considering the short period that the Minute covered. 

Labely was assistant to Desaguliers for many years, and when lie was 
appointed Supervisor for the building of Westminster Bridge he often consulted 
Desaguliers as to its construction. Bro. Hugh Kennedy, who constituted the 
Lodge, was the first. Master, and he presided over seventeen Brethren, five of 
whom were admitted before the Warrant was received. 

On October 28th, 1735, the Lodge met Extraordinary, when there was 
an unusual gathering of visitants. Viscount Vane, Henry Balfour, Esq., William 
Nisbet, Esq., David Threipland, Esq., Mr. Davidson, Isaac Thuret, James Leake 
(a well-known Bath bookseller, and a former member of the Queen's Head 
Lodge), Edward Pembridge, Dr. Toy and Dr. Theobald. Bros. Balfour. Nisbet 
and Theobald were admitted Pass'd Masters. The same day a Lodge of Masters 
met Extraordinary, when the following Brethren were made and admitted Scots 
Master Masons: — Jacob Skinner, Master, Johnson Robinson, S.W. (landlord 
of the Bear), Thomas Bragg, J.W., John Morris, Rev. Richard Ford, James 
Vaughan, all members of the Lodge, and Henry Balfour, Win. Nisbet, Dr. 
Toy, Edward Pembridge, being visitants and strangers to the Lodge, The 
ceremony was performed by Hugh Kennedy, Scots Master, David Threipland, 
Scots S.W., and Bro. Dappe, Scots J.W. Hugh Kennedy was the senior 
Master of the Lodge at the Bear. David Threipland, Scots S.W., was a 
visitant and attended the ordinary meeting of the Lodge in November. Dappe, 
J.W., was also a visitant, but only appeared ouce, viz., at this meeting and 
then only for the making of Scots Master Masons. 

Twelve years elapse before another meeting for the making of Scots 
Master Masons is recorded, but the Minutes during this period are very scanty, 
being often merely lists of names and with many gaps in the entries. 

1 no itt/i- trod A<l<lrc*x. -!4;> 

On January 8th, 1.747, Lodge met. Extraordinary, when Thos. Roger was 
made an English Master and paid five shillings for the same, and Thos. Naish 
and John Bnrge were made Scots Masters and paid two shillings and sixpence 
each — the officiating Brethren being Hugh Kennedy, Jacob Skinner and Thos. 
Bragg, all members of the Lodge and Scots Masons. 

There was no further meeting recorded for the making of Scots Masters 
for nearly seven years, when on November 27th, 1754, the Lodge met Extra- 
ordinary at Bro. Stephen's honse and the following Brethren, all members of 
the Lodge, were made Scots Masons and each paid two shillings and sixpence: — 
Richd. Stephens, Robt. Chambers, Thos. llaviland, Benedict Masters, and 
Thos. Boddely. 

The next meeting was held a little over a year later, on February 17th, 
J 756. when Bro. James Crawford a member of the Lodge, and Thos. Powys and 
Richd. Jenkins, Esq., visitants, were raised Scots Master Masons and at the same 
time Thos. Miller, the Drawer of the Bear Inn. and John Morris the Tyler, 
both servants of the Lodge, were, for the convenience of the business of the 
Lodge, also raised Sects Master Masons. 

After another interval of just over two years we come to the last entry 
as to Scots Master Masons, viz., April 1758. -when the Lodge met Extra- 
ordinary to raise as Scots Masons the following Members of the Lodge: — Bros. 
Water's, Tagg, Street, Roberts, Temple and Thornton, also Bros. Dobree. Russell 
and Barnes, visitants, all of whom paid two shillings and sixpence: altogether 
during the period 1735 to 1758 five meetings had been held for the making of 
Scots Master Masons and thirty-one Brethren had gene through the ceremony. 

After 1735 we do not meet with the term Pass'd Master, but there were 
frequent meetings to raise English Masters ; very often the meetings were held 
at the houses of members of the Lodge (as occasionally in the case of the Scots 
Master:-), the fee paid being five shillings as against two shillings and sixpence 
for Soots Masters. By 1758, however, the practice of meeting at private houses 
had been given up, in favour of the recognised Lodge Room. 

It is to be noted that all the Brethren who were made Scots Masters 
had already been raised English Masters, but what their reason for becoming 
Scots Masters was, we have no definite information. It may be supposed that 
it was for the purpose of acquiring further Masonic knowledge and status as in 
the case of Pass'd Masters, but there may have been Jacobite sentiment in the 
case of some members. 

As regards Bath, in connection with the latter suggestion, the late 
Professor Earle. of Oxford, who wrote a history of the City, says "Bath never 
ceased to be R-oyalist. at heart., though twice occupied by the Parliamentarians. 
Its attachment to the house of Stuart was so deep-rooted as to involve it in 
Jacobite intrigues long after th-* accession of the house of Hanover.'' 

There are various short paragraphs in the London Wet/,/// doiutod of the 
first part of the eighteenth, century bearing out this statement, and in the edition 
of May 10th. 1718, there is the following: — 

" The Jury at Couper (Couper Angus, Perthshire) found true bills 
against Lord George Murray, Sir James Sharp, Ensign Arthur and 
Mr. Treapland." 

Noting the locality (Perthshire) and allowing for the well-known 
discrepancies in the spelling of surnames at that period, it seems not unreason- 
able to identify the last-named with the family of Sir David Threipland of 
Pi lrgas k , Per t li shi re . 

There was a David Threipland, son of the before-mentioned Sir David 
Threipland, who joined in the ill-fated 1745 campaign of Prince Charles, and 
lost his life at Preston Pans; the David Threipland who helped in making 
Scots M.asons at the first meeting in Bath in 1735 might be the same man, and 
we may also add the one mentioned in the London journal. As stated in the 
Cainhrldfje Jfodeni J/lxiort/, the later disreputable life of Prince. Charles, and 

246 Transact ions of the (J twit nor Coro/wttt Lodge. 

his brother's acceptance of a Cardinal's Hat, extinguished Jaeobitism as a national 

Going back now to the year 1737 we find the first record of Dr. Desaguliers 
visiting the Lodge at the Bear : — "Sept. 28th, Dr. Desaguliers did us ye 
Honour to Preside Master, Hugh Kennedy, the senior Master of the Lodge acting 
as S.W., John Morris, the R.W. Master acting as J.W., and Jacob Skinner, 
P.M., acting as Secretary." There was only a small attendance of Brethren, 
five Masters and three Fellow Crafts. Dr. Dcsaguliers attended the three 
succeeding meetings on October 15th and 19th, and November 2nd, though he did 
not preside again. At the last meeting there was a better attendance, thirteen 
in all. The next year, 1738, Dr. Desaguliers visited Bath again, and on October 
17th sat as Master of the Lodge and presided over nine Brethren. 

On October 30th an Extraordinary meeting was held <( in honour cf the 
King's Birthday (George T.I.) and in respect to LI.R.H. the Prince of Wales who 
is a brother and staying in Bath at this time." There were present the Earl 
of Darnley, late G.M., John Ward, D.G.M., Sir Edward Mansell, Past J.G.W., 
Dr. Desaguliers and other Brethren. 

The Prince was drinking the Waters at the Pump Room, and the Pumper 
had purchased a fine Gold Basin to present the Glass of Water to His Royal 

On November 1st the Chair of the Lodge was filled by Dr. Desaguliers — 
his son, a distinguished Artillery Officer, also being present, who afterwards 
attained the rank of Major-General. 

On December 5th Dr. Desaguliers again took the Chair, when two 
gentlemen, Messrs. Vince and Rogers were made Masons. 

There is no further record of Desaguliers' attendance at the Lodge although 
the late Bro. Peach in his little work on " Craft Masonry in Bath " states that 
he was a frequent visitor to Bath up to the time of his death in 1744 and that 
his visits were sometimes of long duration. 

In May, 1742, Lord Ann Hamilton, son of the 4th Duke of Hamilton, 
was made a Mason and became Master of the Lodge in the following year, when 
he was living at Widcombe Manor House, Bath; he received the name of Ann 
after Queen Anne, who was his godmother. 

During the month of May, 1742, the Lodge met seven times, when thirteen 
candidates were made Masons and fourteen Brethren were Raised, 

The present name of the Lodge was obtained in 1785. A new Lodge had 
been founded in Bath called The Royal Cumberland, but in the following year 
it was deemed advisable to amalgamate with the Lodge at The Bear, and this, 
being sanctioned by the Provincial Grand Master, Bro. Dunckerley, was at once 
carried out and the name transferred to the old Lodge. Dunckerley was a 
frequent visitor at the Lodge and it was owing to his influence that the Lodge 
subscribed largely to the fund for the building of the Freemasons' Hall, London, 
and according to Bro. Hughan it is one of four Provincial Lodges which have 
the special distinction of having the Freemasons' Hall Medal suspended from the 
official square on the I\l aster's collar. 

The Bye-Laws were much the same as in all early Lodges — the usual fines 
of one or two shillings being inflicted for swearing, talking obscenely, interrupting 
business in the Lodge, or being found distempered with drink. Tn the latter 
case the brother to be advised to go peaceably home, which if he refuses, he 
shall be turned out with as little disturbance as possible. 

Any brother whose behaviour out of the Lodge is the occasion of 
Scandalous and Unworthy Reflections being cast on the Society, shall be expelled 
the Lodge, unless he has two-thirds, of the votes of the whole Ijodge on his side — 
and shall not afterwards be admitted as a visitor. 

To prevent imposition no person to be admitted into the Lodge, unless 
made here, without taking the following oath on the Holy Bible: — "I do 
solemnly declare in the presence of Almighty God that 1 was regularly made a 
Mason in a Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons constituted by the Grand Lodge 
of England." 

litauyural Address. 24 i 

The latter Bye-Law was doubtless directed against the Antient Masons, 
who constituted their own Grand Lodge in 1751, and formed several Lodges in 
Bath which, however, only had a short existence. 

It may here be mentioned that the Royal Cumberland Lodge, No, 41, 
has a complete sot of Minutes from the year 1732 to the present day. 


In Pine's Engraved List, 1725, Lodge 29, next to the Lodge Queen's 
Head, Bath, No. 28, is stated to have been held at the Nag's Head, Bristol, 
but there is no information extant concerning it. 

The next Lodge on record is one meeting at the Rummer Tavern, No. 137, 
constituted Nov. 12th, 1735. 

The following selection from the Bye-Laws will show the lines upon which 
the Lodge worked: — 

All officers to be ballotted for on the two St. John's Days. The sum of 
money to be spent at St, John's Festival Dinners to be ballotted for on the 
preceding Lodge night. The Master to appoint six Discreet Brethren (being at 
least F.CVs) to do their best to lay out the sum to the best advantage. E.A.'s 
not to be made F.C.'s under two months and not then unless duly qualified. 
F.C.'s not to be Rais'd M.M.'s under three months, and not then unless able 
to do the work of a Fellow Craft. 

Misbehaviour by discovering secrets of the Lodge, or by any means what- 
ever bringing scandalous reflections on the members, to be expelled the Lodge, 
if after admonition by the Master they still persist in such conduct, and never 
to be allowed to visit the Lodge again. 

Any Brother coming to the Lodge drunk, or cursing or swearing, shall 
for each offence forfeit one shilling. 

The Tyler to forfeit two shillings for any neglect of duty. In the 
absence of the Tyler the junior member to tyle the Lodge or forfeit half-a-crown. 

The Secretary, Bro. Davis, to be paid two guineas for writing the Bye- 

The method of Ballotting for Officers; — Soon after dinner each member 
present shall write down on a small scroll of paper the Brother's name whom he 
shall think fit for each of the offices, which papers shall (in turn) be put in the 
ballotting box and drawn by the Secretary. 

An illustration from the ballot which took place Dec. 27th, 1736, will 
explain matters more fully. 

For the Mastership there were four candidates and the result of the first 
ballot was: — Standen 4 votes, Greville and Male 3 votes each, Lucas 2 votes. 

Standen having the majority. Greville and Male had to undergo a second 
ballot as to which of them should oppose Standen, in which Greville had 8 votes, 
Male 4 votes. 

At the third ballot Standen 9 votes, Greville 3, so Standen became, Master. 

For S.W. there were four candidates, and the ballot resulted in Greville 7, 
Thomas and Smith 2 each, Tunbriclge 1 vote; 2nd ballot, Smith 8, Thomas 4; 
3rd ballot, Greville 10, Smith 2; so Greville became S.W. 

For JAY. there were three candidates: — 1st ballot, Tunbridge 7 votes, 
Thomas 4, Smith 1; 2nd ballot, Tunbridge 9, Thomas 3; Tunbridge, J.W. 

For Treasurer, four candidates. Male and Lucas had a decisive majority 
on 1st ballot; 2nd ballot, Male 10, Lucas 2; Male, Treasurer. 

For Secretary, four candidates, but on 1st ballot three of them had only 
one vote each, so Davis was declared Secretary. 

The ballot as to the sum to be voted for the Festival Dinners usually 
varied from £4 to £6, and if more was expended it was to be paid in equal 
parts by the Brethren present. Visiting Brethren were to pay five shillings each 
and more if required owing to the sum voted being exceeded. 

24.8 T rtuixttct'mim of tin Qtu(tii<)r (_'oron<(tt LihIijv. 

During this year 1736, a Brother came to the Lodge drunk and forfeited 
one shilling, also for constantly swearing eight shillings, and on a later occasion 
the R.W. Master being Disguised in Liquor, the Treasurer was desired to take 
the Chair, and his Worship forfeited one shilling. 

Tn 1737, the Landlord of the Rummer being from home so that the Lodge 
could not be eloathed, was fined two shillings. 

During 1737 there was a good deal of variety as regarded the election 
of members — there was considerable Blackballing, and, on the other hand, 
candidates were proposed and elected on several evenings under various pretexts, 
and as the Minutes say — any Rule heretofore made to the contrary notwithstand- 
ing — (the Rule referred to being the requirement of a month's notice), and also 
the Minutes finish up with " this not to be taken as a precedent for the future." 
A further Minute states: — "Rev. Brcther Saunders on consideration that he 
was made a member ' gratis ' generously paid two guineas towards the better 
cf a Dinner [*/c] on St. John's Day."' Another Brother at his own request 
was ballotted for and chosen Tyler. 

In 1738 there is a Minute that a certain Brother should be Rais'd Master 
next Lodge night if he clears himself of what is laid to his charge — and this he 
appears to have done as he was duly Rais'd at the time appointed. 

Another Minute states that on consideration it was agreed that if Bro. 
Owens, the Landlord of the Rummer, provides glasses sufficient whosoever breaks 
shall pay. 

June 10th. The R.W.M. desired that each brother be at ye Rummer 
by nine o'clock in ye forenoon to choose the proper officers for the Day in order 
to pit vent ye breaking of company after dinner to ye Disqualification of 
visiting Brothers. Amongst the visiting Brethren on this St. John's Day was 
Sir Edward Mansell, Past Junr. Gd. Warden, and Dr. Desaguliers. At the 
July meeting Dr. Desaguliers was again present and was accompanied by his 
sou, an officer in the Artillery, and six brethren from the Bear Inn Lodge at 
Bath, viz. : Bros. Ross. Skinner, Leake, Chilcott, Daunt and Wiltshire. Three 
Brethren were Rais'd Masters. 

In September, 1739. Two Brethren were Passed Fellow Crafts at a 
separate ceremony, viz. : Bros. Wickham and Perkins. 

During 1740 the 4th Bye-haw requiring a month's notice on the proposi- 
tion of a candidate before he could be ballotted for was twice set aside, the 
excuse being that as seafaring men, the candidates had not the time to spare. 
There was also the usual addendum that it was not to be a precedent for the 

July 18th, 1740. Ordered, that Bros. Thompson and Watts and any 
other Master Masons in the Lodge may be made Scotch Masons and the rest 
of the Brethren who are Bellow Crafts may be Rais'd Masters. This proposal 
was not carried out till November 7th, when Bros. Watts, Noble, Ramsey, 
Horwood and Morgan were Rais'd Scotch Masters and at the same time Bros. 
Wickham and Perkins were Rais'd Masters. 

In July. 1741, the Landlord of the Rummer being declared a Bankrupt, 
the Lodge was removed to the White Lyon in Broad St., and in December the 
R.W. Master not sending summonses, prevented the Lodge meeting, though 
several members attended. 

On June 4th, 1742, eleven visiting Brethren attended, six of whom 
proposed themselves to be members of the Lodge, agreeing to pay the Joining 
Bee of One Guinea. 

June 24th, St. John's Day, 1742. The Brethren assembled at eleven 
o'clock to choose officers and Ballot for those proposed on the 4th June, who 
were all elected. 

In August, 1742, a Minute states: "That for Diverse Weighty Reasons 
ye majority of ye Lodge thought proper to remove the same to the Bush Tavern 
and agreed it should be held every first and third Thursday in every Kalendar 

T naitf/iirul A(h]re*$. 249 

Dec. 27th, St. John's Day. The Brethren assembled at half-past ten 
in the morning when Mr. Tonge proposed on Dec. 16th was ballotted for 
elected and made a Mason. The nsual Festival Dinner was afterwards held. 

March 3rd, 1743. It was unanimously agreed that there he this day 
fortnight a dinner over the Downs at " Pitch. & Pay " for which every member 
present deposited half a crown. This was the name of a favourite Inn which 
received this title owing to its being close to the site of a barrier placed across 
the road at the time of the Plague, on one side of which came the inhabitants 
from the stricken city with their money to buy provisions from the healthy 
country people, and for fear of infection the money was pitched across the 
barrier and collected to pay for the provisions which were passed over in return. 

A period of slackness now set in for nearly two years, with only occasional 
meetings and very little business, but on Oct. 25th, 1744, the R.W. Master 
King and seven Brethren met and agreed to commence working again upon 
the same conditions as usual— that each member admitted shall pay one guinea 
and the expenses of the night, if not belonging to any Lodge before, but if 
belonging to any other Lodge shall pay five shillings. And it is further agreed 
that Bro. Wills be admitted this night and shall act as S.W.. the other brethren 
of the Lodge besides the R.W. Master King, being Bros. R. Payne, Treasurer, 
Bush, Secretary. W. Ramsey, J. Mills, John Jordan. John Rice and J. Wade. 
Nothing much seems to have been done to carry out these proposals as there 
are no further Minutes for three years. Rut the Lodge was still in being, for 
in August, 1747, a meeting was held when the Master and Wardens were only 
acting Officers and there were present the Treasurer, Secretary, seventeen 
Brethren and three visitors. Twelve Brethren wore passed Fellow Crafts. 

On St. John's Day, December 28th, 1747. The Festival was held at the 
Bush Tavern when there were nineteen Brethren present and twenty visitors, 
but there is no record of the proceedings, except that there were six proposals 
for membership. 

On Jan. 5th, 1748, the officers were elected. Bro. Wills, Master, 
Bowyer, S.W., Sheppard, J.W., Elsworthy, Treasurer, and Won all. Sec. Bros. 
Lucas, Atkinson, Standing, Thomas and Barton were ballotted for and elected 
members. Mr. Ilollen and Capt. Dighton wore ballotted for and elected to be 
made Masons. 

Jan. 19th. Twenty-two members present and one visitor. ' L The R, W.M. 
Peter Wills came in after the members was entered." Complaints were made 
that Bro. Mells, Landlord of the Bush, had not used the Brotherhood with the 
complaisance he ought, and it was proposed that the Lodge should be removed 
to another House. 

In March a fresh complaint was made to the same effect and on a 
ballot being taken it was agreed to move to another house. 

Mr. Hart of Stow in the Hole (sir) was proposed, ballotted for. elected, 
and made a Mason as he had to go out of town the next day. 

April 3rd. The Resolution of the last Lodge night being considered 
precipitate it was agreed that a general summons ought to have been given to 
every member of the Lodge, and this was ordered to be done — the Lodge to 
meet on Thursday next to consider the same and every summons to be sealed. 

April 7th. On the ballot being taken fourteen were for continuance at 
the Bush and twelve against. Resolved to continue at the Bush, Bro. Elsworthy 
declined being Treasurer or any longer a member, and several other Brethren 
also resigned. The work of the Lodge continued to be carried on without any 
particular incidents — a certain number of candidates being admitted and some 
few resignations till the end of 1749, when in December there is the following 
Minute : — 

''Resolved, that a dinner be provided on 27th inst., St. John's Day. 
by Bro. Mills (Landlord of the Bush) and Bro. Atkinson (as by 
their own proposal) in consideration of Fines levied on them." 

250 Tra-nxacfians of tin- (Jtnifuor Coroixift Lndf/e. 

There is now another gap of six years in the Minutes till in December, 
1755, the Lodge is found meeting at the Fountain Inn with the number 123. 

The first entry in the new Minutes is a long protest drawn up hi legal 
phraseology, stating that the late Master, Robert Smith, had endeavoured to 
break up the Lodge and divide the stock, and had in a clandestine manner 
removed some of the furniture and books and declined to restore them. The 
protest concludes with the statement that the late Master and a Brother of 
the Lodge, his accomplice, have acted in a manner unbecoming Masons, and 
Gentlemen, and that future Brothers, who peruse this protest, will wish with 
us, that such brethren had never been made Masons. 

A request was sent to the late Master for the return of the properties 
and books which was declined, but the cash book was returned — there was a 
threat of legal proceedings, but nothing was done and there was a break in the 
Lodge and, in the words of the Minute, seven members quitted and twelve 
continued. The Lodge was carried on at the Fountain Tavern with a small 
membership and infrequent, meetings, but with a good many visitors till the 
year 1761 — the various Masters being: Joseph. Daltera, Dec, 1755, to June, 
1756; Joshua Williams, June to December, 1756; William Blake, Dec. 1756, 
to July, 1761. 

In December, 1759, the Junior Warden was instructed to apply to every 
member for his arrears of quarterages, and those who refused to pay to stand 
the ballot of being expelled, and members were to be urged to attend the Lodge 
meetings as without it the Lodge cannot possibly subsist. In spite of these 
drastic suggestions the attendances did not improve and there were frequent 
adjournments owing to lack of members. 

On May 19th, 1761, there is the following Minute: — 

" As this Lodge has not been properly kept up for want of regular 
attendance of the members it has been unanimously agreed by all 
present (being seven brethren) that the Lodge stock be dissolved and 
from this day discontinued, and that all the members be summoned 
to attend this Day fortnight, finally to settle all Accounts, and to 
dispose of the properties and jewels, and that notice be sent them 

Apparently no meeting took place fill July when the R.W.M., the S.W., 
and one Brother attended, with four visitors. 

There is no reference to the proposals made at the last meeting, but Mr, 
Hercules Burleigh was proposed, elected, and made a Mason as he is going to 

There is one further entry on March 2nd, 1762, when the R.W.M., three 
Brethren and two visitors were present, but there is no record beyond this bare 

The Minutes of this Lodge have not been published before, and 1 am 
indebted to Bro. Cecil Powell for the opportunity of using them. 

During the latter half of the eighteenth century many Lodges, both 
Modern and Antient, were formed in Bristol, but few of them had a long 
existence; the only survivors being The Beaufort Lodge No. 103 of 1758, and 
The Royal Sussex Lodge of Hospitality No. 187 of 1769, The history of these 
early Lodges is given in the large work on Bristol Masonry by Bros. Cecil Powell 
and Littleton. 


The earliest Lodge in this City met at the New Inn in High Street and 
received a Constitution from Lord Montague dated July 1, 1732, being thus 
some nine months earlier than the Royal Cumberland Lodge No. 41, Bath, which 
received theirs from the same Grand Master. 

Unfortunately the Minutes of the Lodge before 1805 are missing, and the 
year 1805 takes us past the time with which T am dealing, but we gather from 

Tiia.injiiral Adrfres*. 251 

Grand Lodge Minutes that the Lodge was erased in 1754 for non-payment of 
subscriptions, but was reinstated in 1759 after making good, 1 Its original number 
was 97, which was changed to 86 in 1740, but dropped to 239 after its erasure, 
and brought back to 48 after its restoration, and it is now No. 39. It was 
named St. John's Lodge in 1769, and in 1820 received its present name of St. 
John the Baptist. 

It should be stated that there was a Masters Lodge in existence in 
connection with the Lodge for a short period, the Minutes of which from 1777 
to 1785, when it ceased to work, are still extant. 


A Lodge was constituted October 6th, 1766, at the Globe Tavern, and 
continued working for about twenty years, when it collapsed — but the Minutes 
which are fairly complete for that period contain some interesting matter and 
have not hitherto been published. 

I am indebted to W. Bro. John Stocker, D.P.G.M., Devon, for permission 
to make use of them. 

The first Minute records that the Lodge was opened by the R.W.P.G.M., 
Bro. Brooke, who stated that he had rec'd a Constitution from R.W. Lord 
Blaney, Grand Master, directing him as Prov. Grand Master to constitute a 
Lodge at the Globe Tavern, and after having gone through the necessary forms 
required by the Constitution Book and expatiated on the benefits of Freemasonry 
he declared the Lodge duly constituted by the name of the Union Lodge — and 
then at the request of the brethren appointed Mr. Richard Copplestone, Master, 
Ricbd. Langdon, S.W., Jno. Lewis, J.W., Win, Spim Dix, Treas., John Triggs, 
Sec, ; till next St. John's Day, and directed a set cf Bye-Laws to be settled by 
the Lodge and delivered to him before next St. John's Day. This is a full 
description of the Constitution of a Lodge by Deputation, in which temporary 
rank is granted to a local brother for the purpose, and so we find Bro. Brooke 
described as Deputy Grand at the next meeting and Master pro. torn, at the 
following ; while a month or two afterwards he is described as an ordinary 
member. But that was not the limit of his descent, for after this he was 
frequently fined for non-attendance and finally removed from the list of members 
for non-payment of arrears. 

At the second meeting (Nov. 18th) James Lodgingham was proposed 
to be made a Mason (E.A. and F.C.) and Tyler, and was approved and made 
accordingly. At the same time came John Cleave, John Perkins, and Ambrose 
Penny with a constitution directed to Bro. Brooke as P.G.M. to constitute a 
Lodge at the Globe Inn in this City, and after having been solemnly admonished 
never to act contrary to the Constitutions (and a letter read to them rec'd by 
Bro. Brooke from Bro. Spencer Hughes) which they promis'd never to do — 
they then desired to be made Masons and was accordingly made Enter 'd 
Apprentices and Fellow Crafts and pay'd the usual fee of two guineas each — 
but in consideration of their having pay'd fees to be made Antient Masons, 
this Lodge has thought proper to return them four guineas after the usual 
business of the Lodge was gone through and the Lodge was closed. 

Three days after (Nov. 21st) a Master Masons' Lodge was opened 
in due form, and Bros. Cleave, Perkins and Penny were Rais'd Master Masons, 
the Master's Lecture gone through and the Lodge closed in good order. 
Present: Brooke, D.C., Copplestone, M., Langdon, S.W., Luscombe, J.W. 
p.t., Dix, Treas., Trigg, P.M., and seven other Brethren. 

During 1767 a certain number of candidates were made Masons (E.A. 
and F.C). In March Bro. White was admitted a subscribing member, and 
at the next meeting on March 31st claimed to be proposed to be Rais'd to the 

1 Since this address was delivered, a Minute Book has been discovered, that 
covers part of the period of abeyance, and indicates that the Lodge continued to work, 
despite the erasure, 


Traiixttrtmiis of the Qnotnor Corniiati fjfxhje. 

blaster's Degree of necessity as he was shortly to leave England. lie was duly 
elected along with Bro. Langford, who had "been already proposed in due form, 
and it was agreed that they should both be Rais'd that day fortnight, which 
was accordingly done. 

It was agreed to move from the New Tim to Berton's Tavern. St. 
John's Day, June 24th, new officers installed — Triggs, Piaster, Louis, S.W., 
Iliffe, J.W., Lock, Treas. ; no other officers mentioned. '"Afterwards we 
celebrated the Lay." Numerous Fines were inflicted at this time, mostly one 
shilling for non-attendance 1 . In September, Berton was made a Mason with 
two others. 

In October an invitation was received from the Brethren at Tiverton, who 
intend to constitute a Lodge at the Vine Tavern on Nov. 2nd, and it was 
agreed that such Brethren as are desirous of waiting on them will be pleased to 
make an apology to the Tiverton Brethren for those not attending. 

At the December meeting the following letter was approved to be sent to 
the Lodge of All Souls at Tiverton : — ■ 

"' Brethren, The Brethren of Virion Lodge thank the Brethren of All 
Souls Lodge 1 for their very respectful letter and beg to assure them that tin 1 )" 
shall at all times, with real pleasure concur in every step which may lend to 
promote the Honour of Masonry in general, but desire to decline the proposal 
as to the intended Regulations, being by no means in their humble opinion, any 
way obligatory or conducive to the propagation of the Masonic Art, We are. 
with our best and most sincere wishes for the prosperity of Masonry in general, 
and for the Lodge of All Souls in particular, Your most affectionate Brethren, 
John Triggs, Jimr., R.W.M., John Louis, S.W., Charles Lock, JAY. pV, 
Samuel Luscombe, Sec. p.t.., Richard Langdon, Mace Barton Smith/' (This 
Lodge is now All Souls. Weymouth, having been transferred from Tiverton 
in 1.803.) 

This letter probably has reference to the proposal for a Charter of 
Incorporation which was before Grand bodge about this time and which was 
ultimately abandoned. At the beginning of June, Charles Warwick Bampfylde, 
Esq., Oldfield Bowles, Esq., and their servants, Edward Stringer, Joseph Stamp, 
and John Snow were ballotted for and duly accepted, and at an Ex